Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands

Field Project Summary
Reducing the impact of a coastal megacity on island ecosystems,
Jakarta and the Seribu Islands, Indonesia

Revision Date: 1st November, 2000.
Title:  Reducing the impact of a coastal megacity on island ecosystems, Jakarta  and the Seribu Islands, Indonesia; Community-based approaches to solid waste management and the generation of alternative livelihoods.
Goal: To support inland and small island communities towards appropriate integrated coastal management.
Location: Jakarta Metropolitan City and Jakarta Bay.
Starting date: 1985 Scientific data collection. 1996 Integrated project.
Partners: Research and Development Centre for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Science; University of Indonesia: Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Demographic Institute; Environmental Impact Management Agency; Directorate General for Sea Research and Exploration; Indonesian National News Agency ANTARA; UNESCO: Social and Human Sciences Sector, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Education Sector, Coastal Regions and Small Islands platform.
Pilot project leader:

There are six coordinators responsible for the project components: waste recycling, social development and rivers, coral reefs and islands, schools, mangrove rehabilitation, press. The overall coordination is done by the UNESCO Jakarta Office. 
Any communication to the project team should be addressed to:
Ibu Nuning Wirjoatmodjo, UNESCO Jakarta Office, Jl Thamrin 14 - PO box 1273/JKT - 10002 Jakarta, Indonesia. 
Tel: 62 21 314 1308 ext 821, Fax: 62 21 315 0382.
e-mail n.wirjoatmodjo@unesco.org

Description:

Within a holistic and interdisciplinary approach CSI is co-ordinating scientific, socio-economic and cultural initiatives to 'Save Pulau Seribu' (Thousand Island Archipelago). The project started in 1985 with the scientific collection of data on the status of the coral reefs in Jakarta Bay and Pulau Seribu. As Jakarta waste strongly affects the status of the coastal ecosystem in Jakarta Bay and Palau Seribu, the project consists of two components: firstly a Pulau Seribu component with coral reef monitoring - research activities, educational and socio-economic activities for fisher communities; and secondly a Jakarta component to achieve better waste management at community and traditional markets level through waste-recycling, educational activities for students and local communities, alternative income-generating activities and socio-economic development of local communities, discussion panels and awareness, and rivers assessments.                       

Pulau Seribu (Thousand Islands) component: A long-term coral reef monitoring programme in Jakarta Bay and Pulau Seribu has been initiated by the LIPI Research and Development Centre for Oceanology in collaboration with UNESCO. Through the collection of time series baseline data, this component aims to study the dynamic changes of coral assemblages. 

In order to reduce the extent of destructive fishing practices, alternative sources of income were proposed for both the fishers and their wives living in Pulau Seribu. In Pari Island, seaweed cultivation was chosen as an alternative income-generating project. This activity, initiated by LIPI, has already proved to be a success since there is a high national and international demand for seaweed. Duck farming was suggested as a suitable occupation for women. A project was launched with the distribution of 290 ducks among 55 families. A manual on duck farming techniques was prepared and distributed during a training course. 

Inland Component: at present the project is focusing on waste management practices for Jakarta City through the following activities:

(1) Waste management for communities and schools, practising the 4R principles (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Re-plant).  UNESCO is working in three areas of Jakarta developing a model for an environmental friendly kampoong (village). As a formula a kampoong should have: a) an environmental committee at community level; b) paper recycling activities; c) waste collection system and composting, both vermi-composting and aerobic-composting; d) medicinal plants using locally produced compost as fertiliser; e) library for medicinal plants and a general purpose library; f) local 2-page bulletin focusing on environmental matters in their community.  
(2) Model on waste management for traditional markets. Composting centers using local organic waste plus medicinal and kitchen plants for sale have been established in two markets.  This activity has three benefits:  a) reduces the quantity of organic waste by up to 50%;   b)  alternative income-generating for market personnel through selling the compost and plants;  c) environmental education for both vendors and buyers.
(3) Study Tour for students and community leaders to see the reality  of the city and the adjacent sea and to understand the relation between inland people's waste management practices and the resulting bad condition of the rivers and the sea.  This regular programme has created a UNESCO team with schools, communities, fisher communities to share  experiences and in the long run to also share the ‘business’ of  the recycled products.
(4) Exhibitions of photos and recycled products on many occasions:  in the markets, big hotels, schools, community, environmental expo's etc. After such exhibitions, requests for training increase.
(5)  Permanent training for whoever is interested in composting and paper recycling.  We use this training for environmental education as well.  This has been a very efficient way to disseminate UNESCO's programmes at the grassroots level, as well as to schools, college campuses, women's organisations.
(6)  Small enterprise and alternative income-generating activities for local communities have been implemented, in collaboration with the Social Science Sector.
(7)  A socio-economic study of the communities living along the rivers in the Jakarta Metropolitan area has been conducted.
(8)  A Community Learning Center was established in North Jakarta in collaboration with the Education Sector.
Achievements & Assessment: (1) Waste management has started to change in the UNESCO pilot project areas.  One community (Banjarsari) has become an example for other communities, schools, and women's organisations.  In the two markets there has been a reduction of 40% of the organic waste.
(2) Schools have started to be interested in marine issues, environmental problems in general, and waste management.
(3) People empowerment/alternative income-generating through recycling and other activities has started. UNESCO training in the marketing of recycled products has been carried out and a co-operative has been established.
(4) With a larger budget, activities could be expanded based on the successful results achieved up to now in some pilot areas.
Future Directions: (1) Develop further activities according to needs and replicate the successful activities in other areas.
(2) Generate a model for urban ecology mainly focused on Kampong (village - the smallest administrative unit in Indonesia) and traditional markets management. The model could be presented to local and national institutions to develop a 'good governance' environmental policy in coastal cities in Indonesia.
(3) Involve local authorities and community leaders and avoid involvement in the political problems of the groups in the community.  Strengthen the relationship among all the UNESCO partners.
(4)  Enhance local community participation.
(5) Continue to work with local trusted small/medium NGOs co-ordinated directly by UNESCO, without involving big NGOs (UNESCO funds are relatively small). 
(6)  Continue the partnership with  media/journalists. 
(7) Provide opportunities for the private sector to join the UNESCO specific activities.
 
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