||Sustainable living in small historic coastal
cities, Essaouira, Morocco; Kotor, Yugoslavia; Mahdia, Tunisia; Omisalj,
Croatia; Saïda, Lebanon. (Former title: Urban development and freshwater
resources in small historic coastal cities [Mediterranean])
||To promote an integrated approach to sustainable urban development in
selected small historic coastal cities in the Mediterranean region
(North Africa, Middle East and Eastern Europe), which will protect the
socio-cultural identity of the populations, and enhance the natural,
cultural, historical and archaeological heritage of these cities; to
address particular issues related to the upgrading of housing, public
involvement, reinforcement of municipal capacity building, while taking
into account the availability of freshwater resources and the
enhancement of natural coastal environments facing uncontrolled urban
and tourism development.
||The project has sought to stimulate partnerships
between small historic coastal cities in the region, in order to share
complementary experiences and technical expertise, as well as to promote
networking among municipalities and other local, regional and national
authorities. The project
has focused on five cities, which represent case studies, and give municipal
authorities the chance to work with other levels of government to tackle
local urban development problems in an integrated manner.
A series of international, interdisciplinary seminars have been
held (in 1997, 1999,
2001) which enhanced networking and provided the background for action
plans in each of the five cities.
- Increased awareness about the development of the cities, at all
levels of society.
and sustainable activities relating to improving the living
conditions of the poor.
of technical partnerships between cities.
of information through technical reports and websites.
- An agreement for bilateral co-operation between the French
Government and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was signed in March 2002 to provide
integrated financial support from several French ministries
(Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of
Culture and Tourism, Cities Inter-ministerial Delegation) to the
Small Historic Coastal Cities (SHCC) network activities.
- Conduct a full evaluation of the project.
- Emphasise integrated approaches to urban development.
- Carefully scrutinise requests from other
coastal cities to become case studies, potential ‘Tutor cities’
will be welcomed.
- Create an intersectoral guiding group of
an independent federation or alliance of cities, which would
eventually replace the role of UNESCO.
||Essaouira Municipality; Local
Agenda 21; Ministries of Internal Affairs, Environment and Culture;
Environment and Development
of the Third World-Maghreb; Association
pour le développement des échanges entre la France et le Maroc; Belgian
Nations Centre for Human Settlements; United
Nations Development Programme; UNESCO:
Rabat Office, World
Heritage Centre, sector for Social
and Human Sciences, sector for Natural
Sciences – Division
of Water Sciences and the Coastal
Regions and Small Islands platform.
El Mouatez, Ancien Palais de Justice, Place Hassan II, Essaouira, Morocco.
Tel: 212 4 476717, Fax: 212 4 476785e-mail email@example.com
||Urban districts, including the old Medina, are under threat from human
and natural processes. These include overpopulation, strong
socio-economic transformations, inadequate and poorly maintained
infrastructure, freshwater over-exploitation, saltwater intrusion, soil
subsidence, coastal erosion, and dune destabilisation.
Project activities are undertaken by a Local
Agenda 21 platform, which together with other partners, focus on
These include strengthening the urban development and planning
processes, increasing public participation in city management, designating
priority areas for action, providing training in specific domains, and
The main activities are as follows:
- The first UNESCO international seminar
on the SHCC network was held in Essaouira in 1997.
- Feasibility studies for the restoration of the seawall in front of
the Medina, and the construction of an offshore breakwater to
protect the old city.
- Socio-economic studies on tourism development and socio-cultural
- Temporary relocation of those families occupying houses contiguous
to the wall and in unhealthy housing in the Mellah; creation of a
Up in Cities site in the northern neighbourhoods.
- Rehabilitation of the historical urban area, and the building of
sanitary infrastructure in the Medina for the most needy families.
- Adaptation of historical monuments in the city into socio-cultural
sites or social housing.
work has been carried out in the Western Bastion and 12
apprentices were trained. Other restoration work cannot commence
until funds are identified to relocate the families living in
decaying housing or monuments.
- In order to rehabilitate unhealthy housing in the Mellah, several
families were relocated.
- There have been several coastal erosion investigations, and an
engineering feasibility study into repairing the base of the
historical seawall and the possible placement of rocks in the bay
north of the Mellah, is underway.
- A study was undertaken in 1998 on the management of freshwater
resources and saltwater issues in Essaouira.
- An awareness campaign entitled ‘Clean City’ has been ongoing
- The project underwent a full evaluation in April 2001 by the
principal donor, the Belgian Cooperation.
new priorities for the restoration of historical buildings, and
fully utilise the skilled stonemasons trained within this project in
the restoration of Essaouira’s ramparts.
the population in need in the Medina.
an information brochure, a dedicated website, and a video, to
promote awareness about the project.
local capacity in ecotourism and project leadership.
- Involve the French cities of la Rochelle and Villefranche-sur-mer
in the redevelopment of the Essaouira historic seafront.
- Establish a demonstration house (a training and awareness centre
on traditional house-building techniques).
of Kotor, Montenegro, Yugoslavia
||1997, interrupted 1998-2000, resumed 2001
||Municipality of Kotor; UNESCO:
Venice Office, sector for Natural
Sciences, Coastal Regions and Small Islands
||Mrs. Svjetlana Lalic, City of Kotor, Project Coordinator, J.P.
‘Crnogorsko primorje’ Trg sunca, br.4 85310 BUDVAB, Yugoslavia –
Tel/fax: 381 86 51 460, 381 86 51 937
||This project is focusing on an integrated approach to the sustainable
development of the city and the Bay of Kotor, particularly addressing
tourism development, freshwater resources, and protection of the
cultural and natural heritage. Due
to political tensions in the former Yugoslavia, the project was
suspended between 1998 and 2000. During
a one-week meeting in December 2000, local and international experts
emphasised the paramount importance of freshwater and solid waste
management issues, and local authorities reaffirmed their interest in
|Due to the political tensions, there have not yet been any significant
the project with a focus on sustainable tourism.
reliable environmental baseline data, e.g. freshwater, population,
and solid waste parameters, and analyse the planning and
the assistance of local non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
particularly in information dissemination and education.
coordination among the six municipalities in the Bay of Kotor in
order to establish a common development strategy.
||Mahdia Government; Municipality of Mahdia; Ministry of Environment Tunisia,
Coastal Management Agency;
School of Architecture of Nantes and Tunis; National Commission for
UNESCO; French Ministry
of Culture; Council of Loire Atlantique; City of Montpellier; Research
Centre on Fixation of Dunes (France); Architecture
& développement (an NGO); UNESCO:
sector for Social
and Human Sciences, Coastal Regions and
Small Islands platform.
||Mr. Ridha Boussouffara, Musée régional de Mahdia, Place 7 Novembre,
5100 Mahdia, Tunisia.
Tel/fax: 216 3 692752
A master plan to preserve the social, architectural
and cultural role of the Medina is at the core of this project, along with
developing the tourism industry and redeveloping the old city.
The main activities are as follows:
The second UNESCO International Seminar on the SHCC network was
held in Mahdia in 1999.
of the fore dune and the development of the coast north of Mahdia and Cap
Afrique; reduction of impacts associated with the abandonment and re-use of
quarries within the city of Mahdia.
demonstration house was established to promote the adaptive use of traditional
housing with regard to the new socio-cultural needs of the population, in
- Planning the re-use of
urban areas in the Medina in the framework of the Mahdia Master Plan.
tourism as an intersectoral activity in the socio-economic development of the
- Provision of skills
training for municipal and regional leaders.
Recommendations included in the
‘Mahdia Declaration’, launched at the international seminar in 1999, are
being implemented, these include:
been rehabilitated over a 600 m length of shoreline, and an awareness campaign
mounted, including an information day and a brochure.
demonstration house was launched in August 2000, and an agreement
was signed between the local stakeholders and the French partners,
to undertake a three-year programme, which aims to:
restore house and a workshop
to reflect the inhabitants’ needs;
re-establish old techniques and materials adapted to the local
environment and introduce new techniques;
build associations between local craftsmen and the inhabitants of the
Medina, as well as between Tunisian and French students through joint research
work and give visibility to activities undertaken;
participate in the implementation of a Master Plan for the Medina.
- Provide technical advice
and critique regarding proposed new developments.
- Build on the experience of
the demonstration house and continue student and expert exchanges with French
- Sensitise the mayors of other cities
concerning the participation of the inhabitants in the balanced development of
- Maintain the support from the Loire Atlantique County Council in
collaboration with the
Nantes School of Architecture to the Tunis School of Architecture
and the Mahdia Government to establish a self-running demonstration
- Transfer of the demonstration house experience
to the city of Saïda.
||Municipality of Omisalj, Krk Island, Croatia
||Local Agenda 21 Omisalj; Municipality of Omisalj; Rijeka County; Ministry
of the Environment; Faculty
of Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia; Faculty of Tourism Economy, Rijeka,
Croatia; Venice University
Institute of Architecture, Italy; University Faculty of Agronomical
Sciences, Gembloux, Belgium; Croatian National Commission for UNESCO;
UNESCO: Venice and
Zagreb Offices, sector for Natural
Sciences, Coastal Regions and Small Islands
||Mrs. Beta Antolic, Lord Mayor of Omisalj , Prikeste 11 51513 Omisalj,
Prof. Giovanni Campeol, Department of Land Planning, Institute of
Architecture, University of Venice, S.Croce, 1957 - 30135, Venice,
Tel: 0039 041 2572167, Fax: 0039 041 5240403
e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
||This project is attempting to analyse environmental conditions in the
Omisalj area using an assessment model to apply the principles of sustainable
development to land planning. A Master Plan for the sustainable development
of Omisalj has been prepared. The project has highlighted conflicts between
local and central authorities, and between local and regional interests.
Public participation in a young democracy such as Croatia is a difficult
process to trigger, particularly with land-use planning issues.
The major activities in Omisalj are as follows:
of archaeological excavations at the Fulfinum site.
- Preliminary study of a proposed marina in the Bay of Voz, Lanterna
- The implementation of a project to protect the historical centre.
- Updating of the Master Plan according to the County’s territorial plan.
Experiences gained in Omisalj are being transferred to other
locations in Croatia with the support of the Rijeka County Government.
- The assessment model has
shown the high value of natural resources, some of which are unique;
the need for local community government; and the fact that
indicators such as local per capita income are more useful if they
take into account preservation of the local identity.
between students and teachers at local and foreign universities has
helped to trigger awareness building among the local population,
although there is still a long way to go.
- Publication of a book in 2001 in English and Croatian, entitled
‘Regional Planning and Pilot Projects for Sustainable Development
in Croatia’ by the UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science in Europe
(Venice, Italy) and the Rijeka Primorsko-goranska Zupanija (Rijeka
County Government), Croatia.
the environmental assessment model particularly the indicators and
the analysis of the local cultural and anthropological
the model to other small coastal cities.
Set up in Rijeka a ‘High School
of Environmental Management’ for Croatian decision-makers.
Encourage collaboration with
foreign universities to carry out archaeological excavations in Omisalj.
Collaborate with the Institute of Architecture, University of Venice, to
survey the historical centre of Omisalj.
- Support postgraduate research training in the economics of
||Municipality of Saïda; Saïda Heritage and Environment Association; Hariri
Foundation; Direction generale de l’Urbanisme, Lebanon; Direction
generale des antiquités, Lebanese; Universities of Beirut and of Saïda;
Forum of non-governmental organizations of the city of Saïda; City and
University of la Rochelle, region ‘Charentes Maritimes’ and French Ministry
of Public Works; city of Valencia, Spain; World
Bank; United Nations
Development Programme; United
Nations Children’s Fund; UNESCO:
Beirut Office, sectors for Social
and Human Sciences, Culture,
and Natural Sciences,
Coastal Regions and Small Islands platform.
||Mr. Hilal Kobrosli, Lord Mayor of Saïda, Immeuble Baladié, Place
Nejme, Saïda, Lebanon.
Tel: 961 7 720 060, 961 7 722 869, Fax: 961 7 720 603
||This project is in an early stage and is focusing on an integrated
approach to urban development. The
major activities are as follows:
- There have been several assessment missions and the creation of
Up in Cities site in the old Medina by the Management
of Social Transformations (MOST) Project.
- A preliminary information workshop was held for mayors of all historical
cities of Lebanon in December 2000, co-organised by the Municipality,
UNESCO-Beirut Office and the Hariri
- Saïda has applied to be registered on the World
Heritage List. Other activities have included socio-architectural surveys
in the old city by the Lebanese University of Beirut.
After the international
seminar of May 2001, a plan of action was prepared by the three
UNESCO sectors (Natural
and Human Sciences) for
specific activities in the fields of coastal erosion, cultural heritage
conservation and urban development. Preliminary steps have been
taken to launch these activities.
MOST activity ‘Growing
Up in Cities’ and the
Foundation Project ‘Memory
and Belonging’ are helping young people learn about and develop
projects to manage their natural and urban environment.
Khan Hammoud has been surveyed and may be proposed for use as a
tripartite agreement was signed in March 2002 between the city of Saïda,
the city of La Rochelle and UNESCO on university collaboration and
the establishment of a demonstration house in Saïda
- Priority areas for future
work are the most densely populated areas in the old city and close
to the Palestinian camps.
monuments and archaeological sites.
impact studies of major urban projects such as the commercial
harbour and marina development.
a course in landscape architecture in collaboration with the
Lebanese University, Beirut.
awareness workshop in 2002 for mayors of Lebanese historical cities
on the theme of the participation of children and youth in the
improvement of the urban environment.
preliminary studies for a Master Plan of Saïda.
a demonstration house to promote the adaptive use of traditional
housing with regard to the socio-cultural needs of the population.
one-year coastal monitoring programme is planned for 2002.