|Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
The Russian Federation
Forty five resource persons and students from the Russian Federation participated in the advanced field course on coastal studies organized as part of the UNESCO-Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC)-Baltic Marine Environment Protection commission, HELCOM-sponsored Baltic Floating University facility (BFU) in summer 1996. More than 40 participants attended the summer 1997 course. A BFU planning meeting took place in St. Petersburg in May 1997; it was attended by 16 national specialists. A set of equipment for coastal studies was provided in August 1996.
Co-operation between CSI and the Russian State Hydrometeorological University resulted in the first undergraduate course on integrated coastal management to be offered in Russia. The course started in 1998. Formal teaching was coupled with field training in the Baltic and the White Sea. In June 1999 a field campaign on the social aspects of new port facilities in the eastern Gulf of Finland was organised. In June-August 2000 another field campaign and an international workshop on regional integrated coastal management took place in the White Sea region. An experimental field training course for undergraduates on ‘Small Island Ecology and Biogeography’ was held in the White Sea in July-August 2000.
Ten specialists became involved in the development, in 1996-97, of UNESCO BILKO computer-based learning modules on the use of remote sensing in coastal research and management. Two new modules were prepared in Russian, published by UNESCO, and distributed through a Russian network; seven new lessons were written. A seminar on the use of the modules was organized for Russian speakers in St. Petersburg in December 1996. The ‘First Regional Workshop of UNESCO/CSI WinBilko Authors and Users’ was held in December 1997; it was attended by 15 people, 12 of whom were from the Russian Federation. Another scientist from the Federation participated in the BILKO Steering Committee meetings held in the UK in July 1998, and the Netherlands in November 1998. He also attended the intersectoral workshop ‘Towards Wise Coastal Development Practices’ held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris in the beginning of December 1998, as an observer.
A workshop on the ‘Rational Exploitation of the Coastal Zone of the Northern Seas’ took place in Kandalaksha, Murmansk region in July 1996; it was attended by 37 researchers and students. A follow-up workshop was run in August 2000.
A specialist from the Russian Federation attended a regional workshop on ‘Integrated Coastal Management’ in Chabahar, Iran in February 1996.
Twelve specialists and students participated in the CSI/Culture Sector of UNESCO/World Heritage Committee (WHC) sponsored workshop on ‘Environment and Development in the Coastal Zone of the Eastern Baltic’ in Suomenlinna, Finland in May 1996. Six specialists participated in the CSI-IOC-EC workshop on ‘Arctic Coastal Ecosystems’ held in Pisa, Italy in April 1996; two specialists attended the ‘First Baltic Marine Science Conference’ in Ronne, Denmark in October 1996 and one researcher participated in the ‘Joint Symposium of Baltic Marine Biologists and Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association’ in Marienhamn, Finland in June 1997. One specialist was nominated (July, 1996) as a UNESCO professor at the ‘UNESCO Chair on Environmental Matters’ at the University of Venice, Italy. He finalized a textbook on ‘Aquatic Microbial Ecology’ in February 1997. The St. Petersburg Branch of the ‘Expert Taxonomic Identification Centre’ (ETI) was supported with equipment, and a specialist who provided training (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, December 1996). A regional workshop on ‘Teaching Integrated Coastal Management’ was hosted and attended by 30 national specialists (St. Petersburg, 29-30 May 1997). Support was given to interdisciplinary studies in the Gulf of Finland in July and August 1998. A scientist from the Russian Federation was given a grant to attend the international conference on ‘Education and Training in Integrated Coastal Management’ held in Italy in May 1998. A field campaign on the social aspects of the new port facilities in the Eastern Gulf of Finland was conducted in June 1999.
The theme of ‘Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development / Karelia - Finland and Russia’ was introduced as a discussion topic on the web-based ‘Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development’ Forum in October 1999. The Russian view point on ‘Assessing the Way Society Views Natural Resources’ was posted on the forum in March 2001.
As part of a European Commission funded project ‘Education and Training in Integrated Coastal Management’ that was initiated by CSI, ten Russian students studied in Spain (April-June 2000). At a meeting in Cadiz, Spain, in December 2000 the first year’s joint activities were judged successful. The project was terminated in 2002.
A public awareness campaign on Sustainable Coastal Development was launched, in co-operation with the UNESCO Sector for Culture and the Associated Schools project, through the World Ocean Museum (Kaliningrad, August-December 1999). An exhibit on Sustainable Coastal Development was prepared. In May 2000 an exhibit on the same theme went on show at the museum of the City of Polarny, Murmansk region. A second exhibition was held here in October 2001 ‘The Art of Junk from the Beach’. School children had made clothing and art works from rubbish to highlight the need to protect the environment from excessive waste. The Russian media reported the event. A promotional booklet was published and web sites have been established.
An environmental monitoring and awareness training course for UNESCO Associated Schools was held in Kaliningrad from July to December 2001. A second awareness course the ‘School of young Ecologists’ was held in the City of Polary in November and December 2001. The World Ocean Museum in Kaliningrad published a teachers’ handbook in 2001 ‘The Ocean at Home’.
One person from Russia attended an international seminar
on ‘Sustainable Development in the Coastal Zones’ held in Mahdia, Tunisia,
in June 1999. A
report on the seminar was published as CSI info 8 (2000) ‘Développement
Urbain Durable en Zone Côtière. Actes du Séminaire International’.
One person from Russia attended a workshop for CSI field project leaders on ‘Wise Practices for Conflict Prevention and Resolution’, which was held in Mozambique in November 2001. He presented a paper on ‘Coastal Conflict Resolution in the White Sea / Barents Sea: Case Study on Aquaculture’. A report of the workshop was published as CSI papers 12: ‘Managing Conflicts Over Resources and Values: Continental Coasts’.
The Baltic Floating University project developed into a new project ‘Sustainable Coastal Development in Northern Russia’ in 2000. An introduction to, and summary of, the project were produced in October and November of that year.
There is a UNESCO Chair in Marine Ecology and Sustainable Coastal Development at the University of Vladivostok, Russia. It is supported to a limited extent by CSI. An international conference ‘Man in the Coastal Zone – Experiences of Centuries’ was organised by the Chair in 2001. A school on ‘Microbial Indication and Remediation’ was held in Vladivostok, in September 2002, as part of the UNESCO Chair activities. There were 39 participants (12 of them lectures) from Russia (32), Japan and Korea. There were 14 lectures, 12 round tables and various laboratory sessions on methods of using bacteria to identify and combat pollution.
Abstracts and proceedings from a conference on ‘Man in the Coastal Zone:
the Experience of Centuries’, which was held in Pertopavlovsk-Kamchatskiy in
September 2001, were published in Russian.
An agreement to establish a UNITWIN network among five European universities to promote wise coastal practices was signed by representatives of the universities involved (University of Aveiro, Portugal; University of Bologna, Italy; University of Cadiz, Spain; University of Riga, Latvia; Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St. Petersburg, Russia) in August 2002. The launch ceremony was held at the University of Cadiz, Spain, in September 2002. A planning workshop involving the Universities of Bologna, Riga, St. Petersburg and Aveiro was held in Cervia, Italy, in November 2002; two people from Russia attended the meeting.
A team of seven experts visited the ‘Sustainable Coastal Development in the White Sea - Barents Sea Region, Northern Russia’ field project in July 2002. They evaluated the project on the basis of the 16 wise practice characteristics devised by CSI, gave advice on how the project might be developed and wrote a report.
One person from Russia was part of an evaluation team that visited the ‘Municipal Environmental Management and Public Participation, North Kurzeme, Latvia’ field project in November 2002.
As part of the ‘Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems’ (LINKS) initiative, to integrate indigenous knowledge into development and conservation, a project on ‘Even and Koryak Peoples Living in the Volcanoes of Kamchatka World Heritage Site, Russia’ was initiated in 2002. The aim is to strengthen the role of indigenous people and their knowledge in managing the protected area in which they live. A first report was produced in late 2002 in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Kamchatka Institute for Environmental Protection.