Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Coastal region and small island papers 14

Table of contents

Profiles of the contributors
Executive summary


2. Alexandria’s place in history
Ancient Alexandria
The Pharos and the Qait Bey Citadel

International Workshop on Submarine Archaeology and Coastal Management 

Background to the workshop
Workshop organization
Highlights of the workshop discussions
Summaries of the workshop presentations
(For a list of the presentations, see Annex 3)
Session ISpeakers: L. Yehia; M. El-Abbadi; M. Zahran; I. El-Bastawissi
Session II – Speakers: N. Grimal; S. Morcos; H. Halim
Session III – Speakers: H. Tzalas; P. Gallo; A. Zarattini; M. Mineo
Session IV – Speakers: D. Nakashima; F. El-Baz; A. Fanos & O. Frihy
Session V – Speakers: H. Frost; J.-Y. Empereur; D. Aelbrecht, J.-M. Menon & E. Peltier
Session VI – Speakers: F. Goddio; I. Darwish & A. Abdel-Fattah
Session VII – Speakers: N. Tongring & N. Driscoll; I. Negueruela; N. Bonacasa
Session VIII – Speakers: M. El-Gindy; L. Prott; Y. Halim & F. Abou Shouk
Session IX – Speakers: A. El-Gindy; O. Aboul Dahab
Session X – Speakers: M. Fugazzola; E. Khalil & H. Wellmann; O. Frihy & A. Fanos
Session XI – Speakers: V. Sommella; E. Felici; V. Mastone
Workshop results and closure
4. Follow-up activities
Structural assessment of the Qait Bey Citadel
Feasibility study on the establishment of an underwater archaeological museum and management of the Qait Bey Citadel site and the Eastern Harbour
Planning activities and formation of a Consultative Committee for Planning and Follow-up
Marine pollution and urban water management in the Eastern Harbour
Workshop on sustainable development of submarine archaeological sites at the Qait Bey Citadel and the Eastern Harbour
Bibliotheca Alexandrina and other developments
5. Concluding remarks
The need for integrated coastal management
The next stage
6. References and further reading
Annex 1 Workshop organizing committee
Annex 2 List of participants in the international workshop
Annex 3 List of presentations in the international workshop
Annex 4 Working group composition during the international workshop
Annex 5 List of task team members formed by the Consultative Committee for Planning and Follow-up
Annex 6 Summary of presentations – Workshop on the Status of the Pilot Project for Sustainable Development of Submarine Archaeological Sites at the Qait Bey Citadel and the Eastern Harbour, 20–21 November, 1999
Annex 7  Greco-Egyptian underwater archaeological survey near Alexandria by Harry E. Tzalas
List of figures
Figure 1 Positions of harbour installations of ancient Alexandria, superimposed on a chart of the present-day city
Figure 2 Reconstruction of the ancient Pharos Lighthouse
Figure 3 Ground floor plan of the Qait Bey Citadel superimposed on the reconstruction of the ancient Pharos Lighthouse
Figure 4 Cleopatra’s Needle facing the Eastern Harbour, in 19th century Alexandria, before its transport to New York in 1879
Figure 5 Honor Frost and Kamel Abul-Saadat on the Pharos site, during the field work of a UNESCO mission in October 1968
Figure 6 Colossal statue of Goddess Isis from the 3rd century BC (red granite, 7 m long, 25 tons), shown here beside a statue of a man (120 cm long)
Figure 7 Drawing by Kamel Abul-Saadat showing the positions of his discoveries in the Eastern Harbour and around the Qait Bey Citadel
Figure 8 Two interpretations of the Pharos Lighthouse: reconstruction by a scientist, in the early 20th century, as a three-storey building (Thiersch, 1909); and an 18th century engraving of a five-storey building as imagined by artist J. B. Fischer von Erlach
Figure 9 Schematic map of Alexandria showing important sites to be considered within the context of coastal management
Figure 10 Diagram, based on an underwater photograph, showing position of concrete blocks resting on part of the Pharos site
Figure 11 Qait Bey Fort before and after restoration in the 1930s
Figure 12 The Qait Bey Fort and Citadel is presently a popular tourist attraction
Figure 13 Colossal statue of Ptolemy (13 m long) salvaged in separate pieces, the trunk in 1995, the head and arms in 1996; shown at an exhibition ‘La Gloire d’Alexandrie’ at the Petit Palais in Paris, in 1998
Figure 14 Plan of the zone allocated to the Greco-Egyptian underwater archaeological survey, showing the 5 sites of interest
Figure 15 Side-scan sonar mosaic showing elongated features which may represent man-made structures. Two of these features cross at point A. (Vectors indicate the elongated features)
Figure 16 Stone anchor found on site 3 at Ibrahimieh; and artist’s impression of the use of this stone anchor


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