in coastal regions and in small islands
|SECTION II||NETWORKING PILOT PROJECTS||CSI info 10|
OF NETWORK GOALS
A. Sandberg, Tromsø University, Norway
me one provocative observation before I address the Nordic-Baltic Network.
As seen from north of the Arctic Circle, people are not always degrading
the environment. In fact, in many instances, people are enhancing the
environment. We have what is called the coastal cultural landscapes which
very often hold a larger biodiversity than the coastal wilderness.
unwise practice for northern countries is to allow or promote rural
depopulation of the coast. This leads sometimes to a loss of coastal
diversity. For instance, the degradation of habitat of the Eider duck,
which is a human-enhanced environment, leads to fewer ducks. Even salmon
stock enhancement suffers when people disappear. So people are necessary
when we discuss ecology.
Nordic-Baltic Network is a long-term project because co-operation between
countries has to build upon trust and confidence. This develops slowly.
Our experience is that when you discuss the sustainable management of
resources, this affects national constitutional issues, i.e. how a
particular country is structured. That means people have to trust each
other in order to discuss the constitutional dilemmas relating to their
respective countries. I am sure you are familiar with these discussions.
network today consists of five Nordic and three Baltic countries and we
expect expansion in the Baltic area, including Russia (i.e. St Petersburg
and Kaliningrad), Poland and Germany. It consists of scientists and
trainers in CZM,
local level managers and planners and central policy-makers, both
facilitating, but also sometimes making CZM
have had two meetings so far, one in 1997 in Oslo where we agreed on items
that should be brought to fruition in 1998, and one in 1998, in Jurmala,
Latvia. A third meeting is
planned in Frederikstad in May 1999. We started a process of
synthesizing country experiences in coastal development in 1997.
are so many coastal development projects in the region, in particular at
the municipal level, some being implemented, some not. In western and
northern Europe, there are 38 EU
demonstration projects, which are to be summed up in the Spring of 1999.
We even have provincial coastal plans which try to go beyond the level of
municipalities. One of the pressing issues in planning and management
along the Atlantic and Baltic coasts is the growth of aquaculture which is
stressing ecosystems and, to a certain extent, coastal societies.
is time to start work synthesizing experiences from different countries,
their legal foundation and institutional set-up. It is a step beyond a
case study approach. These comparisons bring further analytical depth to
scientists. Other countries’ experiences place a different perspective
on individual problems. They also provide a chance for policy-makers to
develop more effective policies (i.e. more transparency and less
transaction costs) and may allow devolution and empowerment of coastal
communities if successful.
example of eight small countries co-operating among themselves and
exchanging experiences in coastal zone planning and management, may be
copied and applied elsewhere.
INVOLVING INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND INTERACTIVE TRAINING FOR
SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT IN LATVIA
R. Ernsteins, Centre for Environmental Sciences and Management Studies, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia
Government plans envisage the provision of long-term sustainability
through balanced agricultural, industrial and traditionally based
development, while simultaneously involving such new elements as green
tourism, maximal environmental pollution prevention, further promotion of
traditional local culture (devoting
special concern to the national minorities), and the introduction of
environmentally sound technologies into major domains of local production
speaking, the situation is fragile because of the former Soviet Union
border zone regime (about 30 km from the Baltic Sea coast). This has
resulted in specific conditions for the local regions where their closed
character and limited entrance possibilities, on the one hand; and their
protected nature and rare species, on the other hand, created obstacles
for development. Nowadays, the authorities have all the responsibilities
but not enough experience, skills or knowledge. In many cases they must
start their planning from the “zero” point, as they have insufficient
infrastructure, few finances and not enough industrial or agricultural
production capacities in their territories. Therefore, present conditions
are limiting them in the flexible use of market economy advantages.
GOVERNMENTAL POLICY AND PRACTICE FOR SUSTAINABLE
National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP) for Latvia was approved by the
government in 1995. A set of priorities was identified for investments in
the environmental sector; these included water, air, waste and nature
protection fields, as well as sustainable development projects. The
for the Protection of the Baltic Sea Environment has launched an
integrated coastal zone
management investment programme. These programmes are co-financed from different
national and international sources; local municipalities contribute 10%. The
decisions of the international funding institutions are more and more
based on an investment programme approach and not on single projects.
following is a short overview of on-going integrated coastal zone
management projects by/under the Ministry of Environmental Protection and
Regional Development of Latvia (VARAM) financed mainly by PHARE
and the World Bank. The main emphasis is placed on the development of the
nature management project for the potential protected coastal territories,
e.g. Slitere National Park, Kemeri National Park, Engure Nature, as well
as development of ecotourism and GIS applications.
Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project (financed by EU
Latvia and Lithuania, finished this year. The whole project has been
selected as the European Coastal Zone demonstration project and has raised
order to facilitate realization of the municipal project VARAM
is planning to sign a “Memorandum of Understanding” identifying
responsibilities and obligations of all parties. The distribution of
information and the involvement of the municipalities in the complete
project cycle, including supervision and public awareness, should be
ensured. There is obviously a growing demand for interdisciplinary
research and interactive training. The Centre for Environmental Science
and Management Studies (CESAMS) is playing a prominent role in these
INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR
SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT (SCD)
the CESAMS, a
multidisciplinary unit at the University of Latvia, there are ongoing
cross-sectoral socio-environmental research and development projects in
environmental awareness and public participation. These include
environmental problem-solving and development of Local Agenda 21
implementation at the different government levels: rural municipalities,
groups/partnerships of rural municipalities, towns and districts.
INTERACTIVE EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR
SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT
interactive self-training seminar “Sustainable Development and Democracy
in Latvian Municipalities” in 1996/97, was conducted for different
municipal levels and different target groups (teachers, NGOs,
politicians, entrepreneurs, farmers, etc.).
and environmental management for coastal areas have been mutually
integrated through the Master’s degree study programme and other
postgraduate training programmes and courses. Postgraduate students coming
from municipalities and environmental authorities are doing their field
studies and M.Sc.
theses in coastal areas. The data obtained through the research activities
has been applied to develop guidelines for the wise management of selected
coastal area ecosystems.
INTER-MUNICIPAL CO-OPERATION FOR SUSTAINABLE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT
and training experience from developmental projects in Latvian
municipalities, particularly coastal territories, provides some general
conclusions relating to the transfer and application of environmental
knowledge to local authorities.
can conclude that local municipalities are not prepared and are being
overloaded by everyday practicalities. They are seldom able to require,
receive, discuss and include environmental knowledge for development
activities in their territories. Unfortunately, the research community and
environmental authorities have not enough experience or motivation to
transfer and communicate even existing knowledge to local municipalities,
both the decision makers and the public.
local public rarely have sufficient representation by NGOs,
and are not satisfactorily informed. Subsequently, the existing gap
between understanding and co-operation, by all actors, is leading towards
“learning by doing” management.
is also recognized that regional development programmes and projects, as
well as laws and administrative changes in the Republic of Latvia, are
only at the very beginning of their implementation. A certain degree of
confusion and instability exists.
practice the current urgent interests of municipalities may contradict the
long-term interests of environmental protection specialists, often leading
to a top-down approach for local environmental management without real
dialogue. Recently a small number of regional and local NGOs,
professional associations (bio-dynamic agriculture, tourism, etc.), mass
media and other new actors have emerged and might have important roles to
DEVELOPMENT OF WISE PRACTICES FOR SUSTAINABLE
of positive pilot case studies as “success stories” or “wise
practices”, to be disseminated in both printed form and during seminars,
is of high value.
training programmes, for local leadership and for other representatives of
local municipalities, are of great value and crucial for success. These
programmes are for active, young and modern leaders of local
municipalities, groups of employees and interested persons, grass-root NGOs,
and local mass media.
local projects are listed below:
“Cranberry” in Rucava: an alternative agriculture project;
on thatched roofs in Rucava: using reeds from Lake Pape;
education project involving municipalities in the River Bartava
Watermill: co-operative project for power generation using turbines;
planning in Bartava and related projects involving nine local municipalities;
– Ange – PHARE
Project: public participation project.
J. Baerenholdt, Geography Department, Roskilde University, Denmark
presentation outlined some general ideas from the UNESCO
(MOST) CCPP, which is an international, comparative social science project
focusing on localities in the circumpolar north (Canada, Greenland, Iceland,
Faroe Islands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia). The project is
about social changes, which are related to the challenges of integration of
a non-local character. In other words: the threat of marginalization in “globalization”.
specific interest to CSI,
MOST case studies include North Atlantic
fisheries, where resources, stakeholders and markets are often non-local,
due to the mobility and change of fish stocks, fish quotas (especially in
the case of “Individually Transferable Quotas”) and fish companies.
Competition exists between countries and localities as they partly depend
on the same resources, resource management systems, companies and markets.
a recent book, we have defined “coping strategies” as guiding
principles. Coping strategies are:
Innovative (responses to global restructuring)
Collective, with a face-to-face basis
Active and meaningful, forming identity
main research question is: how are local linkages (between firms,
authorities, voluntary organizations etc.) empowering local people to
master non-local markets, state/regional authorities and organizations?
definitions and this research question should be seen in the context of
the specific problems we are facing in the Circumpolar North, which are
marginalization and depopulation of resource-based regions. Therefore the
approach focuses on how to restructure local economies in relation to
non-local resources, non-local stakeholders and non-local markets.
the CCPP users strategy conference in Isafjordur in Iceland, March 1998,
there were local municipal practitioners and researchers from 12 different
localities in Canada, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway,
Sweden, Finland and Russia. A common experience seems to be that success
of locality development has to do with local control of four different
forms of “capital”:
capital (co-operation, associations and networks)
capital (local control of industries and finance through savings banks,
local banks and other financial arrangements committed to locality
capital (educational and technological standards)
capital (control with access to vital natural resources)
have some good Nordic cases but we also have localities hidden by crises
due to lack of economic and especially social capital (in Russia) and lack
of natural capital (fish closure in Labrador and Newfoundland). In this
context, special emphasis can be put on the CCPP
case study on Teriberka
on the Murman coast of the Murmansk region of Russia as this locality
could also be interesting for CSI.
the CCPP, the following results can
development of knowledge (not blueprints) in the form of structured
reports of cases of coping strategies, which will make it possible for
“users” of this knowledge to learn about the concrete experience of
others in similar situations, and to transmit ideas. In addition, we could
try to influence regional policies.
there is the possibility of networking between the localities, where the
networks of research can facilitate direct co-operation between municipal
authorities, associations and firms, including exchange of personnel. And
there could be possibilities for co-operative action in economic,
political and cultural domains, but this has to be controlled by local
SMALL HISTORICAL COASTAL CITIES: AN INTER-REGIONAL NETWORK OF SUPPORT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
LEARNT FROM THE ESSAOUIRA
OF THE RAMPARTS OF THE WEST BASTION
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT FOR RESTORING THE
the terrestrial side, the project is co-sponsored by the Municipality and
the Office of the Secretary of State for Cultural Affairs. The objective
of the project is to renew the plaster of the wall of the city of
Essaouira. The plaster on the wall has begun to crumble away because the
lime has been poorly slaked, and the plaster, which should have contained
lime paste, was made of whitewash. Consequently the plaster dries too
rapidly and does not adhere to the wall.
normal procedure to follow during such works consists of the establishment
of a “CPS” (in
French, Cahier de Prescriptions Spécifiques – architect’s work-site plan containing
detailed specific instructions, measurements etc.). The Heritage
Directorate receives open bids for the selection of a company, and of a
private architect to oversee the project in collaboration with the
historical monuments inspector of Essaouira.
cause of the problems mentioned above are:
CPS listed the composition of the plaster, i.e. the elements and
materials to be mixed as well as their quantities. But the CPS did not
explain the method for obtaining an essential element, the lime paste.
CPS also did not provide a methodology for achieving the desired
result, in this case a series of fine layers, spaced out time-wise to
permit proper drying and adherence.
The joint commission (of the municipality, province, public works and
historical monument inspection) responsible for follow-up requested that
the contractor redo the work at his own expense. The work was done again,
but according to the experts, Alain Charles Perrot (chief architect of
historical monuments in Paris) and Claude Monteil (director of the
“compagnons du devoir” – an order of skilled craftsmen in France),
who have seen the work redone, the situation is still unsatisfactory
because the work was done hastily, not sufficiently respecting the
this experience, two conclusions can be drawn regarding “poor
practices”. First, there was an attempt to associate two directly
opposing logics: restoration which requires strict adherence to proper
techniques, and fine detailed and time-consuming work; and the employment
of a private company, whose motivation is to finish the work as quickly as
possible for financial reasons. The second conclusion is that the workers
involved did not have the proper training for the restoration of
historical monuments. In reality, the “culture of restoration” has not
yet become ingrained. Therefore one must closely supervise the workers, at
least during the initial “pilot” phase on site.
the seaward side of the ramparts, the crumbling wall gave rise to deep
cracks and cavities in the underlying foundation rocks, caused by waves
and the chemical corrosive action of waste water and acid dumped into the
efforts using cement have had a negative effect (the cement breaks away,
taking with it parts of the wall).
missions have examined the problem. They agree on the need to provide
long-term protection for the wall. This can be accomplished by putting in
place a structure which would fill in the empty space between the rocky
reefs located about 300 m from the wall.
more urgently, they emphasize the need for a common methodology. Thus
consultations are called for amongst the different specialists to propose
a method for the provisional protection of the work site, a method which
is both effective and which takes into account tidal movements. Their
first conclusion was that the work at the base of the wall and on the
seaward side of the wall should wait until spring. In the meantime, a plan
should be worked out to continue the work on the parapet-walkway and the
now and springtime, the plaster and lime materials should be tested on the
accessible parts of the wall to see how these materials react to exposure
on the seaward side during the winter. Next spring, several approaches
should be tested on small parts.
such a complex work site, an experimental approach is the only
possibility. In order to rapidly define a methodology which can be applied
to the whole wall, one must increase the types of experiments using
various methods and materials.
THE WEST BASTION
restoration project is being carried out by the Municipality in collaboration
with the Province, Agenda 21, the French Embassy,
ADEFRAM and the “compagnons du devoir”. The work began at the end of February
and should be completed by the end of December.
originality of this activity is that it is conceived as a “learners
site”. The apprentices are supervised continuously by the
representatives of the different partners mentioned earlier and by the
“compagnons du devoir”. All observers agreed on the quality of the
work. The restoration is being carried out strictly according to the rules
of the trade.
methodology adopted has facilitated, on the one hand, a daily checking by
professionals and, on the other hand, training for apprentices who thus
will be able to perform more professionally at other work sites. It also
means a new source of earnings for the youth of the city. At this point,
it would be better to help young people to set up their own companies.
these examples, I have tried to demonstrate that in every experience there
are “good practices” and “bad practices”. The former are important
in that they will serve as models for the other cities of Morocco or for
the ones selected from the network of coastal cities co-ordinated by
UNESCO; I think the “bad practices” have more value, since at local
level they allow us to realign our sights and to remove the factors that
have caused failure. This could help our partners save time and not be
victims of the same mistakes. One hopes that during the coming workshop we
will be able to learn about the experiences of the network’s cities.
it seems that the restoration of historical monuments is a complex
operation – very expensive, requiring professional qualifications and,
above all, the time for implementation. This “culture of restoration”
in Essaouira is still in the embryonic stage. The goal appears to be
attainable, given the awareness of the authorities and of the local
population as to the importance of the preservation of monuments for the
promotion and economic development of the city.
SMALL HISTORIC COASTAL TOWN OF OMISALJ,
case study on Omisalj on the North Adriatic Sea was developed with the
co-operation of the University of Venice, the Faculty of Agronomy of
Gemble (Belgium) and the Faculty of Architecture of Zagreb (Croatia). The
sites that have been studied and which we are presently using to define
the final project, are very interesting examples relevant to the theme of
“Small historic coastal towns”.
case of Omisalj is geographically representative of other towns in Italy,
such as Venice, Syracuse, Augusta, Notto, Otranto, Brindisi and Tarento. A
case study is planned for the town of Kotor in Montenegro. This project
will result in a partnership between the University of Genoa, the Faculty
of Architecture of Florence and the Polytechnic of Milan. The main
objective is to encourage a transdisciplinary approach in order to create
integrated projects with the municipality, the regional government and the
in Croatia, is situated in the north of the Adriatic. The site allows us
to define the general geographic characteristics which categorise, as far
as the environmental situation is concerned, homogenous and heterogeneous
Omisalj case demonstrates the existence of Mediterranean historic towns
that have managed to maintain their symbolic value. However, there is no
connection between the development of tourism and the historical heritage.
Indeed, the development of the petro-chemical and steel industry in the
urban zones has led to pollution problems and risks of explosion. Although
historic sites are enclaves in these industrial zones, they remain
extraordinary marine landscapes. However, these conditions are not
specific to Omisalj.
of a map of the site shows the town, situated on the island of Kerke, the
biggest in Croatia. The town centre is medieval, with Venitian style
architecture. Tourism has recently been developed in the area and the
population has left the town centre to be housed in a new residential
zone. Then there is the industrial zone and the Fulsinum archeological
enclave, which is a very important example of the ancient Roman regime,
and finally, the nature reserves with its lake and marshes.
characteristics are also apparent in Venice, Syracuse etc. and are typical
of the development of Adriatic coastal towns and generally in the
can one do? In the first phase it is necessary to develop green belts in
the industrial zones, shift dangerous industrial zones to more appropriate
areas, relocate the population to historic zones and develop tourism and
ecotourism in nature reserves.
Omisalj case allows us to make the following general proposals:
a positive fiscal policy with flexible terms and jurisdiction;
industrial technological innovations;
networks between archeological sites and physically participate in the
defense of the archeological heritage;
urban planning and the restoration of historic town centres;
about the necessary legal modifications to give foreigners the opportunity
to buy houses in the historic town centre – the current legal system
governing private property in Croatia causes problems;
a green belt in industrial zones and prepare lists of local environmental
practices concern defining geographical homogenous zones and then
establishing geographical categories such as:
Diversified urban coastal zones with great environmental problems – one
can only envisage practical methodology and interventions in these zones;
Vast coastal zones of high environmental interest, for example, coastal
towns where marshes and lagoons are still well preserved;
Totally urbanized coastal towns, which have no environmental value.
definition of homogenous zones allows us to set environmental guidelines
through transdisciplinary methodology, identify local collaborators,
undertake impact studies and also involve the participation of the
presentations illustrate two different approaches: on the one hand a local
project, which is also part of a global integrated activity enacted by a
local government and, on the other hand, a scientific approach based on
studies from a number of small historic coastal
cities. In both
approaches, the inhabitants’ perception of the projects were important
clarification was sought regarding coastal towns; three categories were
proposed: mixed zones where historic and industrial landscapes are
present, linear urban zones (e.g. between Venice and Bari) and coastal
towns with high quality natural resources.
was further pointed out that building restoration in small historic towns
in the Mediterranean served a dual purpose, firstly preserving the
cultural heritage, and secondly improving the living conditions of people
residing in these small historic towns through the provision of employment
and shelter – some of the poorest people live close to the towns’
JAMAICA AND HAITI
FISHERS LOOK OUTWARDS:
J. Wiener, Fondation pour la protection de la biodiversité marine, Port au Prince, Haïti
December 1996, UNESCO, through its unit on Coastal Regions and Small
Islands (CSI), organized a seminar in Haiti with the goal of gathering
local information and support for promoting the protection and sustainable
use of Haiti’s coastal and marine resources. One of the recommendations
at the end of this meeting was that there be an exchange of ideas among
Haitian and Jamaican fishers in order to share thoughts on
“wise-practices” being developed in each country.
counterpart organizations helped to execute this programme: the Caribbean Coastal
Area Management Foundation (CCAM) in Jamaica,
Fondation pour la Protection de la Biodiversité Marine
(FoProBiM) in Haiti.
the technical and financial support of UNESCO, the marine transportation provided
by the Jamaican Coast Guard, fuel provided by Jamaican fuel companies, and the
unflagging efforts of CCAM and FoProBiM,
the exchange was scheduled for 25
August to 5 September 1998.
UNESCO Office (Haiti) as well as the Haitian National Commission to UNESCO
channelling the request to obtain official government approval from the relevant
ministries for the entry of a foreign military vessel into Haitian
territorial waters. Arrangements were made with Haitian immigration
officials and the Port Authority to meet the Coast Guard vessel upon
arrival at its destination, Wahoo Bay Beach Hotel, a few kilometres north
of the village of Luly, as well as for its departure from Haiti, and the
return of the Haitians one week later. The Jamaican consul helped with the
speedy preparation of visas.
Haitian villages were located in the Gulf of la Gonâve and included:
Grand Gonâve, Léogane and Janti along the southern coast, and Mitan,
Cont and Luly on the northern coast. Each of these villages is represented
in COOPECHE, the departmental fishing federation, and each provided at
least one participant. The Directors of Fisheries and the Natural
Resources Division of the Ministry of Agriculture were invited, but were
unable to participate due to prior engagements.
OBJECTIVE OF THE EXCHANGE
exchange was organized to provide an opportunity, for the fishers and
those engaged in activities directly related to fishing, to exchange ideas
on practices which may be of value to their island neighbours, and to help
stem continued resource destruction and degradation. Hence, the basic
function was an exchange of “wise practices”.
HAITIAN REACTION TO THE EXCHANGE
Haitians who participated in the exchange were of the universal opinion
that this type of activity was extremely valuable in terms of the exchange
of ideas, methods, and the formation of friendships. They felt that they
had much to learn from the Jamaicans in terms of the management of coastal
and marine resources, and improving fishing methods.
centred around the differences in government involvement in resource
management and protection. In Jamaica it was noted that there is active
participation by a large variety of private and public sector institutions
including the National Resource Conservation Authority (NRCA) and the
Jamaica Co-operative Union. The NRCA has taken its role in regulation and
management of marine resources seriously. On the other hand, most Haitian
institutions, be they public or private (especially in the public sector),
have, as some of the Haitian fishers put it, “resigned their role as
functioning bodies”. In other words, the Haitian fisher feels that
she/he has been abandoned by the government bodies which should be at the
forefront of coastal and marine management activities. Therefore the
Haitian fishers feel that it is up to them to organize themselves into
bodies which will look out for their own needs and play the regulatory
role neglected by the government.
Jamaicans found many of the Haitian fishing methods archaic, including the
fact that most Haitians still have to row (scull) or sail to fishing spots
whereas almost every Jamaican fisher has access to at least one outboard
engine. One technique which almost brought out anger on the part of the
Jamaicans was the fact that sometimes nets are laid out for up to three
days in Haiti, this was thought to be almost criminal by the Jamaicans;
who usually lay out their nets for no more than three hours. The waste
caused by the Haitian method is often significant whereas with the
Jamaican method it is reduced to a minimum. The Haitians were very
impressed with the size of the Jamaican mangrove areas visited. They began
to understand the true impact of Haitian pollution on other countries with
the discovery of Haitian trash on several beaches in Jamaica.
fishpots observed were quite similar to those made in Haiti except that
the traps in Haiti are made almost entirely of bamboo, while those in
Jamaica are structured in wood but are covered with chicken wire.
factor that particularly interested the Haitians was the NRCA’s choice
of fishers themselves to be game wardens; to manage and protect the
fisheries. The Haitians were very interested in having this type of
activity in Haiti; but with serious institutional weaknesses in both the
Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, and in the Ministry of
Environment, engaging in this type of activity in Haiti will remain a
remote possibility for the foreseeable future. The Haitian fishers did
comment on such things as having all fishers registered with the Ministry
of Agriculture. This is already required by law but has never been
Haitians were impressed by the style and capabilities of the Jamaican
fishing boats, and are interested in acquiring one for trials in Haiti.
of the co-operatives or associations in Haiti participate in several
different types of activities in their local communities, i.e. in schools,
in churches, and providing loans. The Jamaican co-operatives do not get
involved in the marketing of fish; they concentrate on the sale of fishing
materials. The Haitians took note of the possibility of having the Haitian
co-operatives concentrate their efforts more on one activity (fishing).
Jamaican fishers insurance programme was discussed at the meeting, held in
the Portland Bight Fisheries Management Council (PBFMC). Considerable
interest was shown by the Haitian fishers regarding the possibility of
having a similar type of programme designed in Haiti. However, this
programme is still in the stage of having “its bugs worked out” in
Jamaica. Hence, it is believed to be wiser to wait until a properly
functioning programme is developed in Jamaica, which the Haitians may then
modify to their own needs.
taken by participants are to be distributed at the next meeting of their
were interested in seeing a continuation of this type of activity with the
help of UNESCO (CSI);
of a plan in order to increase enforcement of fishing regulations by the
MARNDR (Ministry of Agriculture – Haiti);
on the possibilities of a bi-national programme with UNEP.
should be made into the possibilities of:
insurance programme for the Haitian fishers;
of the Haitian fishers co-operative or association structure for a more
targeted approach aimed specifically at fisheries-related issues;
Jamaican fishers come to Haiti again in order to help improve certain
the participation of women in fishing-related activities, especially
a Jamaican fishing boat for trials in Haiti.