Environment and development
in coastal regions and in small islands

Coastal management sourcebooks 3

Index

B C D E F G H I L M N O P R S V W

accuracy assessment
classification accuracy
   
error matrices, 63
    Kappa analysis, 64
    overall accuracy, 64
    producer accuracy, 63
    Tau coefficient, 64, 160, 190, 191, 193, 277
    user accuracy, 63, 176, 193
    Z-tests, 64
habitat maps
    effect of image processing methods, 160
    relationship with time required, 280

aerial photography
colour aerial photography, 75
colour infra-red photography, 76
comparison with digital airborne scanners, 281
comparison with satellite imagery, 163
costs, 80
mangrove mapping, 183
scale, 77
seaweed resource mapping, 265
stereoscopic overlap, 78

airborne multispectral imagery
CASI imagery, 81(see CASI)
Daedalus AMS and ATM, 84 (see Daedalus AMS and ATM)
geometric correction, 102 (see correction techniques)
radiometric correction, 114 (see correction techniques)
signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), 82

apparent reflectance, 112, 114

aquaculture management, 35, 186

assessment of marine resources
coastal fisheries resources, 257
direct remote sensing of fish resources, 258
indirect remote sensing of fish resources, 259
lobster resources, 264
phytoplankton primary production, 257
Queen Conch resources, 261
seaweed resources, 264
Trochus resources, 262

bathymetric mapping, 34
accuracy, 226
airborne LIDAR, 231, 219
applications, 220
attenuation coefficient, 219, 222, 224
Benny and Dawson method, 221, 228
compensating for the effect of tide on water depth, 226
deep-water radiance, 222
depth of penetration (DOP) zones, 222, 229
    interpolation, 224, 229
    calibration, 225, 229
Jupp method, 222, 229
Lyzenga method, 225, 230
multibeam depth sounders, 231
refractive index of seawater, 221
single beam depth sounders, 231
specular reflection, 221
sun elevation angle, 221, 222
sun zenith angle, 221

calibration
Landsat TM data, 112
Landsat MSS data, 112
SPOT XS and SPOT Pan data, 112

CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager)
configuration in Turks and Caicos, 82
gyro system, 103
geometric correction, 52, 102
habitat mapping
    accuracy, 160, 190, 192
    coral and macroalgae, 159
    mangrove, 190, 192, 195
    seagrass standing crop, 239, 240, 242
imagery acquisition, 81
literature, 55
LAI (leaf area index) estimation, 248, 250
NDVI (normalised diffe rence vege t ation index) estimation, 247
resource assessment
    fish, 259
    seaweed, 266
spatial resolution (IFOV - instantaneous field of view), 43, 50
supervised data classification case-study for mangrove mapping, 148
suspended sediment concentration estimation, 204

change detection, 33
deforestation, 33, 186
impact of tropical cyclones, 33
seagrass die-off (Florida Bay), 243

classification
choosing a classification method, 152
contextual editing, 142, 160
multispectral classification of image data 
    decision making, 143, 147
    ISODATA (Iterative Self-Organising Data Analysis Technique), 144
    signature evaluation, 143, 146, 149
    training, 143, 148, 150, 152
photo-interpretation (visual interpretation), 142

cloud cover
constraint to remote sensing, 46, 70, 91
information in Landsat data archives, 87
information in SPOT data archives, 86
seasonal weather patterns
    Belize, 71–74
    Fiji, 71–76
    Papua New Guinea, 71–73
    Philippines, 74
    Seychelles, 71–74, 76
    Solomon Islands, 74
    Sudan, 71, 72, 74, 77
    Tanzania, 71–74
    Trinidad and Tobago, 71, 72, 74, 76
    Turks and Caicos, 74
    United Arab Emirates, 71, 72, 77

coral bleaching, 203
AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), 214
‘hot-spots’, 214

coral reefs and macroalgae mapping
descriptive resolution
    contextual editing, 159
    satellite imagery, 162
    satellite imagery versus aerial photography, 163, 166
    spectral mixture analysis (SMA), 162
    water column correction, 158
field survey methods
    broad-scale characterisation of coral reefs, 168
    determining sample size, 170, 171
    estimating coral and macroalgal cover, 169
    measuring macroalgal biomass, 170

correction techniques
cost-effectiveness, 279
geometric, 89, 93, 96, 98, 105
    of airborne digital data, 102
    of aircraft roll and pitch, 103
    datum, 96, 97
    DEM (digital elevation model), 105
    error, 94 (see geometric error)
    GCPs (ground control points), 96, 104
    map projection, 94
    polynomial equation, 99
    rectification, 96, 100, 103
    resampling, 97, 102
    RMS (root mean square) er ror, 101, 106
    rubber sheeting, 100
    spheroid, 96
radiometric
    atmospheric correction, 115, 117
    atmospheric modelling, 116
    removal of path radiance (scatter), 115
water column, 158, 160
    calculation of deep water radiance, 125, 222
    dark pixel subtraction method, 115, 122
    depth-invariant bottom index, 122, 124, 159, 239, 242
    depth-invariant processing, 125, 159

cost-effectiveness of remote sensing, 271, 280
accuracy versus time required, 280
digital airborne scanners versus aerial photo graphy, 281
Landsat TM, 281
SPOT XS, 281
time requirements, 279
    in corrections of imagery, 279
    in derivation of habitat classes, 279
    in image acquisition, 279
    in image classification, 279

costs
aerial photography, 79, 80, 281
airborne digital imagery, 81, 84, 281
DGPS, 62
GPS, 61
field survey, 59, 276
set-up costs, 276
satellite imagery, 88–90

Daedalus AMS and ATM sensors, 50
image acquisition, 84
mapping thermal discharges, 213
survey costs, 84

DGPS (Differential GPS), 59, 61, 104
accuracy, 62
cost, 62
post-processed GPS, 62
real-time correction, 62

DN (digital number), 28, 44, 99, 111

EMR (electromagnetic radiation)
absorption, 42, 110, 122
frequency, 26
‘greenhouse’ gases, 28
scattering, 110, 111, 122
spectral signature, 41
transmission ‘windows’, 28, 110
units, 110
wavelength, 26

ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation), 214

environmental sensitivity mapping, 33

erosion and longshore drift, 35

field survey methods, 167
coral reefs, 37, 155 (see coral reefs and macroalgae mapping)
mangrove, 37, 187 (see mangrove mapping)
canopy closure, 38, 245 (see mangrove canopy structure)
leaf area index, 38, 245 (see mangrove canopy structure)
seagrass, 37, 177 (see seagrass mapping and seagrass standing crop)

geometric correction (see correction techniques)
    RMS (root mean square error), 101

geometric error
Earth’s rotation, 94
instrument error, 94
orientation, 94
panoramic distortion, 94
platform instability, 94

GPS (Global Positioning System), 60, 98
accuracy
    GDOP (geometric dilution of precision), 61
    PDOP (position dilution of precision), 61
airborne, 104
error, 61
    GCP (Ground Control Points), 98, 104
    UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) coordinates, 93, 95

habitat classification
cost-effectiveness, 279
contextual editing, 142
ecological assemblages, 133
geomorphological, 132
    mangrove community, 134
    reefs, 155
multivariate (or cluster analysis), 134
    Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient, 135, 150
    PATN, 135
    PRIMER (Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research) software, 137
    seagrass habitat classes, 138
    SIMPER (similarity percentage analysis), 137
scheme, example, 137

hardware
CCT (computer compatible tapes), 90
CD (compact disk), 59
CD-ROM, 59, 70
EXABYTE tapes, 59, 81, 90

image acquisition
aerial photography, 75 (see aerial photography)
airborne multispectral, 80 (see airborne multispectral imagery)
cost-effectiveness, 279
satellite, 85 (see satellite imagery)

image classification
choosing a method, 152
cost-effectiveness, 279
multispectral
    ANNs (artificial neural networks), 288
    supervised, 141, 143, 145, 152, 154, 158, 189
    unsupervised, 141, 143, 144, 154, 189
parallelipiped, 147
photo (visual) interpretation, 141, 142
radiative transfer model, 290
spectral mixture modelling, 288

image processing
contextual editing, 159, 160
effect on accuracy, 160
for mangrove habitat mapping, 184
pre-processing level, 89
SMA (Spectral Mixture Analysis), 162

IFOV (Instantaneous Field Of View), 43, 44

LAI (Leaf Area Index), 245
calculation, 247
definition, 245, 246
estimation from remotely sensed data, 251
    CASI, 249, 250
    Landsat TM, 250
    SPOT XS, 248, 250
selection of an appropriate sensor for monitoring, 251

Landsat MSS (Multispectral Scanner)
accuracy of habitat maps, 160, 190
data
    calibration, 112
    interpretation, 87
discontinuation, 288
mapping
    algal blooms, 212
    bathymetry, 222
    cartographic, 33
    coral and macro-algae, 158, 159
    environmental sensitivity, 34
    industrial waste, 210
    mangroves, 184
    oil pollution, 205
    seagrass standing crop, 239
    suspended sediment concentration, 204
planning field surveys, 35

Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper)
accuracy of habitat maps, 160, 190–192
cost-effectiveness, 281
data
    calibration, 112
    interpretation, 87
    supervised classification, 158, 160, 184
    unsupervised classification case study, 145, 184
image resolution, 44
LAI estimation, 249
NDVI estimation, 247
productivity measurement, 35
radiative transfer code, 118
resource mapping, 33
    algal blooms, 212
    bathymetry, 222, 223, 226
    coral reefs, 158, 160
    Gelbstoff, 211
    mangroves, 183, 189, 194, 195, 247
    phytoplankton primary production, 257
    seagrass, 176
    seagrass standing crop, 239, 240, 242
    suspended sediment concentration, 204
    thermal discharges, 213

mangrove canopy structure
AVI (Angular Vegetation Index), 250
canopy closure
    canopy light extinction coefficient, 247
    field techniques for measuring, 250
    measurement of canopy transmittance, 247
    percentage, 245, 250
diffuse radiation, 248
direct radiation, 248
GEMI (global environment monitoring index), 250
LAI, 245, 246
NDVI, 247, 249
sun zenith angle, 247

mangrove, 37, 185 (see mangrove mapping)
canopy closure, 38, 245 (see mangrove canopy structure)
leaf area index, 38, 245 (see LAI)

mangrove mapping
descriptive resolution of different sensors
    discrimination of different mangrove habitats, 192
    discrimination of mangrove and non-mangrove vegetation, 187, 190
    resolution merge between Landsat TM and SPOT Pan, 189
field survey techniques and mangrove habitat
classification scheme,
187
habitat categories, 149
sensors and image processing techniques
    aerial photography, 183
    band ratioing, 185, 189
    JERS-1, 184
    KATE-140, 184
    Landsat TM, 183
    Landsat MSS, 184
    MESSR, 140
    SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), 185
    SPOT XS, 183
    supervised classification, 183, 189
    unsupervised classification, 183, 189
    vegetation index, 183, 188
    visual interpretation, 183, 188
use of mangrove habitat maps in management, 186

map projection, 94–96 (see correction techniques -geometric)

mapping
bathymetry, 34, 219 (see bathymetric mapping)
boundaries, 34
cartographic base, 33
environmental sensitivity, 33
habitat, 142
    coral reefs, 37, 155 (see coral reefs and macroalgae mapping)
    mangrove, 37, 186 (see mangrove mapping)
    seagrass, 37, 175 (see seagrass mapping)
resource, 33
    adult Queen Conch resources, 262
    phytoplankton biomass, 256
    Queen Conch nursery areas, 261

marine pollution
definition, 202

mixel, 29, 45

monitoring coastal pollution
eutrophication, 211
Gelbstoff (yellow substance), 202, 211, 256
industrial wastes, 210
operational detection of pollutants, 202
sewage discharges, 210
thermal discharges, 212
toxic algal blooms, 211

NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), 247, 249 
    (see mangrove canopy structure)
    CASI imagery, 247
    Landsat TM and SPOT XS imagery, 247

oil pollution
confusion with:
    sun-glint, 206
    wind sheens, 206
    biogenic surface films, 206
Exxon Valdez case-history, 209
of mangroves, 205
monitoring
    airborne sensors, 213
    infra-red sensors, 206, 208
    laser fluorosensors, 210
    microwave sensors, 207
    multisensor airborne monitoring, 208
    satellite-borne sensors, 213
    side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), 207
    ultra-violet sensors, 207, 208
    visible-light sensors, 206

planning field surveys, 35, 58
costs, 59
sampling strategy, 59

pixel (picture element), 28, 43

productivity measurement, 35

radiation
diffuse, 248
direct, 248
PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation), 248
transfer codes, 116

reflectance, 111
surface, 119

resolution
descriptive, 44, 45
    coral reefs, 156, 157
    macroalgae, 158
    satellite imagery, 162
merges, 191
radiometric, 28
spatial, 43
spectral, 44
swath width, 43
temporal, 44

resource inventory, 33, 186

resource mapping, 33, 186, 256

SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)
change detection analysis, 33
mapping
    bathymetry, 34
    mangrove habitat, 186
    oil pollution, 206
    sewage discharges, 210
‘speckle’, 43

satellites
ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite), 47
ERS (European Remote Sensing), 47, 49, 207
IRS (Indian Remote Sensing), 48
JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite), 49
Landsat, 48 (see Landsat MSS and Landsat TM)
MOS (Marine Observing Satellite), 49
Navstar, 60
NIMBUS-7, 47
NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite), 47, 214
RADARSAT, 49, 208
Russian Cosmos spacecraft, 53
SeaStar, 47
SPOT (Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre), 48 (see SPOT)

satellite imagery
cloud cover, 86, 87, 91
costs, 88, 89
data media and format, 91 (see hardware)
    BSQ (band sequential), 91
    BIL (band interleaved by line), 91
    BIP (band interleaved by pixel), 91, 92
Landsat data, 87 (see Landsat MSS and Landsat TM)
geometric correction, 89, 93 (see correction techniques)
pre-processing, 89
processing levels - definitions, 82
‘quick look’archiving, 84, 87
radiometric correction, 112
SPOT data, 84, 86

scattering
atmospheric, 221
adjacency effect, 110
aerosols, 110
Mie, 111
Rayleigh, 111
removal, 115
in water, 122

seagrass mapping
estimating percentage cover of seagrass, 178
field survey methods, 177
habitat classes, 138
measuring seagrass shoot density, 178
measuring seagrass standing crop, 178
methods of reducing mis-classification, 177
methods to improve mapping accuracy, 177
non-destructive sampling, 178
seagrass biomass, 175

seagrass standing crop
analytical modelling, 238
depth-invariant bottom-indices, 242
2-dimensional maps, 242
empirical modelling, 237
field sampling, 239
imagery and processing, 239
prediction using satellite imagery, 240, 242
prediction using high resolution airborne
CASI imagery,
240, 242
sampling precision, 242
semi-empirical modelling, 238
visual assessment, 179

sea-surface temperature (SST), 214

sediment
loadings, 203
monitoring in Pulau Redang, 205
relative assessment of concentration, 204
run-off, 202
suspended, 35, 204, 256
water quality assessment, 204

sensors
active (microwave, radar), 28, 42
    SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), 49 (see SAR)
    SLAR (Side-Looking Airborne Radar), 207, 208
comparison for marine habitat mapping, 163, 166
passive (visible light & near infra-red), 26, 42
    ATSR (Along Track Scanning Radiometer), 47, 213
    AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), 47, 204, 207, 210–214, 257, 259
    AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/ Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer), 44, 213
    CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager), 50, 55, 80, 82, 102 (see CASI)
    CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner), 47, 115, 204, 212, 257, 259
    Daedalus AMS (Airborne Multispectral Scanner), 84 (see Daedalus sensors)
    Daedalus ATM (Airborne Thematic Mapper), 50, 84 (see Daedalus sensors)
    HRV (High Resolution Visible), 48
    HRVIR (High Resolution Visible and Infra-Red), 48
    hyperspectral, 288
    LISS (Linear Imaging Self-Scanning), 48
    MESSR (Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer), 49
    MSS (Multispectral Scanner), 48
    OCTS (Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner), 47
    OPS (Optical Sensor), 49
    SeaWiFs (Sea-viewing Wide Field of view sensor), 47, 204, 210, 257, 259
    SPIN-2, 53

software
CCRS (Canada Center for Remote Sensing), 105
ERDAS Imagine, 59
IDRISI, 59
MapInfo, 59
PCI, 59
PRIMER 59, 137
Vertical Mapper, 59

speckle, 43

spectral radiance, 111, 112

spherical albedo, 119

SPOT (Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre)
accuracy of habitat maps, 160, 190
cost-effectiveness, 281
data
    calibration, 112
    interpretation, 86
imagery acquisition, 84, 85
LAI estimation, 248, 250
NDVI estimation, 247
mapping resources, 33, 263, 265
    algal blooms, 212
    coral and macroalgae, 158-160
    environmental sensitivity, 34
    mangroves, 183
    seagrass, 176
    seagrass standing crop, 239
    suspended sediment concentration, 204

pre-processing level,
89
stock assessment, 35

stock assessment, 35

sun-synchronicity, 44

sun zenith angle, 113, 114, 221, 247

suspended sediment, 35 (see sediment)

vegetation index, 188 (see mangrove mapping)

water
absorption, 122
attenuation coefficient, 222
classification of water bodies, 122
column correction, 158
quality assessment, 204
scattering, 122, 221
refractive index (seawater), 221

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