The Toba (Chaco Sur, Qom, Toba Qom) language is spoken in the Eastern Formosa Province and Chaco Province, and it is also spoken in Bolivia and Paraguay. There are two dialects: Southeast Toba and Nothern Toba and they are different from Toba of Paraguay (Toba-Maskoy) or Toba-Pilagá of Argentina. The majority of speakers live in the mountains where they cultivate small parcels. In the last years, in the province of Chaco, the Tobas were granted definitive or provisory titles of property over their lands. Another group of Tobas live in suburban districts of Saenz Pena, Resistencia and Formosa. The Tobas constitute rural or urban communities with their traditional leaders or local commissions and communitarian associations, whose members are elected by the community. The Tobas have lived in political and economic dependency of the dominant society. In spite of this, with time, they recovered the sense of being indigenous and the will to fight for their rights. They speak their language, produce traditional crafts, preserve their dances and songs and perform ancient healing rituals.
- Toba in UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
- Ethnologue - Languages of the World
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