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Year 2000,
International Year for
the Culture of Peace

Manifesto 2000

Education for a Culture of Peace

Peace, Human
Rights, Democracy
and Tolerance

Peace and New
Dimensions of
Security

Women and a
Culture of Peace

Intercultural Dialogue
and Pluralism for a
Culture of Peace

Youth

UNESCO Offices and
National
Commissions

UNESCO Chairs

UNESCO Prizes

 

EXPERT GROUP MEETING

ON

MALE ROLES AND MASCULINITIES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF

A CULTURE OF PEACE



III - RECOMMENDATIONS

General

1. The meeting of experts has agreed that work on men's issues about violence and peace can only be successful in the context of a broad movement towards gender equality and nonviolence. Accordingly we think it is essential to continue and strengthen the policies and initiatives currently being pursued to reduce violence, promote demilitarization, increase economic and political equality between women and men, combat discrimination of all kinds, promote creativity and peace related cultural manifestations and works of art, and disseminate the ideas and techniques of a culture of peace.

Within this context, we propose the following specific measures addressed to male roles and masculinities :

Parenthood

2. Support initiatives which stress that men as well as women have responsibility for child rearing, and encourage child rearing practices based on emotional support, empathy and nonviolence.

3. Support family planning programs which emphasize that reproductive responsibility is shared by men and women.

4. Encourage all countries to adopt state-supported paternity leave, in addition to maternity leave, and encourage trade unions, professional associations and corporations to support such policies.

Education

5. UNESCO should support school programs by

    (i) developing an international curriculum resource kit on diverse forms of masculinity and on men in relation to a culture of peace;
    (ii) organizing pilot projects for teacher training in effective methods against discrimination and violence (for example sexism, homophobia and racism).

6. School systems should

    (i) provide training for boys, girls and educators in conflict resolution skills, emotional expressions and inter-group communication.
    (ii) develop curriculum resources and textbooks depicting nonviolent and non-aggressive behaviour of men.

7. UNESCO, through its Chair program, should support university chairs on gender issues including men and masculinities in relation to a culture of peace, and support similar action in the UNITWIN program.

Community

8. Support community-based groups and movements which involve men and boys in exploring changes in masculinity towards a culture of peace.

9. Promote the organization of nonviolent and more cooperative sports and games.

Work and Economy

10. Encourage governments, business, and unions to develop family-friendly forms of working life, including training programs to end workplace sexual harassment.

11. Support and encourage men and women to choose non traditional jobs and reduce gender barriers in working life.

12. Encourage the development of gender-inclusive management cultures in businesses and bureaucracies (including international aid), to replace cultures of masculine dominance.

Police and Military

13. The United Nations should develop a gender-sensitive training program for the personnel of peace- keeping missions, including all functions represented in such missions.

14. Police forces should develop a gender-sensitive approach to the policing of domestic violence.

15. Military and police organizations should encourage participation by both women and men, and should include negotiation skills, gender sensivity and human rights education in the training of all personnel.

16. UNESCO should encourage all countries to offer community service work which either replaces or is an alternative to military service.

Culture

17. Promote debates on the representations of men in mass media, in video games, on the Internet, and in mass culture generally in order to create forums for community reflection on the impact of violent images of masculinity, and critical interventions to promote alternatives.

18. Government and communities should acknowledge the legitimate diversity of nonviolent sexuality, including both homosexual and heterosexual masculinities.

19. UNESCO should explore the potential of the creative arts in the construction of new masculinities and a gender-sensitive culture of peace.

Violence against women

20. Support community-based programs among men and boys to prevent violence against women (such as Canada's White Ribbon Campaign and South Africa's ADAPT).

21. Encourage programs for male batterers based on accountability to women in their community.

22. UNESCO should compile an international directory of resources and men's organizations working to end violence against women.

Research

23. Support the development of multidisciplinary studies of masculinities and male roles, especially research on the social and cultural conditions producing violent and patriarchal masculinities.

24. UNESCO should support the establishment of international consortia and networks for collaborative research in this field.

Public sector organizations

25. Encourage governments, United Nations bodies and other organizations to appoint staff specialists on masculinities and men's issues, locating them within gender-related programs and peace programs.

26. UNESCO should sponsor leaflets, articles and bibliographical resources on male roles and masculinities, and disseminate them through National Commissions for UNESCO, unions, the military, police forces and NGOs.

Follow-up

27. There should be follow-up to the Oslo meeting : translation and dissemination of documents, consultation with home governments and educators by participants, regional meetings, and (in a year's time) re-convening on the Internet of the Oslo participants to discuss progress.

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