Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
colbartn.gif (4535 octets)

Field Project Assessment
Reducing the impact of a coastal megacity on island ecosystems, Jakarta and the Seribu Islands, Indonesia: Community-based approaches to solid waste management and the generation of alternative livelihoods

Date of
Site visit: 18th to 21st February 2001
Assessment completed: 27th May 2002
conducted by
Mr. Derek Elias, UNESCO-CSI, Paris (not closely associated with the project) and;  
Mr. Stefano Fazi and Ms. Nuning Wirjoatmodjo, UNESCO Jakarta Office; 
Mr. Warief Djajanto Basorie, Dr. Soetomo Press Institute (LPDS); Ms. Fardah Assegaf, Indonesian National News Agency (ANTARA); (all closely associated with the project).  
  1. Willoughby, N. (ed.) Proceedings: Workshop on Coral Reef Management – Jakarta and Pulau Ayer 19-20 April 1996. UNESCO-Jakarta 1996: Jakarta, Indonesia.

  2. Soemodihardjo, S. (ed.) Proceedings: Coral Reef Evaluation Workshop Pulau Seribu, Jakarta, Indonesia 11-20 September 1995. UNESCO-Jakarta and Indonesia Institute of Sciences (LIPI) 1998: Jakarta, Indonesia.

  3. The missing islands of Pulau Seribu (Indonesia). In Economic and Business Review Indonesia No. 262, 1997: 38-9.

  4. Profile of Riverbank Community in Angke River (Summary). UNESCO-Jakarta and Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Indonesia Institute of Technology 1999: Jakarta, Indonesia.

  5. Reducing megacity impacts on the coastal environment: Alternative livelihoods and waste management in Jakarta and the Seribu Islands. Coastal region and small island papers 6. UNESCO-CSI 2000: Paris, France.

  6. Field Project Summary (25th October 2001).

  7. Coastal Environment Quality Development in Jakarta Metropolitan Area (Concept Document. UNESCO-Jakarta and Ministry of Sea Exploration and Fisheries, Indonesia Government 2000: Jakarta, Indonesia.

  8. Muara Angke Mangrove Conservation Area, Jakarta Bay (Proposal Outline). UNESCO-Jakarta and Bogor Institute of Agriculture 2000: Jakarta, Indonesia.

  9. Y. Nur, S. Fazi, N. Wirjoatmodjo and Q. Han. Towards wise coastal management practice in a tropical megacity. In Ocean and Coastal Management 2001: 1-19.

  10. Postings on the Wise Coastal Practices Forum: http://www.csiwisepractices.org (with username csi and password wise

  11. Detailed outline of project activities on UNESCO – Jakarta Field Office website.  


The project assessment of the Jakarta Bay project was undertaken on the ground between the 18th and 21st of February, 2002, in Jakarta. In addition to the work of the team already mentioned, the depth and quality of the assessment was considerably enhanced by the contributions of:
Ms. (Ibu) Siti Oemijati Djajanegra, Demographic Institute, University of Indonesia;  
Ms. (Ibu) Bambang and Ms. (Ibu) Nina Sidle, Banjarsari Kampung (Village), South Jakarta;  
Mr. Agung, Mr. Maskana, Mr. Prayogo and Mr. Yusri, Kirai Indonesia Foundation;
Ms. Endang Wardiningsih, Biology Teacher, High School 34, South Jakarta;
Mr. Koesparmadi, Laboratory of Community Development – Indonesian Institute of Technology,  (LAPAK -ITI);
Ms. Yosephine Tuti and Mr. Subagjo, Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP), Indonesian Institute of Sciences  (P20-LIPI);
Ms. Tusy Adibroto, Ms. Sri Bebassari, Mr. Joko Heru, Mr. Sri Wahyono and Mr. T. Zul Akhyar, Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT).  

Discussions, meetings and interviews held in Jakarta:  

  • UNESCO Jakarta staff: Mr. S. Hill, Mr. Max Lombardo, Mr. Han Qunli and Ms. Cecilia Barbieri;

  • Discussion with agency partners: COREMAP, LAPAK-ITI, Kirai Indonesia Foundation, ANTARA, Demography Institute – University of Indonesia, BPPT.   

Field visits:  

  • Pasar Mede Traditional Market, South Jakarta;

  • Public High School No. 34, South Jakarta;

  • Banjarsari Environmentally Friendly Kampung, South Jakarta.  

Constraints: The only constraint encountered in carrying out this first project assessment was the inability to visit a number of project activity sites in North Jakarta and Jakarta Bay due to widespread flooding in those areas. As a result there is no discussion concerning project activities (duck farming and aquaculture) in the Seribu Islands (Pulau Seribu – Thousand Islands).  

Field Project Assessment

The sixteen characteristics, used to define ‘wise practices’, are used here to assess this field project. A qualitative scale is used as follows:

None (0): The field project activities to date do not comply with this characteristic and/or the characteristic is not relevant to the project.
Slightly (1-3): The field project activities to date have begun in some preliminary way to satisfy  this characteristic.
Partially (4-6): The field project activities to date have gone some significant way towards fulfilling this characteristic.
Fully (7-9): The field project activities to date fully satisfy this characteristic.  

This assessment is based only on the activities undertaken to date, and does not include those planned for the future.

Have the project activities ensured long term benefit?  

Fully (8)

The project activities, which have been in operation since 1996, have ensured long-term benefits. Project activities were triggered by issues arising from data collection on the reefs in Jakarta Bay during both 1985 and 1995. The project activities have been broad in scope and partnerships have had time to develop depth. The adoption of the 4R principles (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Replant) has been promoted at the community level in schools, markets and villages. Work has also been undertaken on small enterprises, income generation and alternative livelihoods. Furthermore, the project activities have not only raised awareness and disseminated information but have complemented training opportunities and community learning.

Perhaps the greatest success of the project has been to take the problem of reef degradation and other negative environmental impacts in Jakarta Bay, and to match the multiple causes of these problems with focused yet broadly based activities and partnerships. In fact, these complementary activities and horizontal exchanges have been so successful that project counterparts have formed the Indonesia Waste Forum (IWF) initiative which extends the long term benefits through the community to policy advisory level.

The project activities have ensured long term benefits for all of those people and partners who have so far participated in the project. The challenge remaining is to capitalize on this work in order to generate a critical mass of activities to address reef degradation, and to promote and raise awareness of the 4R-based waste management practices to reverse negative environmental impacts in Jakarta Bay.  

Do the project activities provide for capacity building and institutional strengthening?

Fully (7)

Through awareness-raising, education, training and dissemination of information, the project activities have contributed substantially to capacity building and institutional strengthening at the local community level, the academic and research setting and also for non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The project has established links across community, government and private sectors, although significant gaps remain to be bridged. In this respect the IWF is expected to play a critical role in bringing attention to the core problems being addressed by many of the project activities. One challenge remaining is to maintain and build upon the momentum of the project activities to establish more 4R learning sites in communities and schools and to assist the IWF in holding mobile workshops.

Are the project activities sustainable?

Partially (6)

The project activities, due to their scope and duration, have had clear successes in drawing together partnerships between communities, institutions and NGOs. There is no doubt that the majority of these activities will be maintained and encouraged by the involvement of other agencies and institutions, and will continue to be transferred at the grass roots level. For example, Banjarsari Kampung holds one-day training sessions for groups of up to 20 people on waste management at the local community level, and the science club at High School 34 demonstrates similar activities on student exchanges throughout the city. Such exchanges and the development of the IWF initiative are testament to the sustainability of the project.  

The sustainability of project activities concerning the Seribu Islands and offshore issues of reef degradation and overuse, and pollution, is less clear, given the fact that these areas were not visited in this assessment. Another area that requires further examination, concerns the issue of government and local authority support to foster project activities in the long term, and how this can be solicited and achieved.  There may be realistic opportunities to achieve this, given the decentralization to regional and local authorities of certain administrative laws, such as those concerning the water sector.  

Have the project activities been transferred?

Fully (7)

The project activities have been transferred, through 27 study and/or demonstration sites, to five community development sites. There are a number of international and regional visitors to the project activities at Banjarsari. The project activities at Banjarsari have high visibility, and waste management practices are beginning to be replicated at a number of kampungs across the city which is regularly reported in the media. The recycling initiatives undertaken at Pasar Mede market and High School 34 have also been transferred to other schools and markets.  

The Director of the Indonesian Boy Scouts indicated an interest in involving 11 million boys and girls across the archipelago in waste management activities, the first of which was the Jakarta Clean Up held on March 2, 2002. Astra International has supported social surveys and the transfer of project activities tested at Banjarsari to a kampung that it has adopted near its offices. General Electric has supported a study tour of Pulau Seribu for the Indonesian Institute of Sciences.

Are the project activities interdisciplinary and intersectoral?

Fully (7)

The project activities involve several different disciplines, including both the natural and social sciences. More specifically, research has been carried out in the fields of sociology, economics, environmental science, hydrology, marine biology and ecology. The activities involve environmental monitoring and rehabilitation, demonstration sites, education and income-generation as well as mitigating negative impacts on the environment and waste management. The activities at Jakarta Bay also involve several different sectors of society, including government officials and agencies, private industry and business, academic research institutions, the media, local NGOs, communities and women's associations. 

However, there is an important need to involve and educate manufacturers in the private sector such as those producing materials that are most responsible for environmental degradation, e.g. plastic drinking bottles, plastic bags and batteries.

Do the project activities incorporate participatory processes?

Fully (7)

Successful and comprehensive participatory processes have been initiated at the community level and have been matched with strong partnerships at academic and research institutions and NGOs in order to plan and implement project activities. This was most clearly demonstrated at the Workshop on the Integrated Solid Waste Management: a community based approach for Indonesia, held at the Bogor Botanical Gardens in November 2001, which was attended by garbage collectors, homemakers, school teachers, scientists, academics, NGOs and the press.  

Do the project activities provide for consensus building?

Partially (6)

To a large degree, consensus building has been easy to achieve in this project. The broad objectives of reducing waste and pollution, identifying and mitigating negative impacts on the environment, securing sustainability, and encouraging alternative livelihoods, are universally desired. As already indicated the IWF initiative, if it is well supported, will be an ideal foundation for cross-sectoral and horizontal dialogue to further strengthen consensus on the development of project activities.

Do the project activities include an effective and efficient communication process?

Partially (6)

Clear lines of communication have been established between project partners and the community, and between the project partners themselves. One of the challenges for the project is to further target polluters at the community and municipal level and to raise awareness on the root causes of the degradation of Jakarta Bay, namely the annual flooding of the city and subsequent damage caused by deforestation of the water catchments and riverbanks.  

Are the project activities culturally respectful?

Fully (8)

The project activities are fully culturally respectful. In fact, one of the project themes fosters a more positive community ethic of responsibility by illustrating the connections between pollution and environmental degradation. In some project sites local Muslim clerics have shown enthusiasm to support 4R principles as a tenet of cleanliness.

Do the project activities take into account gender and/or sensitivity issues?

Fully (8)

It is encouraging to see that many of the leaders and prime contributors to project activities are women. Even though it is not explicitly mentioned in this project, gender is an integral part of the whole activity.  Regular training for housewives, house helpers, scavengers and children has been carried out.  Women play a key role in educating the family and furthering education among the community.  

Do the project activities strengthen local identities?

Partially (6)

The project activities have succeeded in fostering a real sense of community involvement, development and responsibility. This is particularly true in the case of Banjarsari kampung and continuing activities in other villages, schools and markets. It is unknown whether local identities have been strengthened amongst the people of the Pulau Seribu.

Do the project activities shape national legal policy?

Slightly (3)

Local rules within the kampung related to the integrated waste management have been introduced in Banjarsari, e.g. all households take up waste separation, greening programmes, etc. If, after a six-month trial, this is successful, it is planned to present details of the activity to the Jakarta Sanitation Service (Dinas Kebersihan – DKI [Daerah Khusus Ibukota – Special Capital Region]).  The IWF initiative will be the most suitable platform from which the project activities will be able to inform and shape local, regional and national waste management policies and programmes.  

Do the project activities encompass the regional dimension?

Partially (5)

The activities clearly address regional problems of coastal and marine environment degradation and pollution, which are common problems in other Asian coastal megacities. The IWF and the coral reef monitoring are clearly two areas where further work could be done in terms of gathering and disseminating information on project activities within the region, and considering how such exchanges could be formulated.  

Do the project activities provide for human rights?

Partially (6)

Some of the project activities have contributed to addressing the basic rights of access to clean drinking water and issues of health and safety. These are addressed under Articles 22-25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and Articles 6, 7, 8 and 11 of the Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Project activities initiated on the Seribu Islands have been particularly important in addressing issues of food security and sustainable living through pilot activities on duck farming and aquaculture.  

Have the project activities been documented?

Fully (9)

The project activities have been fully documented (see list at the beginning of this assessment). Additional relevant documents are:  

  • Land, Sea and People (English and Bahasa  Indonesia)

  • Lautku (UNESCO-CSI-Jakarta Newsletter) co-ordinated by ANTARA

  • Earthwire (Warta Bumi) published bimonthly by ANTARA

  • Tata Laut, Tertib Darat: Panduan Mengurang Limbah Untuk Melindungi  (Care for the sea starts from the land) – Manual of community solid waste management to protect the sea.  

Have the project activities been evaluated?

Partially (6)

The Jakarta Bay project was included in the audit of UNESCO's Natural Science Sector between 1999 and 2001.

In addition, the project was also assessed as part of the external evaluation of CSI in 2001(including the visit of Ms. D. Benzaken to Jakarta). Thus the project has received considerable attention and the project leaders, partners and staff of CSI and UNESCO-Jakarta have devoted considerable time and energy into project evaluations. The present evaluation is the first CSI project assessment exercising the 16 wise coastal practices characteristics.  

Synthesis and list of main issues from the assessment 

  1. The project is entering a critical phase that is drawing together both project activities and partners as demonstrated by the Indonesia Waste Forum initiative.  

  2. The depth of the project and range of activities are at a sufficient stage of development where greater attention and efforts can be focused on transfer of activities firstly at a local, then at a regional level, in order to effectively complement the IWF.  

Revised future project activities 

1.  Expand the scope and range of the activities  

2. Indonesian National News Agency    

3. Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology  

4.  Demographic Institute, University of Indonesia and Bina Swadaya/NGO  

5. Banjarsari Kampung (Village), South Jakarta 

6. Kirai Indonesia Foundation 

7. Laboratory of Community Development – Indonesian Institute of Technology 

8. Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program 

9. Pramuka (Indonesian Boy Scouts movement) 

 10. Manufacturing sector 


Introduction Activities Publications Search
Wise Practices Regions Themes