Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands
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Coastal management sourcebooks 1

Illustrations

T A B L E S
1 Sample measurements of beach width
2 Hurricane categories
3 General cost ranges for sea defence structures in the Caribbean islands
4 Prospective buyer's checklist for site vulnerability to erosion
5 Beach field trip activities for primary schoolchildren
F I G U R E S
1 Map of the Caribbean region
2 Cross-section of a typical beach
3 Origin of swell waves affecting the Caribbean islands
4 Seasonal beach changes
5 Accretionary coastal features
6 Structures to protect coastal land and property
7 Slope stabilization using gabions
8 Track of Hurricane Erika, 4–10 September 1997
9 Typical beach cross-section before and after a hurricane
10 Satellite view of Hurricane Iris, 1995
11 Main hurricane tracks in the Caribbean islands
12 Dune retreat after a hurricane
13 Features of retaining walls and bulkheads
14 Bulkheads and flank protection
15 Community approach to shore protection
16 Longshore sediment transport
17 Effect of a single groyne
18 Effect of a groyne field
19 Plan view of an offshore breakwater
20 Floating tyre breakwater
21 Before and after beach nourishment
22 Beach nourishment with dredged sand
23 Storm wave attack on a beach and dune
24 Recommended construction on a dune
25 Cross-section showing typical vegetation zones in a coastal dune area
26 Typical deltas associated with a tidal inlet
27 Fringing and barrier reefs
28 Coral reefs and beach protection
29 Beachrock formation
30 How beachface dewatering works
31 Beachface dewatering system
P H O T O G R A P H S
1 Sand beach, Pigeon Point, Antigua, 1995
2 Eroded beach, Runaway Bay, Antigua, 1997
3 Winter beach conditions, Folkestone, Barbados, 1980
4 Summer beach conditions, Folkestone, Barbados, 1980
5 Measuring beach changes
6 Deteriorated gabion groynes, Speightstown, Barbados, 1980
7 Gabion channel stabilization, Tent Bay, Barbados, 1987
8 Pre-hurricane beach conditions, Barnes Bay, Anguilla, 1994
9 Post-hurricane beach conditions, Barnes Bay, Anguilla, 1995
10 Black sand beach, Byera, Saint Vincent, 1995
11 White sand beach, Grace Bay, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands, 1995
12 Stone beach, Iles Bay, Montserrat, winter 1990
13 Sand and stone beach, Rockaway Beach, Dominica, June 1994
14 Seawall and groynes, Cockburn Town,  Grand Turk, 1995
15 Boulder groynes, Nisbett Plantation, Nevis, 1992
16 Settling pond, Peter Island, British Virgin Islands, 1990
17 Pre-beach nourishment conditions, Pinneys Beach, Nevis, 1995
18 Post-beach nourishment conditions, Pinneys Beach, Nevis, March 1996
19 Pre-mining conditions, Diamond Bay, Saint Vincent, 1980
20 Post-mining conditions, Diamond Bay, Saint Vincent, 1995
21 Breach in the dune line, Isabela, Puerto Rico, 1996
22 Sand fences help to speed up dune formation
23 Sand fence made of wooden pallets, Arecibo, Puerto Rico, 1997
24 Dune erosion resulting from Hurricane Luis, Rendezvous Bay, Anguilla, 1995
25 Wooden walkway, Grace Bay, Providenciales, 1997
26 Warning notice on a manchineel tree, Mustique, 1993
27 Undermined palm trees, Levera, Grenada, 1986
28 Tree planting, Brandywine Bay, Tortola, 1990
29 Sand spit, White River, Jamaica, 1988
30 Beach drainage channel, Cotton Ground, Nevis, 1983
31 Ebb-tidal delta, Leeward-going -through Channel, Turks and Caicos Islands, 1997
32 Healthy coral reef
33 Coral rubble resulting from Hurricane Luis, Cove Bay, Anguilla, 1995
34 Beachrock ledge, Vieux Fort, Saint Lucia, 1989
35 Newly installed artificial seaweed units, Barbados, 1985
36 Artificial seaweed units eight months after installation, Barbados, 1986
37 Tombolo, Scotts Head, Dominica, 1994
38 Sand dunes, Rendezvous Bay, Anguilla, 1994
39 Beach erosion, Josiahs Bay, British Virgin Islands, 1990
40 Revegetation project, Heywoods, Barbados, 1987
 
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