Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Coastal region and small island papers 6

Conclusions and recommendations 


Research conducted in Jakarta Bay and in the City of Jakarta identified waste management as a pressing need. The intersectoral UNESCO-CSI project acts as a means of unifying the agencies involved in combating this problem: local community groups, NGOs, government organizations and the media. A 'Clean up Jakarta Bay' campaign was organised in parts of Jakarta, mainland coastal areas, the urban core and the Seribu Islands. This was followed by grass-roots programmes on waste management, recycling and composting. There was widespread support within the communities for these activities, which provided some income for the principal participants.

A more general issue was the need to create awareness of Jakarta's waste problem among the wider community. This is being achieved by developing public-oriented programmes on waste management, reporting on new techniques and successes within the projects underway, and complementary environmental awareness campaigns. However, even among those directly involved in waste management, e.g. in the Bintaro Market composting project, it has been difficult to change attitudes, and this has hampered some activities. Waste should be regarded as a resource that can be of significant benefit to the community at large.

Improving the transfer of information to the public about new practices can only occur through interaction between the various groups involved, government agencies, NGOs and the media. The media is really the most important potential partner in achieving the goal of information transfer. Good examples of Jakarta communities involved in recycling activities should form the basis for a larger campaign encouraging other waste management initiatives. Such campaigns need to target specific groups such as health system workers, municipal cleaning services, neighbourhood groups, polluters. Raising social awareness is necessary to maintain the continuity of community-based waste management initiatives. 

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The most important step in policy reform is to acknowledge and encourage the role of the community in solid waste management. Communities involved in waste processing, for the most part, live in poor conditions and would benefit greatly from additional legal protection from polluters and from statutory sanitary measures. Other objectives include land provision for community waste processing units; mandatory waste-separating at the domestic level; and compulsory composting for municipal markets. Waste management should begin with economic and environmental assessments of the communities' contributions to waste reduction. Subsequently, a system of financial support may be needed to implement waste management guidelines at the regional level. Macro-level policy reform in the area of the environment would bring quicker and more widespread results, e.g. initiatives to encourage the use of organic fertilisers by agro-producers.

The project activities emphasised the importance of environmental education and recycling networks among schools in Jakarta. This could be achieved by organising inter-school workshops, and perhaps joint marketing and selling of the paper products produced by schools. Expansion beyond Jakarta to other high schools within Indonesia and the creation of a national network may allow the activities to go beyond this project, so that they become an independent self-financing initiative. It is recommended that waste recycling topics are included in the curriculum within the wider framework of environmental education. The non-formal education activities, e.g. field courses and training, carried out within the project are important tools to enhance environmental awareness among youth.

Involvement with the international youth recycling organization may also encourage the expansion of the recycling projects in Jakarta. The publication YARN (Youth and Recycling Newsletter), a product of UNESCO's division of Youth and Sports Activities, was developed to encourage recycling among young people throughout the world, and to provide a forum for sharing experiences and the lessons learnt. The possibility of establishing informal ties with schools involved in recycling in other countries may benefit high schools in Jakarta.

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The need for improved marketing of paper products and compost was clearly identified, since currently a marketing framework does not exist. For local communities, there is the possibility of marketing their products through co-operatives; and to further this objective the project recently organised training courses on the 'Establishment and management of co-operatives'. An association of recycled paper producers will be established soon to help marketing. It is essential that economic incentives accompany the first stage of future projects, to ensure motivation and enthusiasm among the participants. Overall, the paper and organic recycling has been very successful, combining the need for waste management with education on the environment and on the general threat to Jakarta Bay and the Seribu Islands. 


Poverty is one reason for a decline in environmental quality, and the negative feedback effect means that a decline in the environment's carrying capacity may increase poverty. Environmental management and poverty alleviation are therefore important co-dependent targets for sustainable development of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area.

Based on the studies and project activities, it is clear that the future initiatives in community-based development should include the four sectors of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area: small islands (Seribu Islands), mainland coastal areas, the urban core and upstream zones. Community-based development activities in the Seribu Islands should focus on improving and preserving the environmental quality of small islands with a high population density, such as Pari, Kelapa, Panggang, Tidung, Untung Jawa and Harapan Islands; and policy analysis and information sharing, which support the devolution of authority to the local level.

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Conditions in the mainland coastal areas could be improved by balancing the farming or culture of marine resources (e.g. fish, seaweed and pearls) with conservation goals through demonstrations in kampungs of community-based coastal resource management; and the devolution of authority to a local level, as recommended for the Seribu Islands.

In urban areas, such as Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi and Depok, the target group are the inhabitants of kampungs, who should be assisted with job creation for the poor through solid waste management activities; retraining workers and their families in small-scale commercial enterprises, marketing and entrepreneurship; and expanding job opportunities for women and high school drop-outs. Environmental education needs to be included in formal and informal educational programmes.

The majority of the population living upstream from Jakarta work as farmers. Activities in this area should focus on soil conservation and pest management in rice growing and market gardening, through training small-scale rice farmers and market gardeners in environmentally sound agricultural practices; documenting the economic benefits of an integrated farming system; and working with NGOs in environmental management and advocacy.

To ensure the sustainability of the ongoing pilot project, a project document for the integrated environmental development of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area has been prepared. While the overall approach for future action will focus particularly at the community level through social empowerment and poverty alleviation activities, co-operation with government organizations and the development of public-private partnerships are complementary foci.

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