Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Coastal region and small island papers 6


Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, is a large tropical megacity with a population of more than 20 million people. Jakarta Bay, which lies north of Jakarta and within which there is a chain of small islands, the Kepulauan Seribu, is heavily impacted by human activities taking place in and around the city as well as those taking place in the bay itself. The impacts from the city include solid and liquid waste from domestic, industrial and agricultural activities resulting in pollution and eutrophication of the bay waters. Activities within the bay itself include sand and coral mining, oil exploration, fishing and tourism. As a result of these activities, several islands within the Kepulauan Seribu (referred to as the Seribu Islands in this report) have disappeared within recent decades and others are seriously threatened.

Since an international workshop on 'Human-induced damage to coral reefs' in 1985, UNESCO has been collaborating with the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia LIPI) and other scientific institutions to collect information on the status of coral reefs in the Seribu Islands. A baseline coral reef survey was conducted during this workshop in 1985. During an international workshop in 1995 on 'Coral reef evaluation, Pulau Seribu' a second reef survey was conducted. The results showed a dramatic decline in reef health over the ten year period.

In 1996, the intersectoral platform for Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands (CSI) was launched by UNESCO. This initiative, which seeks to develop wise coastal practices for sustainable living, has three modalities: pilot projects, university chairs/twinning, and a web-based discussion forum on 'Wise Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development' (user name = csi, password = wise). Jakarta Bay was selected the same year as a pilot project site, and the activities and results of the project between 1996 and 1999 are described in this report.

One of the first activities, in 1996, was to hold a workshop on coral reef management together with LIPI and The Indonesian National News Agency Antara. Key sections of the presentations and discussions from this workshop are included in Section 2 of this report, which describes the impacts of human activities on the biophysical status of Jakarta Bay and the Seribu Islands. One of the recommendations of the workshop was to develop community-based solid waste management through recycling and composting, and this has become one of the major activities of the pilot project.

Prior to commencing activities, a socio-economic survey was conducted of three selected communities (two urban and one rural) in the Jakarta Bay coastal zone, and of the community in Pari Island in the Seribu Islands. The results of these surveys are described in Section 3 of this report.

Following on the recommendations of the 1996 workshop, and in co-operation with the UNESCO Jakarta Office and several NGOs, the project has undertaken several activities relating to community-based solid waste management. These are described in Section 4 of this report, and include firstly an assessment of waste production in Jakarta; secondly, household and traditional market waste composting, and paper recycling; and thirdly environmental education both school programmes and informal initiatives.

Crowded conditions
 in Jakarta's
waterfront areas

During a workshop in 1997 to establish a framework for sustainable development in the Seribu Islands, one of the priority areas recommended for action was to develop alternative livelihoods for the islanders. This has become another major focus of the project and Section 5 of this report describes these activities which include duck and seaweed farming in Pari Island. A further development of the 'alternative livelihood concept' has been to develop self-help groups in communities in Jakarta, this is also discussed in Section 5.

In 1999, a panel discussion was held, organised together with LIPI, to develop a concept for coastal city management, specific to Jakarta, which would seek to establish equilibrium between resource exploitation and ecosystem preservation. Major recommendations from this meeting were to encourage co-ordination between sectors and stakeholders, to prepare an environmental management plan, and to increase awareness amongst community, government and private sectors, concerning environmental quality.

The main conclusions and recommendations from the project are described in Section 6. Future activities will maintain the existing themes of community-based development, social empowerment and alleviation of poverty.  

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