Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Field Project Assessment
Sustainable Coastal Development in the White Sea - Barents Sea Region, Northern Russia

Date of
assessment
:
Site visit: 14th to 20th July 2002
Assessment completed: draft 9th November 2002
Assessment
conducted by
:

Ms Gillian Cambers, UNESCO-CSI consultant, Mr Evalds Urtans, Latvian Fisheries Research Institute (not closely associated with the project);
Mr Lev N. Karlin, Rector, Mr Nikolai L. Plink, Head of Department of Integrated Coastal Management, Mr. Alexander Averkiev, Dean of Oceanography, Mr. Michael Shilin, Associate Professor, Department of Oceanography, Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU) (all closely associated with the project);
Mr Uli Graebener, UNESCO-Moscow Office (associated with the project).

Project
documentation
:
  1. Russian State Hydrometeorological University. 2001. Elaboration of a strategic planning methodology for the wise coastal development of northern seas. 109 pp. (Russian).

  2. Russian State Hydrometeorological University.  2002. The potential of a regional conceptual framework for the coastal zone of the White Sea and Barents Sea. 96 pp. (Russian).

  3. Russian State Hydrometeorological University.  2002. Results of a social investigation in the coastal zone of Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. 37 pp (Russian).

  4. Russian State Hydrometeorological University.  2002. Regional approach for the sustainable coastal development and wise coastal practices in the region of the White Sea.  Brochure (English and Russian).

  5. Maisterman, S. 1994. Kola Arctic photo album. Murmansk Publishing House.

  6. Field project summary.

  7. Shilin, M. 2001. Coastal conflict resolution in the White Sea / Barents Sea: case study on aquaculture.  Paper presented at the UNESCO-CSI workshop in Maputo, 19-23 November 2001. 2 pp (English).

Assessment
a
ctivities:

  Discussions and meetings with:

  • Russian State Hydrometeorological University - Mr Lev N. Karlin, Rector, Mr Vladimir Vorobyov, Vice-President, Mr Nikolai L. Plink, Head of Department of Integrated Coastal Management, Mr. Alexander Averkiev, Dean of Oceanography, Mr Michael Shilin, Associate Professor, Department of Oceanography.

  • Murmansk Office of the Ministry of Natural Resources – Mr Nikolay Bitchouk.

  • Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO) – in Murmansk: Mr Vladimir Chernook, Research Director, Mr Vladimir Borovkov, Deputy Director and Head of the Centre of Marine Environment; in Beloe More village near Kandalaksha: Mr Yevgeniy Kluikov, Supervisor of the Students’ Field Practice.

  • Kandalaksha City Administration – Mr Askar Jabasov, First Vice-Head, Ms Estella Didrich, Expert, Department of Ecological Development.

  • Oudarnik Fish Farm (Beloe More) – Mr Vladimir (Grigorjevich) Klimtchouk, Ms Tamara Klimtchouk.

  • Kandalaksha Fish Farm and the Cage Culture at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant – Mr Alexander Popov.

  • Murman State TV and Radio Company – Ms Anastassia Ishenko Jakonjuk, Ms Elena Rakhimova, Commentator, Mr Kostya Kozar, Cameraman. (Ms Rakhimova and Mr Kozar accompanied the assessment team during the entire field visit from 16-19 July 2002).

  • Kandalaksha Children’s Summer Camp – Mr Nikolay Ryzankov, Director.

  • Fish Farmer – Mr Andrey Borovkov (graduate of RSHU).

  • Pomor – Tour (Non-governmental organization) – Mr Paul Zhidkikh.

  • Kandalaksha State Reserve – Mr Alexander Chavgoun, Director, Mr Alexander Karjakin, Deputy-Director.

  • Arctic Salmon Farm at the Hydropower plant Verchnetulomskaja, near Murmansk – Mr Victor Nesvetov.

  • Russian Branch of Birdlife International – Ms Helena Lebedeva.

Seminar at the Kandalaksha State Reserve (18th July 2002):  

  • Rational exploitation of the resources of the coastal zone of Northern Seas’.  There were 12 presentations given by students and lecturers from RSHU, and other individuals from PINRO, Russian Branch of Birdlife International, Kandalaksha Administration and others. After each presentation there was a discussion. There were approximately 50 persons present from the Kandalaksha City Administration, RSHU, St. Petersburg University, PINRO, media (Murman State TV, Kandalaksha Radio Company, and the local ‘Niva’ newspaper), Russian Society of Nature Protection, Kandalaksha State Reserve, and the Russian Branch of Birdlife International. (Local stakeholders use this annual seminar as an opportunity to present and discuss results, ideas and concerns).  

Field visits:

  • Oudarnik fish farm, PINRO fish farm, Kandalaksha Children’s Ecological Summer Camp, Centre of Marine Environment in Beloe More village (outside Kandalaksha).

  • Belomorskaya oil terminal (boat trip).

  • Kandalaksha fish farm.

  • Cage culture at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant.

  • Arctic salmon farm at Hydropower Plant Verchnetulomskaja, (outside Murmansk).

Press conference (19th July 2002) at the PINRO Office, Murmansk:

  • Representatives of the TV (one State and four private channels), radio and print media.  

Constraints:

The visit was very well planned. However, meetings were not held with some of the more problematic stakeholders such as the authorities at the Belomorskaya Oil Terminal, the Kandalaksha Harbour and the Kandalaksha State Fish Inspection.  

Assessment team meeting with Mr Askar 
Jabasov and Ms Estella Didrich from the 
Kandalaksha City Administration, July 2002

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Field Project Assessment
 

The RSHU has been involved in environmental monitoring in the White Sea – Barents Sea region for ten years, while this present project, which focuses on coastal management and has a significant socio-economic component, has been ongoing for only two years.  Due to their overlapping nature, these two initiatives have not been separated for the purposes of this assessment. There was some difficulty in distinguishing between those achievements which resulted from the project activities and those which would have taken place anyway.

The sixteen characteristics, used to define ‘wise practices’, are used here to assess this field project. A qualitative scale is used as follows:

None: The field project activities to date do not comply with this characteristic and/or the characteristic is not relevant.
Slightly: The field project activities to date have begun in some preliminary way to satisfy  this characteristic.
Partially: The field project activities to date have gone some significant way towards fulfilling this characteristic.
Fully: The field project activities to date have gone the full way to complying with this characteristic.  

This assessment is based only on the activities undertaken to date, and does not include those planned for the future.

Have the project activities ensured long-term benefit?  

Partially

The long-term benefit of the project activities can be seen in the ongoing interaction of scientists, businessmen, government administrators, teachers and environmentalists.  For example, the Kandalaksha City Administration plans to establish a working group comprising representatives of different stakeholder groups to begin implementation of various coastal management initiatives.  University students at all levels (bachelors, specialists, masters and PhD) have benefited by conducting their research and field practice in the Kandalaksha area and working on specific coastal problems.  School children from St. Petersburg and Kandalaksha have been involved in project activities, e.g. through the Kandalaksha Children’s Ecological Summer Camp.  

Do the project activities provide for capacity building and institutional strengthening?

Fully

The project has provided for institutional strengthening in that it contributed to the recent establishment of the Chair in Integrated Coastal Management at RSHU (established in 2000).  This is the first integrated coastal management department in Russia and produces 15 young specialists every year, who then go out to work in other agencies and institutions. Improved capacity for environmental management was also apparent within certain stakeholder groups, e.g. as a result of the project activities, the managers of the Belomorskaya Oil Terminal appreciate the need for long term environmental monitoring at their operation and have negotiated with the Kandalaksha State Reserve to undertake this monitoring.  Annual seminars, during which the research findings of the students and senior researchers are presented and discussed with interested stakeholders, also provide for capacity building.  School children from the Kandalaksha and St. Petersburg areas have also benefited from their involvement in the project activities.  However, capacity building needs to be enhanced among certain key groups, e.g. fishers, and further links need to be established with regional government organizations in the area.

Tanker at Belomorskaya oil terminal, July 2002

Are the project activities sustainable?

Partially

Many of the educational activities are sustainable, especially in view of the establishment of the Chair in Integrated Coastal Management at the RSHU. A start has been made in transferring environmental knowledge to local administrators and key stakeholders such as the managers of the Belomorskaya Oil Terminal.  The project has contributed to sustainable private sector activities especially in the field of aquaculture, and to some extent in ecotourism, both creating ecologically-friendly income sources in a relatively weak economic environment.

Cage culture at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant, 
July 2002

Have the project activities been transferred?

Fully

The project activities, including the socio-economic components, have been transferred to Tuapse City in the Black Sea where the ‘Big Sotchi’ is a major recreational area for Russians.  Here the RSHU project team is working on a similar coastal management initiative to the one in the White Sea – Barents Sea region, and applying many of the lessons already learnt.  Furthermore, the project activities have been transferred to a new harbour site in the Gulf of Finland, where there is a similar situation with a state reserve positioned close to a harbour (Lukyanov et al., 2002).  Persons from northern Germany have also expressed interest, since similar situations exist there with conservation areas close to major harbours.  Many of the project experiences have been included in a book ‘Ecological monitoring of the coastal zone of Polar Seas,’ Pogrebov and Shilin, 2001 (see Annex I).

Are the project activities interdisciplinary and intersectoral?

Fully

The project activities have included many different disciplines, including oceanography, hydrology, biology, ecology, social sciences and economics. In addition, different universities have been involved in the project.  However, there is also a need to include the disciplines of law and anthropology in future activities.  All major societal sectors have been involved including government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private sector, media, youth and civil society.  Additional efforts need to be made in the future to involve, as far as possible, all levels of government and to keep them fully informed.

Assessment team meeting with directors of the 
Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine 
Fisheries and Oceanography in Murmansk, 
July 2002

Do the project activities incorporate participatory processes?

Partially

Participatory approaches have no real tradition in Russia and existing green NGOs have limited membership. The project activities have involved meetings and discussions with individual stakeholder groups, although in the Kandalaksha area many NGOs are fairly new and just getting established.  The annual seminars held in Kandalaksha also provide stakeholders and others with the opportunity to discuss issues and findings in an open forum.

Do the project activities provide for consensus building?

Partially

The project activities have helped to develop consensus within certain groups of stakeholders e.g. those involved in aquaculture.  Conflict issues were defined, round-table discussions were initiated and compromise agreements negotiated and implemented. Similar efforts are starting to ensure that proposals to deepen and improve the Kandalaksha harbour do not conflict with the goals of the Kandalaksha State Reserve.  In many of these cases the RSHU team have acted as moderators or as a third party and have helped to facilitate the consensus building process.

Do the project activities include an effective and efficient communication process?

Fully

Effective communication has been a key component of the project activities and has included one-on-one discussions and dialogues, seminars and meetings.  There has also been extensive media coverage of the project activities, this has included radio and television programmes, newspaper articles and leaflets.  In this respect the UNESCO sponsorship helps to get the attention of the media. A team from the Murman State TV and Radio Company participated in the assessment field visit to Kandalaksha (16-19th July 2002) and will produce a programme based on the visit to be aired in September 2002.  In addition, a press conference was held in Murmansk at the end of the assessment visit (19th July 2002) to highlight the project activities.  

Assessment team describing some of their 
findings during a press conference in Murmansk,
19th July 2002

Are the project activities culturally respectful?

Partially

Many of the people living in the Kola Peninsula are not from this area, but have moved there, often in search of higher paying jobs. In order to survive they have had to develop special characteristics such as self-sufficiency and independence.  Thus, partly as a result of the climatic rigors of the Arctic north, people native to the area and outsiders have become integrated to a large extent, and cultural traditions therefore have to be viewed in this special context.  The project activities have included cultural traditions and other issues concerning the Pomors who are native to this area.  

Do the project activities take into account gender and/or sensitivity issues?

Fully

While the project was not designed to focus on gender or sensitive issues, they have been fully taken into account within the activities.  In the Russian North, men and women undergo the same hardships and often do similar jobs, e.g. women sometimes do heavy work such as road building.  Other sensitive issues have been included, e.g. the Kandalaksha Children’s Summer Camp also includes children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds and they are also involved in the project activities.  

Do the project activities strengthen local identities?

Partially

The project activities, in helping stakeholder groups solve their own problems, also help to promote self-sufficiency, and thereby strengthen local identity. Many of the stakeholders, including those from the private sector and the local administration, expressed appreciation for the project and its various activities and took personal pride in being associated with the RSHU and UNESCO.

Do the project activities shape national legal policy?

Partially

The project activities are closely followed by the Russian Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology in Moscow, and the project is seen as a testing ground for the Ministry’s integrated coastal management programme.  The Ministry is directly involved in the development of a new national law for integrated coastal management and thus the project activities contribute to the discussions, both for and against, the new law.  The project activities have helped to shape policy at a more local level, e.g. they are contributing to the preparation of an Ecological Code for the City of Kandalaksha.  In addition, after the annual seminars, proposals for action are put forward to the Kandalaksha City Administration.

Do the project activities encompass the regional dimension?

Slightly

In the context of this project, the regional (international) dimension encompasses the Barents Region, which includes the northern parts of Norway, Finland and Sweden as well as regions of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk.  (In Russia, the regional dimension is viewed as an administrative zone).  The project is at too early a stage to have included the regional dimension, although the recently created UNESCO-CSI university twinning network, which includes universities from Spain, Portugal, Italy, Latvia and the RSHU in Russia, will strengthen this characteristic.  

Do the project activities provide for human rights?

Slightly

The project activities take into account the local Pomors, who in some of the more isolated villages of the Kola Peninsula, depend on natural resources in the sea and forest for subsistence.  However, by doing this they are in violation of several laws.  Thus the project contributes to addressing basic human rights of access to food, clothing, and housing, Article 25.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights [1].  

Have the project activities been documented?

Fully (9)

The project activities have been fully documented. Besides the documents mentioned at the beginning of this assessment, others are listed in Annex I.  The documentation includes scientific reports, reports of seminars, published academic papers, leaflets, compact discs and videotapes.  There is a need to widen the international visibility of this project by publishing selected material in English as well as in Russian.

Have the project activities been evaluated?

None

This is the first project evaluation.
 
[1] Article 25. 1 Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being if himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the face of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

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Synthesis and list of main issues from the assessment 

  1. While the project activities to date have been fully interdisciplinary and intersectoral, there is scope for including other disciplines (law and anthropology) and involving additional stakeholder groups.
  2. Project activities have focused on scientific descriptions of the situation.  In the future, more emphasis needs to be placed on strengthening cooperation among the stakeholders, conflict mitigation and the joint development of strategies.
  3. Future activities should focus on expanding the project so that it provides real socio-economic benefit for people living in the coastal areas. This might include such benefits as job creation and income generating activities.

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Future project activities 

Future activities have been divided into two groups, those that should be implemented in the near future, and those that can either continue or be considered at a later date.

Activities for immediate implementation:

  1. Update the summary of the field project (last update 5th October 2001).

  2. Prepare two articles for the Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development forum (user name csi, password wise), each 500-750 words long, and each to define and discuss one or more of the wise practices that are emerging from the project activities.

  3. Prepare text in English (50-75 pages in length), photographs and figures for a future UNESCO-CSI publication in the papers/info series, describing the project activities and especially focusing on management aspects.  (A draft table of contents to be agreed by RSHU, UNESCO-Moscow Office and UNESCO-CSI.  The layout and publication of this document will be undertaken by UNESCO-CSI).

  4. Work with the Kandalaksha Administration to establish a working group, including representatives of government, NGOs, private sector, civil society and youth, to develop a working framework for integrated coastal management in the Kandalaksha Bay area.  This working group would focus on specific issues, e.g.

Stages in this activity would involve:

  1. Strengthen the capacity of the RSHU in small business management, so that in the future these skills can be transferred to stakeholders in the Kandalaksha region.

Other activities:

  1. Assist with the finalisation of the Ecological Code already under preparation by the Kandalaksha City Administration. 

  2. Define and develop wise coastal practices in the Kandalaksha Bay area and prepare public awareness materials in cooperation with local media to disseminate these wise practices.

  3. Continue the RSHU student field practice and research in the Kandalaksha area so that the information base is continually expanded and shared with local stakeholders, and the students continue to benefit from applied research activities.

  4. Build associations within specific stakeholder groups, e.g. between fishers, people involved in aquaculture, fish processors and fish marketers.

  5. Work with the Kandalaksha State Reserve and other initiatives to map the sensitivity of the coastal area.  

Annex I

List of Additional Publications Relating to the Project Activities

Klimchuk, V.G., Shwets, O.P. 1998. Practical aspects of commercial trout breeding. 2nd International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas,’ Kandalaksha, 1997. Published by RSHU, pp 220-225 (English and Russian).

Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukyanov, S., Shilin, M., Plink, N., Gogoberidze, G. 1997. Socio-economic aspects of coastal zone development in the Northern Seas Region. The Baltic Floating University: Training through research in the Baltic, Barents and White Seas.  IOC Technical Series No 53 UNESCO 1998, pp 41–45, (English).

Kluikov, Ye. Yu., Lukyanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B., Lazareva, M.A. 1996. Ecological studies in the eastern Gulf of Kandalaksha: an essential service for planning and managing socio-economic, coastal pursuits.  BFU Research Bulletin, no. 2, pp 54–56 (English).

Kluikov, Ye. Yu., Lukyanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B, Khaimina, O.V., Borovkov, V.A., Isayev, N.A. 1996. The impact of the Kislogubskaya tidal power plant on the ecology of Kislaya Bay with reference to the socio-economic development of the Murman coast of the Barents Sea. BFU Research Bulletin, no. 2, pp 42–53 (English).

Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Korotkina, S.V., Lukjanov, S.V. 1998. Socio-ecological aspects of coastal zone development of the Northern Seas. 2nd International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas,’ Kandalaksha, 1997. Published by RSHU, pp 8–21 (English and Russian).

Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukjanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B., Khaimina, O.V. 1998. Distribution features of hydrological, hydrochemical and hydrobiological characteristics in the freshened-water gulfs of the White and Barents Seas.  2nd International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas,’ Kandalaksha, 1997. Published by RSHU, pp 118–133 (English and Russian).

Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukjanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B. 1998. Problems of scientific support of coastal zone sustainable development in the White and Barents Seas. 2nd International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas.’ Kandalaksha, 1997. Published by RSHU, pp 142–151 (English and Russian).

Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukjanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B., Khaimina, O.V.  1999. Ecological and hydrometeorological support of coastal zone sustainable development in the Kandalaksha Gulf, the White Sea. BFU Research Bulletin, no. 3, pp 73–76 (English).

Lukyanov, S.V., Shilin, M.B., Belenko, S.V., Ivanov, V.V., Mandryka, O.N., Pnyushkov, A.V. 2002.  Impact ecological monitoring at the sites of the new harbour construction.  UNESCO Baltic Floating University Bulletin no. 4-5, pp 109-119.

Plink, N. 1998. Training and education in integrated coastal zone management. Ocean & Coastal Management, Special Issue ‘Management of the Russian Arctic Seas,’ vol. 41, no. 2-3, pp 273-279, (English).   

Plink, N. L. 1999. Specific features of integrated coastal management methodology. 3rd  International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas,’ Kandalaksha, 1998. Published by RSHU, pp 8–21 (English and Russian).

Plink, N., Kluikov, Ye.Yu. 1999.  Regional approach of the coastal management methodology. (Abstract). Regional Seminar ‘Optimization of marine bioresources and integrated management of the Barents Sea coast.’ Murmansk, MMBI (Russian).

Pogrebov, V.B., Shilin, M.B. 2001. Ecological monitoring of the coastal zone of Arctic Seas (Textbook). SPb, Gidrometeoizdat,  95 pp (Russian).

Shilin, M. 1998. Radioactive contamination of Russia’s Northern Seas: how to evaluate a real treat. The Monitor, vol. 4, no. 4, pp 52–53 (English).

Shilin, M.B. 1999. The condition of the benthic communities at the head of the Kandalaksha Gulf. 3rd International Workshop ‘Rational exploitation of the coastal zone of the Northern Seas,’ Kandalaksha, 1998. Published by RSHU, pp 196–209 (English and Russian).

Shilin, M.B., Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukjanov, S.V., Khaimina, O.V.  1997. Training in rational exploitation of coastal zone of the Northern Seas. 1st International Seminar on ‘Teaching integrated coastal management.’ SPb, RSHU, pp 33 – 37 (English).

Shilin, M., Kluikov, Ye., Lukjanov, S., Khaimina, O. 2000. Towards sustainable development of the White Sea Region. International Conference on ‘Integrated coastal area management and its integration with marine science’ (Abstracts). SPb, RSHU, pp 7 (in Russian and English).

Shilin, M.B., Kluikov, Ye.Yu., Lukjanov, S.V., Liebermann, R.J.  2001. Ecological, social, and economic investigations in the coastal zone of the White and Barents Seas. 8th Regional Scientific and Practical Conference ‘Problems of investigation, rational use, and protection of the nature resources of the White Sea,’ Arkhangelsk, ‘Pravda Severa,’ pp 234–236 (Russian only).  

Introduction Activities Publications Search
Wise Practices Regions Themes