Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Coastal management sourcebooks 1

S U B J E C T
I N D E X

A B C D E F G H I J L M N O P Q R S T U V W

Accretion, see Beach changes.
Accretionary feature,
17, 29, 90, 95.
Artificial reefs,
82- 83.
Artificial seaweed,
82- 83.
o  in Barbados, 82- 83.
Awareness,
10- 11, 85, 100.

Bar, 17, 69, 73, 82, 90, 95.
o  offshore, 57, 82.
Beach changes,
o  accretion, 17, 28, 29, 38, 57, 59, 65, 81, 82, 90.
       in Anguilla,
28.
       in Antigua
28.
o  erosion, 10, 11, 16, 17, 24, 25, 38-44, 53, 57, 58, 77, 78, 80, 81, 85-87, 103.
       hurricane-generated,
24, 25, 27, 28, 30-32, 77.
       in Anguilla, 28,
29, 58.
       in Antigua,
10.
       near inlets, 71-72.
o  erosion indicators, 92- 93, 95.
       in British Virgin Islands,
94, 95.
o  seasonal changes 16-18, 34-36.
       in Barbados,
16- 17.
       in Dominica, 35.
       in Montserrat, 35.
Beach clean-up, 99, 100, 103.
o  international, 100.
Beach definition,
13.
Beachface dewatering,
81- 82.
Beach material,
13, 28, 33-37, 50.
o  in Dominica, 35.
o  in Montserrat, 35.
o  in Saint Vincent, 34.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 34
Beach measurements,
18-20, 27, 29, 94, 97.
Beach mining,
32, 53-56, 69, 73.
o  in Saint Vincent, 54, 55.
Beach nourishment,
20, 31, 37, 42, 43, 48-52, 80.
o  in Anguilla, 52.
o  in British Virgin Islands, 50.
o  in Nevis, 50, 51.
o  renourishment, 48, 51, 52.
Beach ownership, 37, 41, 45,
86, 96.
Beach recovery,
29, 31, 51, 57, 64.
o  in Anguilla, 58.
o  in Dominica, 29.
o  in Nevis, 51.
o  in Saint Lucia, 31.
o  post-hurricane, 29, 31, 32, 36, 57, 93.
Beach size,
18-20, 27, 30, 59, 62, 92, 95.
Beach use,
9, 11, 52, 62, 65, 68, 86, 96, 97, 99-104.
Beach vegetation,
28, 29, 57, 58, 62-68, , 89, 92, 95, 102, 104.
o  in Grenada, 65.
o  revegetation, 61, 62, 100-103.
       in Barbados, 101.
       in British Virgin Islands, 68.
Beachfront property,
11, 18, 25, 27, 28, 30-32, 36, 38-41, 45, 46, 51, 65, 85-97, 102, 103.
Beachrock,
27, 77, 78, 80, 92, 93, 95.
o  in Saint Lucia, 78.
Breakwater, 43, 44.
o  floating, 44.
o  offshore, 23, 43, 44, 75, 77, 78, 80, 83, 91, 92.
Bulkhead,
20-22, 38-41.

Channel stabilization, 22, 23, 72.
o  in Barbados, 23.
Cliffs, 32, 33-34,
61, 85, 88, 89, 95.
Climate change,
86- 87.
Coastal development setback, see Setbacks.
Coastal vanes,
82.
Coastline changes, see Shoreline changes.
Common law, 41.
Community approach , 40, 41.
Community projects,
11, 67, 68, 99-104.
Construction sand, 53, 54, 56,
60.
Co-operative approach,
23, 40, 41, 46, 47, 51, 56.
Coral reefs, 33,
74-80, 104.
o  anchoring, 76, 79.
o  barrier reefs, 75, 91.
o  bleaching, 76.
o  dredging impact, 49, 76, 79, 80.
o  ecosystem, 49, 80.
o  fringing reefs, 75, 91.
o  hurricane damage, 27, 29, 32, 77.
       in Anguilla,
77.
o  interaction with beaches, 17, 29, 32, 33, 75, 77, 91, 92, 95.
o  interaction with wetlands, 70, 73, 76.
o  patch reefs, 75, 91.
o  pollution, 77.
Coral sand, 33,
76.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 34.
Currents, see Ocean currents, Tidal currents.
Cuspate forelands,
17, 90, 95.

Deposition, 22, 28, 34, 35, 57-59, 70-72, 82.
Divers,
76, 79.
Drainage, 69-71, 73,
81- 82.
o  in Nevis, 71.
Dredging, see Offshore dredging.
Dunes,
13, 57-63, 81-84, 85-89, 95.
o  definition, 57.
o  development on, 60, 61, 89.
o  driving on, 65.
o  erosion, 16, 92, 95.
o  erosion during hurricanes, 25, 26, 28, 29, 57, 58, 88, 89.
       in Anguilla,
58, 61.
o  mining, 54, 58, 60.
       in British Virgin Islands,
58, 95.
       in Puerto Rico,
58, 59.
       in Saint Vincent, 54, 55,
58.
o  post-hurricane recovery, 57, 61.
o  primary, 60.
o  recovery, 57.
o  rehabilitation, 31, 59, 61- 62.
o  revegetation, 32, 61.
o  vegetation, 28, 58, 63-68.
       in Anguilla, 89.
o  walkways, 62, 68.
       in Turks and Caicos Islands,
62.

Ebb-tide delta, 71.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 71.
Education, 100, 102-104.
Environmental impacts, 37, 47.
Environmental impact assessment, 37, 50, 51, 54, 72,
80.
Erosion, see Beach changes.

Filter cloth, 21, 39.
Filter material,
23.
Fisheries, 49.
Fishing practices,
80.
Flank protection, 39, 40.
Floating breakwater, see Breakwater.
Floods,
25, 26, 59, 73, 85, 87, 88, 91.
Flood-tide delta, 71.
Foreshore,
13, 55.
Fossil fuels,
86.
Frontal systems,
16.

Gabion, 22, 23, 34.
o  in Barbados, 22, 23.
o  mattresse, 22.
Geology, 33,
88- 89, 95.
Global warming,
86.
Groyne,
20, 22, 37, 38-39, 41-44, 46, 81, 92.
o  groyne field, 42.
o  in Barbados, 22.
o  in Nevis, 41.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 39.

Hurricanes, 10, 24-32, 35, 47, 54, 57, 61, 64, 85.
o  categories, 24.
o  centre, 26.
o  circulation, 26.
o  cycles, 10, 25, 85.
o  erosion, 10, 24, 25, 27-29, 31, 32, 54, 57- 58, 76, 77, 93, 95.
o  eye, 26.
o  infrastructure damage, 25, 26, 32.
o  predictions, 24- 25.
o  season, 24.
o  swells, 16, 25.
o  tracks, 25, 27.
o  waves, 24, 25, 27, 28, 76.
o  winds, 24, 26.

Iguanas, 27.
Insurance,
30- 31, 96.
International Convention on Climate Change,
87.
International Maritime Organisation, 100.

Jetties, 43, 72.

Land clearing, 65, 66, 76, 79.
Land elevation,
88, 95.
Land ownership, 37, 41,
86, 96.
Land reclamation,
79.
Landslides,
85, 93.
Leeward coasts,
14-16, 52.
Legislation, 41, 54, 55, 66.
Lights, 102, 103.
Litter,
79, 99, 100, 103.
Longshore currents, 41, 69.
Longshore transport,
17, 41-44, 69, 71.

Mining, see Beach mining, Dune mining.
Mooring buoys,
79.

Natural hazards, 85- 86.
North Equatorial Current,
14.
Northeast Trade Winds,
14, 16, 43.

Ocean currents, 14, 33, 80.
Offshore breakwater, see Breakwater.
Offshore dredging,
31, 37, 48-52, 76, 79, 80.
Offshore sand bar, see Bar.
Offshore step,
13.

Piers, 43.
Planning permits,
20, 37, 41, 45, 47, 51, 54, 55, 66, 84.
Pollution,
77, 79.
Property owners’ rights, 41,
45.

Quarrying, 34, 54.

Retaining walls, 38, 39.
Return walls, 40.
Revetments, rock,
20-22, 38, 39, 44, 81, 92.
Revegetation, of land,
79.
Rivers,
27, 33, 53, 69, 70, 72, 91, 95.

Salt spray zone, 63, 86.
Sand bar, see Bar.
Sand bypassing, 46.
Sand fences,
32, 59, 61- 62.
o  in Maui, 59.
o  in Puerto Rico, 59.
Sand spit, see Spit.
Sea defence measures,
o  costs, 44, 48, 84.
o  timing, 20, 31, 47, 52.
o  types, 20-23, 34, 3
8-52, 81-84, 92, 95.
Sea level rise,
10- 11, 85-87, 97.
Sea turtles, 52
, 53-54, 62, 102, 103.
Seagrass,
27, 29, 33, 49, 63, 67, 70, 73, 101.
Seawalls,
20-22, 31, 38-40, 81, 92.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 39.
Setbacks,
20, 30, 87, 96- 97.
Settling ponds, 50, 52,
79.
o  in British Virgin Islands, 50.
Shoreline changes
10- 11, 17, 29, 32, 40, 69, 71, 72, 86- 87, 97.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 10.
Silt curtains, 50,
79.
Small Islands Developing States Conference,
10.
Spearfishing,
80.
Spit,
17, 29, 69, 90, 95.
o  in Jamaica, 70.
o  in Saint Kitts, 29.
Storm surge,
25, 28.
Submergence,
87.
Swimming-only areas, 99.

Tidal currents, 14, 70, 71, 91.
Tidal inlets,
14, 69-73, 91, 95.
Tides,
14.
Toe protection,
21, 39.
Tombolo,
17, 29, 90, 95.
o  in Dominica, 29, 90.
Tourism,
9, 31, 36, 64.
Trees, near coasts, 64-68,
92, 95, 99, 100-102.
Tropical depression,
24.
Tropical storm,
24, 85.
o  in Saint Lucia, 24.
Tropical wave,
24.
Tsunamis,
85- 86.

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 10.

Volcanic sand, 33-35, 58- 59.
o  in Dominica, 35.
o  in Montserrat, 35.
o  in Saint Vincent , 34, 58- 59.
Vulnerability,
88-97.

Walkway, 62, 68, 99.
o  in Turks and Caicos Islands, 62.
Warning notice, 64, 99.
o  in Mustique, 64.
Water table,
78, 81, 92, 97.
Waves,
14-17, 33, 39, 41, 44, 57, 58, 76.
o  direction, 14, 16, 24, 42, 43.
o  energy, 14, 35, 39, 40, 43, 75, 83.
o  exposure, 43, 52, 89- 90, 95.
o  hurricane-generated, 24- 25, 27- 28, 76.
o  refraction, 15.
o  scour, 22.
o  seasonal variation, 14, 36.
o  swell, 15-17, 25, 35, 36, 59, 64.
o  wind-generated, 15.
Wetlands,
58, 70, 73.
o  in Nevis, 70.
Wind speeds,
14-16, 24, 57.
Windward coasts,
14, 52.

 

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