or extension of land by natural forces, such as waves, currents, and winds;
a build-up of sand.
of almost exclusively aquatic plants including seaweeds and their fresh-water
allies. They range in size from single cell forms to giant seaweeds several
group of islands.
made by human workmanship, usually for a practical purpose.
of gases that surround the earth or other planetary body.
or near circular coral reef appearing as a low coral island or a ring
of closely spaced coral islets encircling a shallow lagoon in which there
is no pre-existing land, and surrounded by deep water of the open sea,
formed above an underwater volcano.
of the force exerted by the atmosphere used to forecast the weather.
reef roughly parallel to the shore and separated from it by a lagoon of
considerable depth and width, or in some cases by several kilometres of
of loose material extending from the low water mark to a point landward
where either the topography abruptly changes or permanent vegetation first
appears. Beaches may be composed of clay, silt, sand, gravel, cobbles,
boulders, coral pieces or any combination of these.
process of replenishing a beach with material from another source which
lies either inland or may be dredged from offshore.
construction to protect beaches from erosion.
of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.
with a shell composed of two distinct and usually movable parts that open
mixed with seawater.
that retains or prevents the sliding of land or protects land from water
which helps forward a chemical reaction without itself suffering any chemical
pigment contained in the leaves of plants.
thread-shaped body, which carries the genetic code, found in the nuclei
of all living cells.
bank at the water’s edge, usually composed primarily of rock.
weather conditions of a region.
rounded stone, 77-256 mm (3-10 inches) in diameter, or a size between
that of a tennis ball and that of a volleyball.
of interaction involving the joint utilisation of food, although the relationship
is rarely equal, generally one member provides the food and the other
consumes some part of it.
process by which the environment is protected and resources are used wisely.
of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the liquid or
gas; associated with large-scale, vertical movements within the atmosphere,
or movement and mixing of water masses in the ocean, or vertical and lateral
movements of a subcrustal material in the earth’s mantle.
agreement, often involving different countries.
and meet at a point.
tropical marine ecosystem dominated by soft and hard (stony) corals, anemones
and sea fans. Stony corals are microscopic animals with an outer skeleton
of calcium carbonate that form colonies and are responsible for reef building.
usually aquatic, with two pairs of antennae on the head, jointed legs
and a hard shell.
air, water or other fluid in a given direction.
depositional area formed at the mouth of a river.
found near the sea/ocean bottom.
algae with shells made of silica.
plankton that include luminescent forms, important in marine food chains.
going in different directions, branching off.
scraping, digging, draglining, suction dredging to remove sand, silt,
rock or other underwater sea bottom material.
net often miles in extent arranged to drift with the tide or current and
buoyed-up by floats or attached to a boat.
of wind-blown sand in ridges or mounds that lie landward of the beach
and usually parallel to the shoreline.
tremor of the earth’s crust which originates naturally and below the surface.
of the biological community and the physical environment in a specific
studies, which predict the effects of a development project on the environment.
They also provide plans for the mitigation of the adverse impacts.
circle on the surface of the earth, lying midway between the poles.
away of the land, usually by the action of natural forces.
out of a species.
shortage of food in an area; starvation, hunger.
plane in rocks, along which the rock-mass on the one side has been moved
relative to the rock-mass on the other side.
added to the soil to increase its productivity.
scheme of feeding relationships, which unites members of a biological
community. The number of stages in a chain does not usually exceed five,
and usually involve plants, herbivores and one or two successive sets
diagram which shows feeding relationships within a food chain, e.g. that
herbivores are smaller, more numerous and faster breeding than the predators
that feed on them.
of feeding relationships, resembling a web, which unite the member species
of a biological community, and within which species may occupy different
positions during their lives.
or discarded material e.g. garbage, found floating on the surface of the
sea or washed up on the beach.
smaller than destroyer; cruiser; fast sailing ship smaller than ship of
reef closely associated with the land; it may be joined directly to the
beach or separated from the beach by a shallow, narrow lagoon.
system where there is a line of separation between cold and warm air masses,
usually associated with strong winds.
trench cut by a plough.
rectangular container filled with stones, often used in sea defense structures
or to provide slope stability.
hereditary material, which make up a chromosome.
of the composition, history and structure of the earth’s crust.
in the earth’s temperature due to man’s activities e.g. the use of fossil
fuels, and/or natural processes e.g. air pollution resulting from volcanic
eruptions, thus increasing the Greenhouse
the role the earth’s atmosphere plays in insulating and warming the earth’s
surface. Without this effect the earth would be a frozen planet with an
average temperature on the surface of about -18°C (about 0°F). The greenhouse
effect is a natural function; however, it is impacted by man’s activities,
which are leading to an increase in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and water vapor, the so-called “greenhouse
gases”, which contribute to Global
protection structure built perpendicular to the shore, designed to trap
natural surroundings and conditions of plants and animals.
possessed as a result of one’s natural situation or birth; something transmitted
by or acquired from a predecessor.
low pressure weather system with sustained surface wind speeds that exceed
118 km/hr (74 mph).
in the sea surface on an open coast, often resulting from a hurricane.
of being such that a person is bound to an employer for a given period
belong naturally to.
projecting into the sea for the purpose of mooring boats.
of creating new, dry land on the seabed.
fishing involving a heavy fishing line, which may be several miles long
and has baited hooks in series.
rock consisting essentially of calcium carbonate.
occurring molten rock, generated within the earth’s crust or in the upper
mantle and capable of intruding (being thrust into) the earth’s crust
or penetrating it and erupting through volcanic craters.
or sedimentary rocks, which have been altered by high temperature, strong
pressure or by a combination of these.
study of the weather and of atmospheric processes.
crossing between Africa and the Americas where countless enslaved Africans
died en route.
name for a 60,000 km-long system of ridges on the sea floor separating
crustal plates; divergent boundaries (see Divergence)
moving from one region to another especially at regular seasonal intervals.
to reduce or alleviate potentially harmful impacts.
name for members of a phylum (sub-section of the animal kingdom) of soft-bodied
animals, with bodies usually covered by a hard external shell. Some molluscs,
like the octopus, do not possess a shell.
recording over time.
of traditional stories embodying ancient religious ideas.
small range occurring twice per lunar month during quarter moon phases.
See also Tide.
wind regime in the Caribbean region, the winds blow from directions between
north and southeast.
of superheated gases generated during a volcanic eruption.
salts essential to life.
of the atmosphere between 10 and 40 km above the earth’s surface, called
the stratosphere, where ozone molecules absorb dangerous ultraviolet radiation
from the sun.
substance formed of partly decayed plant material.
which inhabit the main body of the water mass.
substances used for destroying animal pests in agriculture, forestry,
warfare and home gardens.
or carvings, usually on the surface of rock or caves, created by past
by which green plants form organic compounds from water and carbon dioxide
in the presence of sunlight.
theory whereby the earth’s crust and the upper mantle is divided into
seven large and a few tens of small plates, which float on the middle
mantle and much of the earth’s seismic and volcanic activity occurs at
convergent (see Convergence)
or divergent (see Divergence)
boundaries of these plates.
of contaminating (an environment) especially with man-made waste.
form of aquatic animal.
of organic matter (in the form of living matter, stored food, waste products,
and material taken by consumers), or its equivalent in dry matter, carbon
or energy content, which is accumulated during a given time period.
draft agreement for a treaty; rules of diplomatic procedure.
consisting only of one cell with a well-defined nucleus.
protection structure made with stones laid on a sloping face.
formed by sinking of land between two faults.
or amount of salt in water.
area periodically or continuously flooded by brackish or salt water to
a low depth, characterised by specific plants such as grasses, low plants
and sometimes mangroves.
0.08-4.6 mm (0.003-0.18 inches) in diameter.
of large or small quantities of sand from the beach, by machine or by
hand, usually for building purposes.
height of the sea surface, usually measured over a period of years.
the offshore sea-bottom colonised by seagrasses.
structure built along the shore to prevent erosion and damage by wave
of rock covering a size range from clay to boulders (0.004 mm to 256+
which have been deposited in layers, often by water, and consist of material
worn away from pre-existing rock.
strip of land in immediate contact with the sea.
particles, 0.004-0.08 mm (0.00015-0.003 inches) in diameter.
emitting high-frequency sounds used in locating objects under water by
measuring direct and reflected sound pulses.
large range occurring twice per lunar month during full and new moon phases.
See also Tide.
in the sea surface on an open coast, often resulting from a hurricane.
whereby the edge of one crustal plate descends below the edge of another.
area, frequently flooded and supports vegetation adapted to saturated
soils e.g. mangrove swamp.
that have traveled out of the area in which they were generated.
of dissimilar organisms to their mutual advantage.
processes that build up the earth’s crust and are responsible for its
rising and falling of large bodies of water resulting from the gravitational
attraction of the moon and sun acting on the rotating earth.
of a surface including its relief and the position if its natural and
between two crustal plates formed as they slide past one another in opposite
directions without converging (see Convergence)
or diverging (see Divergence).
vessel that uses an open-mouthed fishing net drawn along the sea bottom.
system forming in tropical latitudes with sustained surface wind speeds
between 61 km/hr and 118 km/hr (38 and 73 mph).
by underwater earthquake or landslide, can rise to great heights and cause
catastrophic damage near coasts.
or quality of being violently disturbed or agitated.
or hill built up by the eruption of molten rock and ash from the earth’s
of the atmosphere at a certain time and a certain place.
formed in the area in which the wind is blowing.