Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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The Republic of Indonesia

A major contribution to the development and refinement of CSI’s scope and objectives was provided by an Indonesian specialist who attended the Experts Meeting (Paris, November, 1996).

Proceedings of the ‘Coral Reef Evaluation Workshop’ held in Pulau Seribu in September 1995 were published as ‘Contending with Global Change’ Study 10 of the UNESCO-Jakarta Office. A coral reef management workshop for Pulau Seribu was held in April 1996. A meeting on the follow-up to the ‘Save Pulau Seribu’ initiative (July 1996) was supported. A coastal clean-up campaign was organized (September-December 1996) as part of a national ‘Recover Seribu’ initiative.

A specialist from Indonesia attended a regional workshop on ‘Integrated Coastal Zone Management’ (Chabahar, Iran, February 1996) and another specialist participated in the first ‘Asian Pacific Physiological Forum’ (Sydney, Australia, July 1996). One person from Indonesia attended the ‘Second World Forum on Youth and Recycling for Sustainable Development’ held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in December 1997.

Jakarta Bay is the site of the field project ‘Reducing the Impact of a Coastal Mega City on Island Ecosystems, Jakarta and the Seribu Islands’ (old name: ‘Sustainable Living on the Margins of a Mega-City’). The project focuses on the integrated management of biological diversity in an area which is threatened by urban pollution, population growth, over-exploitation of resources and tourism. These complex, linked problems are being addressed through a series of activities which are contributing to a growing body of lessons learned about integrated coastal management. A summary of the project – its goals, achievements and future direction was written in September 2000.

Jakarta waste monitoring activities have been supported by UNESCO since 1996. A CSI workshop on traditional market waste management and recycling was held in September 1997. A training course for young people and women on composting was held in Jakarta in December 1997. A community-based waste management scheme was promoted in the riverbanks community of Jakarta in December 1997 and January 1998. A community-based waste management campaign was launched through the UNESCO-Jakarta Office (February-August 1998). A second community-based recycling Centre was established in North Jakarta and officially opened by the Director of the UNESCO Jakarta Office in June 1999. The Centre is a place for learning and a forum for discussing environmental problems, and so empowers local people. In 1999 nineteen groups were trained in paper recycling and composting. These groups were made up of university students, street children, the unemployed, handicapped children, young people and women. Requests for training are increasing as recycling is seen as an alternative source of income as well as a way of cleaning up the city. Composting using organic waste from traditional markets was started in November 1999 as a pilot project. Eight exhibitions of photographs and recycled products have been shown throughout Jakarta. In May 2001 a waste management programme started for a traditional market in Pesar Mede, South Jakarta. Twenty-four local school children helped to distribute leaflets and explain how composting is done and what are its benefits. This has lead to a 40% reduction in the quantity of organic waste produced.

A newsletter on integrated coastal management was launched in March 1997. An environmental training course for young fishermen and teachers and an environmental education course for students and their parents took place on Pari Island in March 1997. An exhibition on environmental awareness (Expo Environment 97) took place in Jakarta in June 1997. A contribution was made to the Indonesian component of the worldwide monitoring activity ‘Coral Check’ (June-August 1997).

In 1999 UNESCO provided training on how to establish and manage cooperatives to recycle paper. People from the two recycling centres and a local non-governmental organization now work together to produce and sell recycled paper products.

A ‘fishermen-to-fishermen’ news bulletin was supported. As part of the ‘Save Jakarta Bay’ project, in April 1999, a programme for the fisher community of Kronjo, West Java was initiated. It aims to: (1) enhance the environment and quality of life by environmental education, waste management and composting; (2) enhance fish production by providing two water pumps; (3) improve the quality of life by growing medicinal and other useful plants and (4) improve the environment along the Cipasilian river. A survey on the ‘Profile of the riverbank community in Angke River/Jakarta Bay’ was carried out by the Indonesia Institute of Technology-ITI team in March 1999. Some projects to aid fishermen are being carried out as part of the participation programme for Jakarta Bay and Pulau Seribu in collaboration with the Indonesian Oceanological Research and Development. There are projects to assist fishermen with duck farming on Pari Island and to farm groupers and cichlids in fish cages on Kongsi Island. A workshop on ‘Duck Farming for Fishermen Families- Income Generation’ was held at the beginning of June 1998.

Several exhibitions on the ‘Jakarta Bay project’ were associated with events for the ‘International Year of the Ocean’, such as the occasion of the signing of the Ocean Charter by the President of the Republic of Indonesia and follow-up activities, (September-November 1998).

One person from UNESCO went on mission to Pulau Seribu to evaluate the socio-economic conditions in the islands as part of the ‘Jakarta Bay project’. The compilation of published studies and reports documenting legislation, management policy, conservation efforts, development and marine resource studies for Karimunjawa Island, Central Java, and Pulau Seribu was completed during the six-month period before the end of 1998.

One participant and one observer from Indonesia attended the intersectoral workshop ‘Towards Wise Coastal Development Practices’ held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris at the beginning of December 1998. A report on the workshop was published in English and French as CSI info 10 (2000): ‘Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development. Results of an Intersectoral Workshop and Preliminary Findings of a Follow-up Virtual Forum’. The delegate from Indonesia presented a paper on alternative livelihoods in Jakarta and Pulau Seribu.

The Indonesian Institute of Science, UNESCO-Jakarta, and the Indonesian National Commission of UNESCO, organized two panel discussions in April 1999: ‘The Impact of City Management on Adjacent Waters’ and ‘A Case Study of the Negative Impact of Jakarta City on its Local Marine Environment’. Support was provided for a seminar organized by the Indonesian Navy in Jakarta in April 1999 on ‘The Sea is an Economic Asset for the Future’.

An environmental study tour programme for high school pupils and teachers started in July 1999. The aim was to make them aware of the problems facing Jakarta City and Jakarta Bay: to see the reality of Jakarta Bay, the degradation of Pulau Seribu, the garbage accumulated in Jakarta and its rivers and to visit the river banks communities. Fifty four participants joined a study tour, to Bidadari island, focused on environmental education, marine biology and waste management. On the second study tour, in November 1999, there were one hundred participants: pupils, teachers, representatives from NGOs and journalists. A third study tour in May 2000 attracted seventy students and journalists; a fourth was held in September.

In co-operation with ANTARA (the Indonesian News Agency), a monthly bulletin in Indonesian ‘Lautku – Our Ocean’ has been published since August 1999 up to present date. The target readers are students and young fishermen. The aims are to encourage young people to find out more about the coastal and marine environment, encourage their interest in marine science, increase knowledge about the content of the sea, diving, snorkeling etc., and cultivate the correct attitude towards the sea.

Two papers on the Jakarta Metropolitan Area were prepared in 1999: ‘Coastal Housing Environmental Issues’ and ‘Towards Wise Coastal Management Practice in a Tropical Mega-City - Jakarta’.

Since May 1999 the UNESCO Jakarta Office in to co-operation with CSI has been preparing a project on ‘Environmental Governance of a Tropical Coastal Mega-city: the Jakarta Metropolitan Area’. The objective of this project is to find a model to deal with environmental problems in tropical coastal mega-cities.

One person from Indonesia attended an international seminar on ‘Sustainable Development in the Coastal Zones’ held in Mahdia, Tunisia, in June 1999. A report on the seminar was published as CSI info 8 (2000) ‘Développement Urbain Durable en Zone Côtière. Actes du Séminaire International’.

Waste Management and Recycling at the Grassroots Level / Jakarta Bay, Indonesia’ and ‘A Regional Approach to Environmental Quality / Jakarta, Indonesia’ were introduced as topics for discussion on the web-based ‘Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development’ Forum in July and August 1999. More papers on Indonesian topics were added in 2000: ‘Bay Management’, ‘Citizens Recycle Waste/Jakarta Bay’, ‘The Future of the Wise Practices Forum – an Asia-Pacific Regional Perspective’, ‘How Societal Thinking Shapes Attitudes to Resource Exploitation’. A report on the forum was published in November 2000; someone from Indonesia contributed to it. A description of the forum, written by someone from Indonesia, was published as ‘Coast to Coast’ in English, French and Spanish in UNESCO Sources in February 2001. Indonesia continued to be discussed on the forum in 2001: ‘Purchasing Coastal Areas for Protection May Not be Enough’ and ‘Assessing the Way Society Views Natural Resources’. In 2002 the discussions continued with: ‘Sea Farming: a Novel Solution or an Additional Stress?’ and Announcement of a Trial Global Discussion Forum for Small Islands Voice

A report on the Mega-cities project ‘Reducing Mega-city Impacts on the Coastal Environment. Alternative Livelihoods and Waste Management in Jakarta and the Seribu Islands’ was published as CSI papers 6 in 2000. There was an exhibit on the project at Environmental Expo 2000 in May. The Vice President of the Republic visited the UNESCO exhibit.

A Bahasa version of the CSI brochure ‘Land, Sea and People – Seeking a Sustainable Balance’ was produced in 2000.

Project team meetings for the Mega-cities project were held in March and July 2000. A round table meeting and a donor meeting were held in March in collaboration with the Ministry of Sea Exploration and Fisheries. Various project proposals were put forward for funding: ‘Asia-Pacific Mega-city Governance: Seeking Social and Environmental Sustainability (May-July)’, ‘Rehabilitation of a Mangrove Area in Jakarta Bay to Establish an Environmental Education Centre’ (June). A training course was held in May in Kronjo village on ‘Alternative Income Generating Activities for Women in Villages along the Coast of Jakarta Bay’; it attracted forty participants.

An ‘Environmental Friendly Kampung (village)’ was opened in May 2000 in Banjarsari. The Kampung programme involves waste management, community organisation, alternative income generating activities and environmental education with the overall objective of generating a model that could be replicated in other communities in the Jakarta metropolitan area. The centre fulfils the needs of environmental education for schools, universities, traditional-market workers and women’s organisations. The Jakarta Municipality Committee on Environment selected the centre to represent the city in a national environment competition in October 2000. Training courses for school children on the environment and waste management were held at the centre from September to December 2000. A competition to design a waste-bin for separating different kinds of garbage was held at the beginning of 2001. Five prototype designs were selected and tested in Banjarsari, which has become a centre for training visitors from other kampungs in waste management and recycling. A prize giving ceremony was held in July 2001. This system of waste separation and collection will be replicated in other communities.

Field project leaders, university chair holders and UNESCO staff met in Bangkok (Thailand), in July 2000, to discuss strategies for advancing and networking the field projects and university chairs in the Asia-Pacific region. Five universities in India, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa and Thailand joined the University of Indonesia (Jakarta) in setting up a UNITWIN (university twinning) network to reinforce interdisciplinary teaching and training in coastal matters. Students and chair-holders have participated in the Ulugan Bay and Puerto Galera projects. An ecological survey of the Banda Islands was undertaken to provide: a comprehensive description of the marine ecosystem; baseline data for developing an integrated management plan for the coastal ecosystem; and background data for nomination of the Banda Islands as a World Heritage Site.

In the latter part of 2000 the mega-city project focused on: a socio-economic profile of the communities along the Angke River; an ecological assessment of the Angke River and a database on the thirteen rivers that cross Jakarta (in collaboration with the International Hydrological Programme, IHP); green mussels (Perna viridis) as indicators of environmental quality in Jakarta Bay; and long-term monitoring of the coral reefs of the Seribu Islands. These studies continued in 2001.

Various activities were conducted in collaboration with other agencies: in partnership with IHP, the Jakarta Office started a programme on water and sanitation; in collaboration with the Education Sector and the Indonesian Institute of Technology a community learning centre was set up in September 2000 in Kapuk Muara (North Jakarta); in co-operation with a local non-government organisation, self-help and micro-credit initiatives were implemented in Kamal Muara. The self-help and micro-credit initiatives continued during 2001.

A competition was organised by the Jakarta Office to apply the 4R principles: Reduce, Re-use, Recycle and Replant. Used cans were painted with environmental subjects for re-use as wastebaskets. Nine exhibitions to raise public awareness and promote environmental education were organised. A workshop on ‘Optimisation of Waste Towards Zero Waste’ was held in November 2000.

A team of six people visited the mega-city project area in February 2001 to assess the project on the basis of the 16 wise practice characteristics devised by CSI. The Jakarta Bay project was also evaluated in 2001 as a Natural Sciences Sector Audit Case.

During 2001 training in waste separation continued for local communities and scavengers in Jakarta City. In January, 13 people in Karya Sari, Ponduk Cabe, who had applied waste management principles in producing organic compost were taught about medicinal plants - their propagation and use. In May, a ‘Training for Women in Waste Management’ day was held to discuss how the separation of compostable waste starts in the home. Additional training days were held in June, July and August. There was also a special training day for children in August 2001.

One outcome of the Jakarta Bay project has been the development of ‘Ciplukan Groups’ (named after a medicinal plant). These are made up of individuals and groups that have implemented integrated waste management schemes and now use the organic compost generated to grow medicinal plants. The motto of the groups is ‘healthy environment helps healthy community’. Their aim is to bind communities together so as to foster integrated waste management. The first group was started in February 2001 and there are now four groups. Twenty members of one group did a study tour to the Karyasari Medicinal Garden in July 2001.

Exhibitions and seminars on recycling continued as part of the Jakarta Bay project in 2001: photographs and recycled products were exhibited in February in the Pulo Mas Community in east Jakarta and for the boy and girl scouts of south Jakarta; a seminar on ‘Eco Efficient Products and the Environment’ was held in April; on Earth Day (May 19) UNESCO assisted a Banjarsari senior citizens group in a waste management demonstration and exhibition; there was a CSI exhibit in the ‘Environmental Expo 2001’ held in Jakarta in June; and an open day was held in the Bogar Botanical Gardens in November.

In July 2001 training on the production and marketing of fish chips and fish abon was offered in the Kamal Muara community. Twenty people, mostly women, attended the four-day course. This method of generating extra income has proved successful.

A private company, ASTRA, and the Indonesian Institute of Technology conducted a preliminary study of the social conditions in the Sungai Bambu community from July to November 2001. It is the first step in a long-term plan to develop the area as an environmentally friendly kampung and to foster self-help.

A training course on ‘Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Coastal Application, SEAMEO BIOTROP’ was held in Bogor in October 2001. As part of the course the 14 participants did two days of field work on Pari Island, north Jakarta.

A two-day workshop on ‘Integrated Solid Waste Management: a Community-Based Approach for Indonesia’ was held in November 2001. The 60 participants (scientists, teachers, scavengers, government officers and journalists) visited the Pesanggrahan River and other areas in north Jakarta where waste accumulates; then they went to the ‘green kampung’, Banjarsari, in south Jakarta. The second day  involved discussions, held at the Bogor Botanical Gardens, on the system of waste management, community participation and the role of the government. One outcome of the workshop was the establishment of the ‘Jakarta Waste Management Forum’, which meets regularly.

The UNESCO Jakarta Office helped to organise the inter-regional CSI workshop on ‘Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development in Continental Coastal Regions’ that was held in Maputo, Mozambique in November 2001. One person from Indonesia attended the workshop. A report of the workshop was published as CSI papers 12: ‘Managing Conflicts Over Resources and Values: Continental Coasts’. 

A manual on waste management ‘Tata Laut, Tertib Darat’ (Care for the sea, put in order the land) was published in 2001.

The ‘Jakarta Waste Management Forum’ and the ‘Healthy Environment Helps Healthy Community’ initiatives were started in 2001 to provide ways to share knowledge and training in waste management and recycling and to promote environmental awareness.

A multi-stakeholder forum the ‘Indonesian Waste Forum’ was launched jointly by UNESCO and the Indonesian Ministry of Research and Technology in February 2002. The Forum has become a strong proponent of decentralised community-based waste management. It includes several national governmental institutions, non-governmental organisations and the National Press Agency ANTARA.

An education centre was opened on Pari Island in March 2002. Thirty five people attended the opening ceremony.

In 2002 the management of Jakarta City’s waste continued to be the focus of the ‘Mega-city project’. Between May and August 702 people, from more than 20 Indonesian provinces,  attended training sessions on ‘Integrated Waste Management’. A public awareness campaign on separation of waste was conducted from May to October. A workshop on ‘Integrated Waste Management’ for students was held in June/July.

A monthly community bulletin the ‘Kamal Muara Bulletin’ was published from May to December 2002.

A survey of the coral reefs around Pari Island was conducted in August and September 2002.

An Asian-Pacific workshop on ‘Exploring Wise Practice Agreements’ was held in Khuraburi, Thailand in November 2002. One of the subjects discussed was the impact that Jakartas garbage and sewage is having on the Seribu Islands.


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