EXPERT GROUP MEETING
MALE ROLES AND MASCULINITIES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF
A CULTURE OF PEACE
III - RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The meeting of experts has agreed that work on men's issues about violence and peace
can only be successful in the context of a broad movement towards gender equality and
nonviolence. Accordingly we think it is essential to continue and strengthen the policies
and initiatives currently being pursued to reduce violence, promote demilitarization,
increase economic and political equality between women and men, combat discrimination of
all kinds, promote creativity and peace related cultural manifestations and works of art,
and disseminate the ideas and techniques of a culture of peace.
Within this context, we propose the following specific measures addressed to male roles
and masculinities :
2. Support initiatives which stress that men as well as women have responsibility for
child rearing, and encourage child rearing practices based on emotional support, empathy
3. Support family planning programs which emphasize that reproductive responsibility is
shared by men and women.
4. Encourage all countries to adopt state-supported paternity leave, in addition to
maternity leave, and encourage trade unions, professional associations and corporations to
support such policies.
5. UNESCO should support school programs by
(i) developing an international curriculum resource kit on diverse forms of masculinity
and on men in relation to a culture of peace;
(ii) organizing pilot projects for teacher training in effective methods against
discrimination and violence (for example sexism, homophobia and racism).
6. School systems should
(i) provide training for boys, girls and educators in conflict resolution skills,
emotional expressions and inter-group communication.
(ii) develop curriculum resources and textbooks depicting nonviolent and non-aggressive
behaviour of men.
7. UNESCO, through its Chair program, should support university chairs on gender issues
including men and masculinities in relation to a culture of peace, and support similar
action in the UNITWIN program.
8. Support community-based groups and movements which involve men and boys in exploring
changes in masculinity towards a culture of peace.
9. Promote the organization of nonviolent and more cooperative sports and games.
Work and Economy
10. Encourage governments, business, and unions to develop family-friendly forms of
working life, including training programs to end workplace sexual harassment.
11. Support and encourage men and women to choose non traditional jobs and reduce
gender barriers in working life.
12. Encourage the development of gender-inclusive management cultures in businesses and
bureaucracies (including international aid), to replace cultures of masculine dominance.
Police and Military
13. The United Nations should develop a gender-sensitive training program for the
personnel of peace- keeping missions, including all functions represented in such
14. Police forces should develop a gender-sensitive approach to the policing of
15. Military and police organizations should encourage participation by both women and
men, and should include negotiation skills, gender sensivity and human rights education in
the training of all personnel.
16. UNESCO should encourage all countries to offer community service work which either
replaces or is an alternative to military service.
17. Promote debates on the representations of men in mass media, in video games, on the
Internet, and in mass culture generally in order to create forums for community reflection
on the impact of violent images of masculinity, and critical interventions to promote
18. Government and communities should acknowledge the legitimate diversity of
nonviolent sexuality, including both homosexual and heterosexual masculinities.
19. UNESCO should explore the potential of the creative arts in the construction of new
masculinities and a gender-sensitive culture of peace.
Violence against women
20. Support community-based programs among men and boys to prevent violence against
women (such as Canada's White Ribbon Campaign and South Africa's ADAPT).
21. Encourage programs for male batterers based on accountability to women in their
22. UNESCO should compile an international directory of resources and men's
organizations working to end violence against women.
23. Support the development of multidisciplinary studies of masculinities and male
roles, especially research on the social and cultural conditions producing violent and
24. UNESCO should support the establishment of international consortia and networks for
collaborative research in this field.
Public sector organizations
25. Encourage governments, United Nations bodies and other organizations to appoint
staff specialists on masculinities and men's issues, locating them within gender-related
programs and peace programs.
26. UNESCO should sponsor leaflets, articles and bibliographical resources on male
roles and masculinities, and disseminate them through National Commissions for UNESCO,
unions, the military, police forces and NGOs.
27. There should be follow-up to the Oslo meeting : translation and dissemination of
documents, consultation with home governments and educators by participants, regional
meetings, and (in a year's time) re-convening on the Internet of the Oslo participants to
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