in coastal regions and in small islands
Coastal region and small island papers 6
conditions in communities in the Jakarta Bay area and the Seribu Islands
In order to develop a holistic approach to the problems facing Jakarta
Bay and the Seribu Islands, a socio-economic survey was conducted in 1997–1999
with UNESCO support, by several local partners: the Indonesian Institute of
Technology (ITI), the University of Indonesia, and the Bina Swadaya and Muara
Foundations. These surveys included three communities in the Jakarta Bay coastal
zone: Kapuk Muara, Kamal Muara and Kronjo; as well as Pari Island in the Seribu
SURVEY OF COMMUNITIES IN THE JAKARTA BAY AREA
Community social organization
is an urban waterfront community on the Muara Angke River estuary, about
a kilometre from the coast. Administratively, Kapuk Muara is located in
Kecamatan Penjaringan, North Jakarta Municipality. The study area covers about
19 ha, (2.9% of the Kapuk Muara area) where 1,364 families live. The purpose of
the study was to describe the socio-economic conditions, attitudes and
perceptions of the communities with respect to their environment. The study was
conducted by ITI in
The Angke Riverbank has been inhabited for over 50 years. The inhabitants
consist of two principal groups: 'indigenous people', Betawine communities who
have lived on the Angke Riverbank for more than five decades; and new migrants
from other parts of Jakarta or from other areas such as: Central Java (Tegal,
Wonogiri, Solo, Brebes, Semarang and Purwokerto), West Java (Tangerang, Bekasi,
Karawang, Cirebon and Kuningan) and Madura. These migrants settled on the Angke
Riverbank in the 1990s. Most are seasonal migrants who stay in the Jakarta area
during the agricultural slack season. Most of the inhabitants of Kapuk Muara
work in informal sectors as vendors or labourers, generally working between
9–10 hours a day. They live, however, below the poverty line due to their
limited capital and skills.
Many people living along the riverbank scavenge used objects and collect
garbage from the river by boat, which they then sell to a collector or lapak.
Usually scavengers work on the river renting boats, fishing or in construction
work and scavenge only in their spare time.
is an urban community located on the northern coast of Jakarta on the
border between Jakarta and West Java. There are three significant ethnic groups
in Kamal Muara : the Buginese (60%) who are economically dominant; the Javanese
(20%) who are new comers, and the Betawine (20%) who are considered to be
indigenous people. Although they live in segregated areas, they coexist
peacefully. While the new comers live close to the beach, the Betawine people
live in the kampung (inland area). Most people are fishers (65%), others work in
factories (20%) or as traders (15%). A long time ago , about 80% of the people
in this area were fishers. Young people now prefer to work in the factories of
KRONJO is a rural community. The
village is situated north of Tangerang, with a total area of 700 hectares. In
1998 it had a population of approximately 5,963. Administratively, the village
is part of the District of Tangerang. About half of the active population are
fishers, others depend on agriculture. Like Kamal Muara and Kapuk Muara, most of
the inhabitants, especially the fishers, live below the poverty line.
Housing conditions in the three areas reflect the poverty of the
inhabitants. Housing in Kamal Muara falls into two categories, formal and
informal. Formal housing lies on private land and was built with construction
permits; informal housing has no legal basis. On the Angke Riverbank almost 80%
of the houses are semi-permanent, cement or soil floored, with brick and wood
walls. The crowded clusters of buildings are separated by narrow streets
(0.5–1 m wide). Angke River housing can be divided into two categories: houses
on the riverbank and houses on stilts in the river (rumah
panggung). Over the last thirty years the residential area has
increased. The tidal swamp which functioned as a storage reservoir or flood
plain for the Angke River has been filled in and houses now stand on the re
claimed land. None of the houses have a construction permit and they stand on
illegally occupied state land. In the Jakarta Metropolitan Area Urban Plan (RUTRK
1985–2005) this area is destined to be a green corridor along the river. By
applying the 'Clean River Programme' (Program
Kali Bersih – PROKASIH), the Jakarta Municipality has
tried to move people from the area. Some people have received compensation for
their land and buildings but they still live on the Angke Riverbank. They know
that they are there provisionally, but they do not know for how long. Their lack
of capital makes it unlikely that they will be able to afford a house or land
The settlement has been legitimised by the local government (North
Jakarta Municipality) in that it is included in some governmental programmes:
the Donation Programme for Poor Neighbourhoods (Inpres
Desa Tertinggal – IDT), Social Safety Net (Jaringan Pengamanan Sosial – JPS),
Kampung Improvement Programme (Muhamad Husni Thamrin Programme). The inhabitants
pay regular household tax (Pajak
Bumi dan Bangunan – PBB) which normally only
applies to permanent constructions; and the Angke Riverbank is serviced by
electricity from the Public Enterprise for Electricity (Perusahaan Listrik Negara – PLN).
The housing in Kamal Muara can be grouped into three categories:
permanent (20%), semi-permanent (23%) and non-permanent (47%). The two latter
categories consist of small houses with leaking roofs, soil floors and bamboo,
or in a few cases old rubble walls. Most houses are on state land; only a few
long-term residents own their own land. Since the area experiences seasonal
floods it is clear that the physical environment is a hazardous one, causing
skin-related problems, particularly in children.
Housing conditions in Kronjo are more organised than in Kamal Muara and
Kapuk Muara. Most fishers live on the riverbank in bamboo houses, some live in
the kampung close to the river, and farmers live in inland areas.
3.1.3. Water supply
Prior to 1997, clean water came from public water containers and hydrants
financed by the Public Enterprise for Water Supply, but since the economic
crisis this service has stopped. Now there is no clean mains water supply in the
Angke Riverbank residential area; people buy clean water from vendors who
deliver it by lorry to their homes. The inhabitants pay 30 rupiahs per litre for
clean water (about 20 times more than people pay in luxury residential areas).
Clean purchased water is only used for drinking and cooking, while groundwater
and Angke River water are used for bathing and washing. Children swim and play
in the river.
Chemical and microbiological analysis results show that the water in
Kapuk Muara is highly contaminated with Escherichia
coli, Salmonella, Shigella, lead, mercury, copper and iron.
The bacteria indicate that the water is polluted by faecal matter. The heavy
metal present in highest concentration in the groundwater is iron at 58 mg/l
(maximum tolerable level is 2.0 mg/l). Other metal pollutants are within the
The river water is used for some commercial food processing, such as 'tempe'
(fermented soybeans) and 'cincau' (food derived from the cincau plant). Processing requires a lot of water.
If mains water or water from street vendors is used, production costs are
higher. According to producers, their product is safe and clean, as they filter
the water before using it.
Although various programmes have been implemented to help the Kamal Muara
community, their standard of living has hardly changed. According to the
residents the provision of clean water is a priority. The scarcity of clean
water is due to the natural conditions of the area and the poverty of its
people. At present, there are three sources: piped water from hydrants, pumped
groundwater and water from shallow wells.
For drinking and cooking, people buy water from street vendors who
collect clean water from the state-owned water company (PAM) hydrant. The
hydrant lies outside the three neighbourhoods under discussion in Tegal Alur
Kelurahan. The price of hydrant water is about 600 rupiahs per tin or 24 rupiahs/l
(one tin contains 25 l).
There are six jet pumps, half are managed by the neighbourhood committee
together with the Mosque, half are managed privately. Pumped groundwater is used
for bathing and washing; it is not used for drinking because it tastes bad. The
better-off pay to have water from the pumps delivered to their homes; others
collect water themselves. People who live near jet pumps use rubber pipes to
transport the water, so they have cheaper access to water than people who live
at a distance.
Since the residential area was formerly swamp land, people have made
shallow wells close to their homes simply by digging 1.5 to 2 m down. The water
quality of these wells is not good and the water is used only for washing and
bathing. During seasonal flooding the wells are unusable as they are polluted by
all kinds of wastes. Once the floods subside, people can use the wells again and
so reduce household water expenses.
Those who have lived on the Angke River for more than 15 years, no longer
use river water to fulfil their daily needs; having seen the river water quality
deteriorate they prefer to collect well water. Meanwhile those inhabitants who
arrived more recently have a different perspective for they are not aware of the
long term deterioration of the river water quality, and the inadequate
freshwater infrastructure forces them to use river water for their daily needs.
3.1.4. Drainage system
In Kapuk Muara and Kamal Muara, the drainage system is in a very bad
condition. The river water is black and has an unpleasant odour because of the
tidal flow and the use of the river as a garbage disposal system for local
household waste. The river is also used to flush out industrial waste, some of
which contains heavy metals. Most of the residential area in Kamal Muara and
Kapuk Muara is two metres below sea level and floods at high tide.
Only 34 of the 422 houses in Kamal Muara have lavatories; no houses in
the other two communities have indoor plumbing. On the Angke Riverbank, people
have a habit of defecating and urinating in the river; public toilets (hanging
toilets) along the river are common. An interesting dimension of hanging toilets
is the social interactions it creates between people in the area. Kronjo
inhabitants defecate in fishponds and on paddy-land near their houses.
Public sanitary units (Mandi-Cuci-Kakus – MCK) built by the community with private or government assistance,
are sometimes supplied with bad quality groundwater (yellowish, smelly, brackish
and polluted). In the study area there are seven public sanitary units to serve
about 2,000 households (29,000 people). Each sanitation unit has two lavatories
and four baths. They are managed by the private sector. In Kamal Muara, there
are 3 public sanitary facilities. One is close to Kamal Raya road, the other two
are in the housing area.
3.1.6. Public health
The economic crisis, which started in 1997, has changed the consumption
patterns of Indonesians in general, including people living in the coastal zone
of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. The price of food has increased three or four
fold since the crisis. Food consumption is therefore less, especially protein,
which has increased in value more than other food products. In areas like Kamal
Muara and Kronjo, people continue to consume enough protein, due to fishing
activities. On the Angke Riverbank, however, most mothers cannot afford food
supplements and depend on their own milk to feed their babies (0–1.5 years).
As mothers do not eat enough protein, their milk production is lowered, and
The most common infectious diseases affecting children are
diarrhoea, influenza, coughs, skin diseases and cholera. People who habitually use
river water for bathing are subject to all kinds of skin diseases, from minor
fungal diseases, e.g. pitiriasis versikolor, to skin infections that suppurate.
Respiratory tract infections are common among children and old people, caused by
humid conditions and cramped living quarters with insufficient sun-light and
On the Angke Riverbank and in Kamal Muara gastrointestinal diseases like
dysentery and cholera are common. They are spread by infected water and poor
sanitation. River water and groundwater both contain high levels of Escherichia coli and Salmonella bacteria.
Although environmental factors are responsible for much of the disease
and ill health suffered by the peoples of north Jakarta, this is not fully
understood by the inhabitants, who believe these diseases are common to all
OF THE SERIBU ISLANDS
Located close to the capital city, the Seribu Islands are exploited in
several ways, from tourism to mining, and from sailing to fishing. While the
region is income generating, some of the current economic activities constitute
a potential threat to the environment.
In 1994 this region, which has a total land mass of 11.8 km2, had a
population of 15,114 (7,774 men and 7,340 women), grouped under 3,165 heads of
families. Between 1989 and 1994 population growth averaged 1.2% annually. The
Regional City Site Planning Unit (RBWK) predicts that by the year 2005 the
population of the Seribu Islands will reach 27,425, or nearly twice its current
population. As a little over half of this total (about 13,000 people) will be of
working age, the issue of job opportunities will become a serious problem in the
Although the archipelago now consists of 105 islands, the population is
concentrated on certain islands. The islands with the largest populations are
Kelapa (3,746), Panggang (2,912), Tidung (2,869), Untung Jawa (1,363) and
Harapan (1,236). The tendency of the population to concentrate on certain
islands is influenced by two factors: the availability of important natural
resources, particularly potable water; and the restricted access to some islands
because of conservation and tourism. Only fourteen islands are inhabited; their
population is thus relatively dense, averaging 1,281 people/km2 Panggang Island,
the sub-district's administrative seat, has the highest population density.
The average educational level of the islanders is rather low. About 50%
drop out of elementary school and very few manage to obtain secondary school
education. The majority of workers are employed in the 'informal' sector, most
(75%) as fishers. Other islanders work as civil servants, construction workers
and merchants, or have jobs in the service sector.
Although there are several other major economic activities in the
archipelago, e.g. mining and tourism, few local workers are involved. In the
last few years light industry has developed. These alternative activities
notwithstanding, there is no real indication that the people of the Seribu
Islands are moving towards a non-fishery based economy. Their background makes
it difficult for them to expand into other sectors.
Research undertaken in 1990 on the region's fishing society by 'Gugus Analisis' (a community group), indicated that 35% of the population were living below the poverty line. Only 40% of the islanders have permanent homes, while 34% live in semi-permanent dwellings and 26% in temporary ones. The villages in the area are still classified as 'backward' by the government.
Men still play the dominant role in the household. Women are limited to
domestic work or to helping their husbands. Their only income-generating role is
in small-scale trading, such as running tiny stalls to provide daily
3.2.1. Socio-economic status of Pari Islanders
Pari Island lies approximately 24 km north of Jakarta. It is home to 118
families (about 350 people). Traditionally, most families relied on fishing for
food and income, but now many people work on seaweed farms. Seaweed cultivation
was initiated with LIPI/UNESCO support and has proved successful due to the
demand for seaweed both nationally and internationally.
Approximately 60 people were interviewed in order to study their social
and economic conditions. The educational level of the respondents was very low;
some had no formal education (20.2%), most only went to primary school, a few
went to intermediate school (7.3%).
Almost everybody stated that their major source of income (90%) came from
seaweed cultivation. A few had additional minor sources of income such as
fishing, trading, boat hire or carpentry. Table 2 shows the average family
income and expenditure. Family income is dependent on the price of seaweed,
which in December 1998 was 5,000 rupiahs/kg for dried-unsalted seaweed and 3,500
rupiahs/kg for the dried-salty seaweed. Most of the family income was spent on
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