in coastal regions and in small islands
Coastal region and small island papers 6
conducted in Jakarta Bay and in the City of Jakarta identified waste management
as a pressing need. The intersectoral UNESCO-CSI project acts as a means of
unifying the agencies involved in combating this problem: local community
groups, NGOs, government organizations and the media. A 'Clean up Jakarta Bay'
campaign was organised in parts of Jakarta, mainland coastal areas, the urban
core and the Seribu Islands. This was followed by grass-roots programmes on
waste management, recycling and composting. There was widespread support within
the communities for these activities, which provided some income for the
more general issue was the need to create awareness of Jakarta's waste problem
among the wider community. This is being achieved by developing public-oriented
programmes on waste management, reporting on new techniques and successes within
the projects underway, and complementary environmental awareness campaigns.
However, even among those directly involved in waste management, e.g. in the
Bintaro Market composting project, it has been difficult to change attitudes,
and this has hampered some activities. Waste should be regarded as a resource
that can be of significant benefit to the community at large.
the transfer of information to the public about new practices can only occur
through interaction between the various groups involved, government agencies, NGOs and the media. The media is really the most important potential partner in
achieving the goal of information transfer. Good examples of Jakarta communities
involved in recycling activities should form the basis for a larger campaign
encouraging other waste management initiatives. Such campaigns need to target
specific groups such as health system workers, municipal cleaning services,
neighbourhood groups, polluters. Raising social awareness is necessary to
maintain the continuity of community-based waste management initiatives.
The most important step in policy reform is to acknowledge and encourage the role of the community in solid waste management. Communities involved in waste processing, for the most part, live in poor conditions and would benefit greatly from additional legal protection from polluters and from statutory sanitary measures. Other objectives include land provision for community waste processing units; mandatory waste-separating at the domestic level; and compulsory composting for municipal markets. Waste management should begin with economic and environmental assessments of the communities' contributions to waste reduction. Subsequently, a system of financial support may be needed to implement waste management guidelines at the regional level. Macro-level policy reform in the area of the environment would bring quicker and more widespread results, e.g. initiatives to encourage the use of organic fertilisers by agro-producers.
project activities emphasised the importance of environmental education and
recycling networks among schools in Jakarta. This could be achieved by
organising inter-school workshops, and perhaps joint marketing and selling of
the paper products produced by schools. Expansion beyond Jakarta to other high
schools within Indonesia and the creation of a national network may allow the
activities to go beyond this project, so that they become an independent
self-financing initiative. It is recommended that waste recycling topics are
included in the curriculum within the wider framework of environmental
education. The non-formal education activities, e.g. field courses and training,
carried out within the project are important tools to enhance environmental
awareness among youth.
with the international youth recycling organization may also encourage the
expansion of the recycling projects in Jakarta. The publication YARN (Youth and Recycling Newsletter), a product of UNESCO's
division of Youth and Sports Activities, was developed to encourage recycling
among young people throughout the world, and to provide a forum for sharing
experiences and the lessons learnt. The possibility of establishing informal
ties with schools involved in recycling in other countries may benefit high
schools in Jakarta.
need for improved marketing of paper products and compost was clearly
identified, since currently a marketing framework does not exist. For local
communities, there is the possibility of marketing their products through
co-operatives; and to further this objective the project recently organised
training courses on the 'Establishment and management of co-operatives'. An
association of recycled paper producers will be established soon to help
marketing. It is essential that economic incentives accompany the first stage of
future projects, to ensure motivation and enthusiasm among the participants.
Overall, the paper and organic recycling has been very successful, combining the
need for waste management with education on the environment and on the general
threat to Jakarta Bay and the Seribu Islands.
FOR PROPOSED NEW ACTIVITIES
is one reason for a decline in environmental quality, and the negative feedback
effect means that a decline in the environment's carrying capacity may increase
poverty. Environmental management and poverty alleviation are therefore
important co-dependent targets for sustainable development of the Jakarta
on the studies and project activities, it is clear that the future initiatives
in community-based development should include the four sectors of the Jakarta
Metropolitan Area: small islands (Seribu Islands), mainland coastal areas, the
urban core and upstream zones. Community-based development activities in the
Seribu Islands should focus on improving and preserving the environmental
quality of small islands with a high population density, such as Pari, Kelapa,
Panggang, Tidung, Untung Jawa and Harapan Islands; and policy analysis and
information sharing, which support the devolution of authority to the local
in the mainland coastal areas could be improved by balancing the farming or
culture of marine resources (e.g. fish, seaweed and pearls) with conservation
goals through demonstrations in kampungs of community-based coastal resource
management; and the devolution of authority to a local level, as recommended for
the Seribu Islands.
urban areas, such as Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi and Depok, the target
group are the inhabitants of kampungs, who should be assisted with job creation
for the poor through solid waste management activities; retraining workers and
their families in small-scale commercial enterprises, marketing and
entrepreneurship; and expanding job opportunities for women and high school
drop-outs. Environmental education needs to be included in formal and informal
majority of the population living upstream from Jakarta work as farmers.
Activities in this area should focus on soil conservation and pest management in
rice growing and market gardening, through training small-scale rice farmers and
market gardeners in environmentally sound agricultural practices; documenting
the economic benefits of an integrated farming system; and working with NGOs in
environmental management and advocacy.
ensure the sustainability of the ongoing pilot project, a project document for
the integrated environmental development of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area has
been prepared. While the overall approach for future action will focus
particularly at the community level through social empowerment and poverty
alleviation activities, co-operation with government organizations and the
development of public-private partnerships are complementary foci.