in coastal regions and in small islands
Coastal region and small island papers 6
waste management in Jakarta
growing population and an increase in urban commerce and industry have given
Jakarta a serious waste problem. Solid waste management has been identified as
an important issue and while attention has traditionally focused on the
provision of infrastructure, facilities and equipment, alternative approaches
merit consideration. These include the promotion of waste reduction, reuse and
'Clean up Jakarta Bay' initiative was launched in 1996 with UNESCO support. This
campaign united local community groups, NGOs,
governmental organizations and the media through three main activities: solid
waste monitoring; waste composting and re-cycling; and environmental
education for all.
WASTE MONITORING IN JAKARTA
Kirai Indonesia (NGO)
in co-operation with UNESCO, analysed and summarised waste production in
Jakarta, based on data provided by the city government. Figure 3 shows a
comprehensive flow diagram of waste management in Jakarta.
Solid waste composition
|Source: Jakarta City government|
day the urban population of Jabotabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi)
generates over 35,000 m3
of garbage (enough to cover a soccer pitch to a depth
of over 5 m), of which 26,000 m3
is from the city of Jakarta.
initial study concluded that paper and plastics make up the bulk of waste and
that waste production has increased in line with population growth. Between 1990
and 1995 the fraction of paper in the garbage rose from 8.28% to 10.18%;
plastics rose from 5.54% to 7.86%. The rise in plastic content is thought to be
related to increases in consumer goods, which are plastic wrapped.
waste is generated by households (52%), traditional and temporary markets (17%),
commercial areas (15%), industrial areas (15%) and the streets (1%). The garbage
composition in Jakarta in 1995 was 74% compostable, organic matter and 26% non-compostable
matter (paper, wood, rubber, leather, plastic, metal, glass, etc.), see Table 3.
Waste collection methods
of the garbage produced in Jakarta is collected by the local community,
scavengers, the local government and the private sector. The remaining 17% is
thrown into the rivers. Outside the city of Jakarta, only about 50% of the waste
generated is collected, and 20% of that does not find its way to a disposal site
– which in any case may only be a smouldering open dump.
collection methods necessarily involve some or all of the following steps:
collection from households or other premises; consolidation in temporary storage
Penumpukan Sementara –
TPS); transport to a transfer station; and transport to a final disposal site.
waste reaches temporary storage sites (large bins, enclosed sites, market areas,
or designated roadside areas) in a variety of ways:
in kampung areas householders place rubbish in containers at the front of their
property, where it is collected by handcart. Householders pay for their rubbish
to be collected 2 to 4 times a week depending on local circumstances;
solid waste is taken by the householder or trader to the disposal site as often
a rubbish truck regularly passes through a community giving a musical signal,
the household waste is brought out by individual householders and dumped into
in higher income residential areas, a waste disposal truck comes directly to
each household and removes the waste stored in bins; such a system is only
available in areas that are easily accessible by truck.
are two types of traditional market: permanent and temporary. Solid waste is
removed from permanent market areas by the Market Authority using open trucks
and is taken to temporary or final disposal sites. Waste from temporary markets
is usually collected by local government workers using handcarts and taken to
the nearest temporary storage site. Some temporary markets are serviced by
Cleaning Department workers using open trucks.
to collection, solid waste is dumped near the market area on the roadside, on
open land or in open concrete bins. The high content of biodegradable matter of
market waste makes this unsightly, creates unpleasant odours and is unsanitary.
Waste often spreads from these sites into drains causing blockages leading to
most permanent markets are adjacent to roads and accessible by trucks they are
ideal sites for the use of covered steel bins serviced by 'roll-arm' trucks.
Smaller, less accessible traditional markets may still need to be serviced by
handcart collection, but should be provided with covered bins for temporary
and industrial areas
waste from small commercial and industrial areas is usually collected by
handcart and taken directly to a temporary storage site. Larger commercial and
industrial areas are serviced by trucks that transfer the waste directly to
temporary or final disposal sites. As with households and market areas, the
greatest threat to health and sanitation is the use of open concrete bins for
temporary disposal of waste. These need to be progressively replaced with
covered bins of appropriate size for the next transfer stage.
residential areas, each householder is responsible for the removal of any solid
waste from the front of their house. Streets in non-residential areas, such as
commercial areas and main roads, are swept by local government employees. The
cost of street sweeping is high, Jakarta spends about 40% of its solid waste
budget on this. Ways to reduce this cost without lowering the standards of
cleanliness need to be investigated.
are two principal means of solid waste disposal in the Jabotabek region: open
dumping and sanitary landfill. Low swampy areas are commonly chosen for open
dumping. The height of the dumped waste is usually two to four metres. Cove ring
soil is seldom used at the time of disposal, but a final cove ring is usually
applied later. Open dumping is an apparently low cost waste disposal option,
but only in the short term. In the medium and long-term it is costly due to
inefficient land use and the remedial effort needed to make the land available
for other uses. The sanitary landfill method is specifically aimed at minimising
the adverse impacts of open dumping. Table 4 compares open dumping and sanitary
Comparison of open
presence of garbage poses serious health problems. Organic material may be a
breeding ground for disease. Chemical pollutants once absorbed into the soil
cannot be removed without considerable cost and their entry into the human food
chain is inevitable and unhealthy.
disposal of some of Jakarta's solid garbage into the sea has resulted in a
covering of plastic on the sea floor in the Seribu Islands. This affects benthic
communities such as coral reefs, seagrasses and the species that use these
habitats as breeding grounds. This in turn has economic consequences for the
fishers and other inhabitants of the archipelago.
deal adequately with the garbage produced daily in Jakarta, the city needs a
well organised, well funded waste management programme and infrastructure. In
view of current economic conditions, this goal is not likely to be achieved in
the short term. The mobility of many of the inhabitants of Jakarta is one of the
reasons why it is hard to ensure adequate management. Since some communities
view flooding as an annual occurrence, they see the water ways as conduits
washing away the accumulated rubbish. For the majority of Jakarta's residents,
waste is viewed as a commercial and industrial problem, rather than a household
and community problem. Aesthetically, the problem of garbage may be understood,
but rarely does this transfer to an appreciation of the environmental
repercussions of improper waste disposal.
COMMUNITY-BASED WASTE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES
Household waste composting and paper recycling
waste generated in urban areas has been increasing in quantity, and the problem
cannot be solved merely by supplying more equipment, personnel and budget for
solid waste management. Waste reduction, recycling and re-use needs to be
introduced and promoted.
the municipal waste in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, 74% consists of organic
matter, which can easily be processed into compost using simple technology, with
little investment, thereby saving money and simultaneously protecting the
waste containing organic refuse is subjected to a process of decomposition under
aerobic conditions at a temperature of 40–60°C,
it becomes compost. The resulting compost can be used for agricultural land,
parks and even shrimp farming as an organic fertiliser or soil conditioner. At
least 30–60 days are required for the decomposition process. Although the
maintenance and control of the process appears simple, the production of good
quality compost depends on the selection of suitable organic waste, minimising
foreign matter and the maintenance of ideal fermentation conditions over a long
period of time.
on the idea that a community is the most important unit for effective waste
management, the project is carrying out a number of waste management and
was provided to NGOs to set up community-based recycling and composting.
Training was given in new waste management practices, which would provide
economic benefits to the participants. Recycling organic matter was the basis of
these community waste management initiatives. Through training in composting,
with and without worms, organic recycling has become available to both
households and markets.
co-operation with the Kirai Indonesia Foundation, the project has, since 1996,
concentrated activity in Banjarsari, Kelurahan Cilandak, south Jakarta. At
present Banjarsari is probably one of the few neighbourhoods in the Jakarta
Metropolitan Area where the inhabitants are highly aware of environmental
providing training in paper recycling, composting and environmental education,
the people of Banjarsari were encouraged to set up a small scale Environmental
Committee or Komite
which represents the neighbourhood. Then a small-scale recycling centre, located
on 'idle' land, was established. Here young people recycle paper and carry out
composting. The community has the task of providing household organic waste and
paper for the centre. The young people also plant medicinal herbs in the
compost, and further planting will be encouraged in the kampungs. A
community-greening programme will be a further phase of the project in
Banjarsari, Kapuk Muara
and Kronjo. This is urgently needed since people in the kampung areas live in
cramped houses lacking ventilation, and need green open spaces.
and Kronjo. This is urgently needed since people in the kampung areas live in
cramped houses lacking ventilation, and need green open spaces.
make cotton bags and other handmade products out of flour sacks at the centre.
There is also a show room for the products (recycled paper products, compost,
cotton bags etc.), which are sold to the public. So far, the project has been
successful, the environment is greener, adolescents and women have become more
productive, and young people have gone on short training courses using the
profits generated. Recently a marketing co-operative has been established.
the success of solid waste management in Banjarsari, a second community-based
recycling centre in Kapuk Muara in north Jakarta was initiated in 1999. This
centre is a place for learning and a venue where the community can discuss
environmental problems. Adolescents have already produced recycled paper
products and compost.
As a result of the establishment of these two centres, 19 different groups, including students, unemployed people and women's groups, were trained in paper recycling and composting in 1999. Demand is increasing for training in such alternative income-generating activities.
complement these efforts, a waste reduction programme needs to be developed.
Some industries, distributors, department stores and supermarkets have been
consulted and are interested in supporting the programme, as it will help them
save money. The next step will be to prepare the formal policy, regulations and
awareness campaigns. Industrialists need to develop more efficient processes
that produce less waste. Meanwhile, traders and services need to minimise
packaging and wrapping, and consumers need to develop greater environmental
awareness and the will to refuse to buy commodities that produce too much
packaging. Political support will be an important part of such a programme,
since waste collection is run by the private sector, thus from a business
viewpoint, more waste equals more profit.
Traditional market waste management
Jakarta there are two types of markets: formal markets are government-built,
planned markets designed by the City's Market Spatial Planning Committee;
informal markets are those that spontaneously expand from street stalls and over
time begin to resemble the managed markets. The daily waste produced by
traditional markets in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is considerable, about
September 1997, in association with the NGO Kirai, the project started a waste
management and composting activity in Bintaro traditional market, which would
eventually provide a model for sustainable waste management in traditional
courses for organic matter recycling were organised in the market. Two
different-coloured baskets were provided for organic and inorganic waste
collection. The market's organic waste was recycled using the 'heap' method.
Compost was produced, providing income for local vendors. In Bintaro Market two
people were responsible for collecting organic waste and its subsequent
composting. By the end of the two-month project a 40% reduction in total waste
problem with implementing a waste management project, such as the one at Bintaro,
is finding the space within the market for organic recycling. Bintaro was chosen
because it had space. Informal markets are more likely to have sufficient space;
formal markets have not been planned for recycling. In order for organic
recycling to be incorporated into all the markets of Jakarta , it must become a
part of the Jakarta municipality (DKI) market plans so that the extra space is
created when ever markets are built or renovated. The model of waste management
adopted at Bintaro market has not yet been included in DKI's Market Spatial
Planning. Future success therefore depends on the political will of
decision-makers and other stakeholders at a regional level to change the waste
management of markets.
seminar on traditional market waste management and recycling was held for
decision-makers and the public through a programme called PROPASIH (Program Pasar Bersih –
clean market programme).
in marshalling political support also hamper the re-assessment of Jakarta's
waste collection system. Under the current system there are no incentives for
improved efficiency in waste management since the production of less waste does
not lead to a reduction in costs. In Bintaro market four trucks must still be
paid for, even though only three are filled. This is largely due to waste
collection being a business run by the private sector.
research needs to be conducted to determine potential sales outlets for the
organic compost produced by Bintaro; gardening companies which service wealthy
areas of Jakarta or greenhouses which have a retail facility may be suitable
buyers. In order for the public market composting activities to advance beyond
their present externally funded status, a means of turning the organic compost
into a viable source of income must be found.
November 1999, a second composting pilot project was started in Pluit
traditional market, north Jakarta. An environmental campaign was carried out in
the market by 40 high school students. They talked to vendors and customers and
helped to separate the market waste, explaining the difference between
biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. The idea of this activity is to
popularise recycling ideas, to educate young people to see the real problems in
their community and, at the same time, take an active part in the project. In
January 2000 the Pluit Market manager was awarded a prize by the Jakarta City
government for the waste management scheme adopted at the market.
an average of 1,400 m3 of rubbish being thrown into Jakarta's rivers everyday,
it is clear that the problem of waste management is not simply a matter of
garbage collection, but also of public education. Education in alternative
practices for those living around rivers will help reduce dumping of waste into
Jakarta Bay project has programmes in the three forms of environmental education
Agenda 21 (Chapter 36) of the
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED): re-orienting
education towards sustainable development; increasing public awareness; and
4.3.1. School programmes
education is not uncommon within the Indonesian school system, but like many new
areas of study it does not receive the necessary funding and training required.
Environmental education essentially involves many areas of study, from natural
sciences to history and philosophy. It is most successful if integrated into
existing subjects rather than as an independent or optional course.
Ministry of Education and Culture has an integrated programme to develop greater
environmental awareness at the school level. The programme consists of two
Kependudukan dan Lingkungan Hidup).
This is a broad-based environmental curriculum, where the environment is
incorporated into existing subjects and the subject content is uniform
Lingkungan Kehidupan Jakarta).
This is a local environment programme (in this case Jakarta), which includes
specific environmental subjects based on the local area. Its content varies from
one region to another, and it is planned to implement it throughout Indonesia.
programmes have been carried out with very limited resources and budgets, and
have consequently had little impact. About 26,000 teachers and 27 provincial
management units have been trained, compared to a total teacher population in
Indonesia of nearly 2.4 million.
education must include formal and informal modes. UNESCO can offer assistance
with both avenues – firstly, by contributing environmental education modules
to a task force examining the national curriculum, which is due to change in
2004. Secondly, assistance can be given through informal education activities,
which will add a new dimension.
In order for environmental education to be successful in schools, the teachers themselves must first be taught. Following a workshop on Pari Island, a significant need was identified for teaching material that would allow for an environmental component to be included in the subjects already taught. UNESCO proposes to offer an in-service workshop for teachers in the Seribu Islands and Kronjo. This would include an extra two days at the teachers' annual general meeting to provide the tools, and training on the use of the teaching resources, as well as to create a support network for environmental education among the islands.
of the primary aims of the Jakarta Bay Project is to improve environmental
awareness among young people living in Jakarta and the Seribu Islands, for a
better understanding of the environment will lead to its protection. Education
and training objectives for youth fit within a broader policy of 'education for
all'. To date this project's focus has been on communities affected by waste
problems in Jakarta and those communities which place stress on the coastal
marine environment, both on the islands and along the rivers which feed into
incorporating environmental topics into the teaching of other subjects, at the
high school level there is a need to develop focused studies to combat coastal
environmental destruction. Such a programme should provide general background
information on the interrelationship between urban activities and coastal
environmental quality, and specifically the following:
the natural and urban environment in the coastal area, and the consequences of
environmental, social, and economic changes;
people and the coastal zone, including those living in urban and rural areas of
large land-masses, and people living in small islands (Seribu Islands);
Jakarta Metropolitan Area growth patterns and impacts on coastal environmental
water quality in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area;
system hydrology ;
urban solid wastes;
urban ecology in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area.
Informal education programmes
field and action-orientated activities are an important education mode, which
can complement formal school programmes.
field courses have been organised for young people, the objectives of which are
apply knowledge of coastal regions, small islands and associated systems,
through the analysis of existing problems;
promote interaction between high schools;
encourage the collection, recording and dissemination of information relating to
the environment year by year;
encourage the implementation of standardised monitoring and protocols to enable
the consistent collection and use of data.
field courses were organised in 1999 on coastal environmental education.
Participants included students, teachers and young journalists.
The first field course was held in July 1999 to show the environmental
degradation in Jakarta Bay and the Seribu Islands to the participants, and to
discuss ways to solve the problems of Jakarta City and Jakarta Bay. Fifty-four
participants (students and teachers) joined the field study to Bidadari Island.
The second field course, organised in co-operation with the Muara Indonesia
Foundation and the Sea World aquarium in Ancol, in November 1999, involved 105
participants (46 students and 21 teachers from 17 schools, 5 participants from
Kapuk Muara's community-based self-help group, 6 journalists, 3 private TV
station crews, 2 participants from Riau Province and one from Kalimantan).
co-operation with Antara (an Indonesian News Agency), a monthly bulletin in
Indonesian entitled Lautku
(My ocean) has
been published since August 1999. Target readers are students and young fishers.
The aim is to encourage young people to know more about coastal and marine
environments, enhance their interest in marine science, increase their knowledge
about the sea and cultivate a healthy attitude towards the sea.
project has also supported action-orientated education. After a number of
environmental education sessions and training in composting and paper recycling,
the students of Senior Public High School No. 34 in Jakarta began to recycle
their paper. Through the students' science club they now regularly produce very
artistic paper. They also carry out some composting, although not in large
quantities since they prefer to recycle and sell paper. They reported that there
are many other schools interested in following their example, and they are
willing to teach other groups. In bazaars and fairs, they have attracted
visitors by demonstrating how to recycle paper, and marketing is no problem.
Recycling programmes for schools is a good way to educate students to be wise in
facing environmental problems.