Substantive responses received
by the Small Islands Voice global forum to the posting on the
to rising oil prices' by T. Deamer, K. Etuati, 24 August
Oil: Requests for Information
Mike Baker, France
Environment Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago
Maria Font, Puerto Rico
Anthony Garland, Turks and Caicos Islands
Martin Griffiths, Cook Islands
Delta Hodge, Anguilla
Patu Hohepa, New Zealand
Chief Vaasiliifiti Moelagi Jackson, Savaii, Samoa
Dulph Mitchell, San Andres
Peter Uko, Nigeria
Lulu Urmenita, Palau
Oil: Further Information about its use
Edward Beggs, Canada
Jan Cloin, Fiji
Jim Currie, Federated States of Micronesia
Tony Deamer, Vanuatu
Tony Deamer, Vanuatu
Tony Deamer, Vanuatu
Robert Early, Vanuatu
Harvie Probert, Fiji
Mere Ratunabuabua, Fiji
Atul Raturi, Papua New Guinea
M. Rouhana, Solomon Islands
Rod Smith, Vanuatu
Jim Currie, Federated States of Micronesia
Albert DeTerville, St. Lucia
Ioannis A. Economides, Cyprus
Michael Griffin, Barbados
Philma Innocent, St. Lucia
Ian Mohammed, Trinidad and Tobago
Marie Nickllum, Vanuatu
Jimmy Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
Jimmy Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
Akuila Rawaqa, Australia
Mela Vusoniwailala, Fiji
David Williams, Jamaica
Gillian Young-Smith, Jamaica
Energy: General comments
Ioannis A. Economides, Cyprus
Leslie Hamlet, Antigua and Barbuda
Avinesh Sahayam, Fiji
Johnson Seeto, Fiji
Mali Voi, Samoa
Energy: Geothermal Energy
Magnús Jóhannesson, Iceland
Energy: Solar Energy
Sabra Kauka, Hawaii
Energy: Tidal Currents
From Thomas Goreau, USA
From Kavita Khanna
Jimmy Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
Oil: Requests for Information
I want to
know more about coconut oil for fuel. Where can I find out more
about this? Help please.
SIV Global inform people how to use coconut oil in diesel vehicles?
the interesting news about using coconut oil in place of diesel.
Can you recommend
any articles or publications in print or on the Web that explain
how the coconut oil is refined into a useable product for vehicles?
I import coconut oil into UK for cosmetics, so have a general
interest in the subject
Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago
I live in
Tobago a small island as well. I would love to learn how to make
paper from banana bark. Can you put me on to someone who can help
maybe a workshop in Tobago?
agree that alternative energy is needed oil will not be in the
earth forever and in continuing to extract oil a space remains
what do you think happens?
Solar is the
way to the future but the panels are expensive not everyone can
afford this so who can design cheaper panels and what can be an
Font, Puerto Rico
Rico we are feeling the same impotence over the rising cost of
gas. Now, who would manufacture the coconut oil "en masse"? I
for one, have coconut trees in my house, to the point that discarding
the dried coconuts is a nuisance.
used to make coconut milk by grinding the coconut and then straining
and squeezing it in a piece of cloth. This would produce maybe
a cup of milk to use in some dessert, or other type dish.
But how could
we get gallons of this oil, at what price, when here a little
bottle of coconut oil (maybe 2 oz.) is sold for hair preparations
at almost a dollar? Who would start this type of industry? It
is indeed necessary and feasible, but we do not have the infrastructure
and we need this oil now to avert the gas price rise. Is this
oil used pure or mixed with another product?
Garland, Turks and Caicos Islands
I think the
ongoing discussion on the use of coconut oil as an alternative
to diesel is very productive and definitely worth further research.
In my country, Turks and Caicos Islands, we don't have as much
coconut trees as some of our other neighbours, but given the small
size of our population shouldn't need a lot either. I will be
reading the attached information provided and would like to engage
some of your readers and contributors in future conversations
with a goal of furthering such a possibility.
Griffiths, Cook Islands
article. I would like to know more about the technology of coconut
oil as a fuel.
Can you assist?
an interesting theme. I really enjoyed it and I have learned a
lot from your forums. Unfortunately I don't understand a vehicle
operating on coconut oil. Is the coconut oil used instead of gas
or diesel or in place of oil? Once again thanks for a very interesting
Hohepa, New Zealand
warming, perhaps it is now time for countries in temperate areas
(New Zealand where I live is one) to find the types of coconut
trees that can transplant successfully. We have now successfully
begun olive tree plantations - is there any information that olive
oil is also suitable for replacing diesel fuel?
Vaasiliifiti Moelagi Jackson, Savaii, Samoa
You know our
people living in Australia and New Zealand are called the coconut
people and we live up to it. We are not shy about it as the coconut
is very important to our lives as food, medicine, tools, housing,
language and everything. We use it daily therefore even when we
do not export coconut as copra we still plant a lot of coconuts.
But it is no longer the main export. The cultural and daily value
is still there. Very few villages are pressing for soap or sale
for minimum prices. Therefore please tell us more so that I can
advise our coconut expert to look into it for us considering the
gas prices going sky high for us in Samoa.
Mitchell, San Andres
a) How is the coconut oil processed to be used as fuel?
b) Is the processing difficult or costly?
c) If it is worthwhile, is it not possible or wise for several
small islands to form a corporate enterprise to produce this type
of fuel so that all partners might receive a profit?
give me more information about using coconut oil to replace diesel.
Is there a special process, is there a significant power loss
versus diesel, and are any special additives required?
We are an
ecotourism company in Fiji with 5 vehicles and we would seriously
consider coconut oil for our motors. Is there a contact for this
technology in Fiji? Please advise.
This is a
very welcome development in the world at large. We have been witnessing
an era of environmental pollution as a result of incessant use
of organic fuel. I am a Nigerian and part of my organization activities
covers the dissemination of information regarding the dangers
or usefulness inherent from products, activities and projects
on individuals, communities and materials closer to the activity
will be glad to have detail on how best this coconut oil can be
processed to make fuel. This will help my countrymen to think
about something else than petrol and gas from the Niger Delta
Region where it is predominantly produced. Nigeria can equally
boost of abundant supply of this fuel alternative with the available
coconut in most parts of the country!
I live in
a small island called Palau, wherein coconuts are abundant, and
presently nobody utilized them to become an industry. Like the
reader Mr. Dulph Mitchell from Caribbean, the same questions that
I suppose to ask. If it is possible, does the book explain the
processing equipments and process of coconut oil? If so, is it
possible for me to avail that book? And how much?
Oil: Further Information about its use
As a subscriber
to the Small Islands Voice, I am very happy to see this sort of
I wrote an
M.Sc. thesis in 2000 entitled "Renewable oil fuels and diesel
engines as components of sustainable system design", and the research
question was: "Are renewable oils as fuels in diesel engine an
economically and technically feasible component of sustainable
system design in both developed and developing countries?"
This led to
founding Neoteric Biofuels, and now the "PlantDrive.com" division
and web site, and we have had much experience in developing good
systems to deal with the use of vegetable oil (plant oil) fuels
without conversion to "biodiesel" and without blending with kerosene.
we have gained in dealing with other oils at sub-Arctic temperatures
(we have customers using Canola oil at -30C, for example), translates
perfectly to use of coconut oil in warmer climates. The issues
are the same - how to work with oil that goes solid or semi-solid.
The most practical
solution is to use the "two-tank heating approach" The components
used allow the engine to be started on a little diesel or biodiesel
fuel, run for a few minutes, and then switched to straight plant
oil. At the end of the use, it is switched back to diesel for
a minute or so to clear the fuel system of vegetable oil. We have
developed a small in-line electric heater that is easily shipped
anywhere, called the Vegtherm. We have full kits, many options,
valves, heated filters, tank heaters, oil presses etc. all developed
and being used in hundreds of engines/applications every day,
with both new and used cooking oils, and have done this for 5
years now, and these are all perfect for coconut and palm, etc.
(and coconut is a very good fuel for this - one of the best in
As our business
grows here in Canada and the USA, we are seeking to develop more
international contacts and business, and I welcome people to visit
our web site, and to contact me with any questions. We are available
for consulting work, installation, training, CDM/Kyoto carbon
credit project discussions etc. and are very committed to seeing
this idea take its place in the renewable energy world. Readers
should also be aware of what is happening with plant such as jatropha,
and the honge projects in India. Moringa is another very interesting
oil. Some links are below:
Reinhard Henning's very good site on Jatropha: www.jatropha.org
Moringa (ben oil): www.treesforlife.org
Honge oil projects in India:
See also: Mali Folkecenter (project of the Danish Folkecenter):
We may try
to organize a plant oil fuels colloquium at the OUR Ecovillage
on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, in 2006. Anyone
interested in this topic or that idea can contact me directly
at <edwardbeggs at plantdrive.com>
have been designed for 100% vegetable oil in cold climates, and
would be ideally suited for coconut at 100% in warmer climates.
We'd like readers of the list to know we are here. We're based
in British Columbia, Canada. We can ship anywhere. Kits are compact
and install on the vehicle or stationary engine.
Island Voice editor, I know it's not the normal style to send
attachments around but just thought it would be of added value
for the biofuel discussion.
Here at SOPAC
we are promoting the use of biofuels by means of applied research
on technical, social and economic sides of biofuels.
Currie, Federated States of Micronesia
to Sitiventi, he should contact the Secretariat of the Pacific
Community or the Forum Secretariat, both Fiji based organizations.
He can also contact the sub-regional office of FAO located in
Apia, Samoa. There is considerable technical help available through
these organizations. I know there are many projects in this region
using coconut oil as fuel. Samoa and Vanuatu are leaders in this
In a letter
written on behalf of MAN diesel Engines Makers, received 15th
Sept 2005, in response to samples sent by UNELCO of the coconut
oil, they are looking at running in their 2x2Mw Generator sets
in Port Vila after testing some of our Pure Coconut oil and finding
a flash point 198 Deg C and ash content of <0,01 NCV (Hu) of
35,140 they Stated "Based on the TAN, the mix of coconut
oil with gas oil must contain least 50% gas oil to reduce the
risk of corrosion.
We have mixed
the coconut oil with gas oil and looked for any precipitation
.We've found none This does not mean that incompatibility problems
inside the engine can be excluded, but it seems that it is worth
to try such a mixture of coconut oil and gas oil". The Tan Fig
for the two samples was 6.5 & 7.5 mg KOH/g. I do not know how
this translates to a FFA percentage of 1.8% for the second one.
how conservative the engine maker is, it is wonderful that they
did not say "NO don't use it," but said "it is worth to try."
Of course, the usual disclaimer follows. This is wonderful news
and now we seem to have our Business Licence issues sorted out,
we will start selling Island fuel to club members as of Monday
for the road side bourse at 115Vt that's 18Vatu less than diesel.
So we hope
that it will not take long to get about 100 users on to Island
fuel. As of today we only have about 4,000 litres in stock and
can make about 3,600 litres a day once we have the CNO from Santo.
At the moment we only have 5x 1000litre containers to ship it
in, but a bladder in a 20 foot box container may be our next step.
Does any one know where to get one?
We have our
Island Fuel bowser in place now and we are selling Island Fuel
80% coconut oil at 115 Vt a Litre that's about 18 Vt less than
diesel at the pumps, and we are offering up to 4 pre-filters to
catch the dirt that the coconut oil is lifting from the old diesel
tanks. Once they are clean there is no more need for them and
the original filters seem to last well. We are taking on new clients
at the rate of 2 a day only so we do not run out of stock. We
now have about 6000 litres in tanks, and storage for about 9000
more as we can get the coconut oil from Santo and Vila.
Give coconut oil a go. It is here now, it will run in you big
4x4 Macho machine too and your present generator sets so no big
capital investment is needed. Just start making more good quality
oil. Education is the key, not capital we have all we require
now in most places - Fiji, Samoa, Vanuatu, Kiribati all have oil
mills and small ones are popping up in the Solomon's too So give
it a go!
It is, a much
cheaper form of solar energy, to run car on that rather than trying
to make a solar powered car and it will give many more mega watts
of electricity, for a much lower investment than wind or solar
and is not so prone to total destruction as solar panels and wind
turbines are, and it can be kept running in a cyclone and does
not need any new skills to do it. We just make use of what we
now have and feed it some coconut oil not all diesel Even the
big German Diesel Engine maker thinks a 50% mix "is worth to try
" of course they write in all the usual "at you own risk phrases"
as well; But, hey, they did not say "Don't put it in the engines"
did they? And we were not talking of a little home generator set
here, they were referring to some big 4 Mw sets used to power
Port Vila. So give it a go.
I don't think
you will find a better way to boost the local economy and reduce
the green house emissions, lower imports and give the youth something
to do and boost their self esteem too; all in one small move on
your part. You have to do it. Running your big macho 4x4, or little
pickup truck, or mini bus and the local power house, on local
coconut oil, after all we in the islands have been making the
stuff for centuries.
It is not
as hard as you may think. We at Island fuel can help you do it.
with Macho 4x4's anyway? I have one so does Jan and the Red Cross
and most people I know! They are safe and reliable, hold together
on our unpaved roads or the paved ones with pot holes and most
can run on coconut oil and probably put out less pollution than
the average petrol sedan car does)
I was surprised
when reading the information from K. Etuati that when there was
a mention of "biomass", there was no inclusion of "coconut" as
one of the sources of biomass energy. The oil produced by the
5 billion coconuts that fall to the ground around the world every
year is one of the greatest environmentally-friendly, renewable,
sustainable sources of energy available. So it was good to read
Tony Deamer's input, and as I'm also resident in Vanuatu I can
endorse everything he has said about the extent to which there
is a growing acceptance and commitment to the use of "Island Fuel"
here in Vanuatu, after, it must be said, a very long period of
resistance. Some of the resistance was motivated by the consideration
that if a local source of fuel is found, then government revenues
from excise and duty on imported fuel will decline substantially.
Fortunately someone must have been able to demonstrate that this
was false economy. Even though these revenues will decline, there
are other benefits that accrue elsewhere in the economy.
in the extraction and production of very high quality virgin coconut
oil is Dan Etherington of Canberra, Australia, and the technology
and process he has developed has now been commercialised and successfully
implemented in many locations. Some consider that the initial
capital costs of the package that Dan's company offers is high,
but it's a production process geared towards producing the highest
quality oil, and the whole package involves training and assistance
with set-up and operation, and also marketing of the final product.
The website http://www.kokonutpacific.com.au/
contains full details, plus heaps of information about the potential
for the use of coconut oil as a substitute for other fuel oils
as well as for other uses.
It is my understanding
that different types of oil can be used, including olive oil,
so don't start planting coconuts in temperate regions just yet.
The internet is a hotbed of information on how to start running
your vehicles on alternative fuels today. Just keep looking.
State of Samoa Electric Power Corporation (EPC) is presently having
a trial to use 15% locally produced coconut oil to mix with 85%
diesel in some power generators. So far, they have had good results,
also, with the present diesel prizes, the oil is cheaper. You
could contact the General Manager of Samoa EPC for more information.
I have been
following the vocal network and would like to note that the "Rays
of Hope: Renewable Energy in the Pacific" video + booklet
(also now on CD-ROM) includes some footage and discussion of coconut
oil as a diesel substitute/extender. This is available from UNESCO
I attach a copy of a flier for this, and also a flier for two
companion volumes, "Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Technical
Training Manual" and "Solar Photovoltaic Project Development",
prepared by Herb Wade and published by UNESCO (in hard copy),
which have a background in Renewable Energy in the Pacific.
The use of
coconut oil as a diesel substitute/extender was on the agenda
before and during my time at the USP Rural Development Institute
in the 1980s, continued into the 90s and now is an increasingly
viable option. This is because of the price rises in imported
hydrocarbon fuels, and the fact the increasing numbers of coconuts
are uncollected and go to waste. Coconut oil is a viable and practicable
fuel, available locally, that is a substitute for increasingly
expensive hydrocarbon fuels, without the loss of export earnings.
In addition to the information and countries mentioned below,
there is also interest and experience in Vanuatu and the Cook
Islands (which is included in "Rays of Hope"), and elsewhere.
technical and economic information and analysis, one other (aesthetic?)
point that should be made is that following vehicles using coconut
oil is quite a pleasure due to the beautiful smell, rather than
the unpleasant hassle of following smelly, smoky trucks.
the Fiji Electricity Authority in Fiji are trialling a larger
3.3Mw Cat engine running on coconut oil at their Sigatoka power
station and are looking at that and other biofuels (canola, soya
etc) as an alternative to diesel. With diesel at over $900/ tonne,
biofuels at up to $700 are an almost viable replacement. On a
recent survey to one of the remotest Fiji islands Rotuma it was
observed that the island had the potential to use the coconuts
lying around to displace almost entirely the need to import diesel,
as the production available locally was estimated at about 2000
tonnes pa of copra which would produce around 1600 tonnes of coconut
oil and if refined into biodiesel would produce around 1500 tonnes.
Ratunabuabua, Fiji In response to more information on coconut
oil fuel and other liquid bio fuels, I suggest you take a look
at the South Pacific Applied Geo Science Commission website for
more details on their work on liquid bio fuels in Fiji! On http://www.sopac.org
Raturi, Papua New Guinea
For a PowerPoint
presentation on Biofuel options in the Pacific please click below:
Rouhana, Solomon Islands
I agree with
my colleague in Vanuatu about the promotion of coconut oil. Just
recently bus fare in Honiara (Solomon Islands) has increase by
100% in the name of oil price increase. Heated debate followed
and people opted to walk either way, to their working place or
on their return home. But what can we do with these increasing
oil prices? We know that coconut oil did work, but we never fully
utilised this yet. One investor is now looking at the possibility
of turning Honiara diesel power supply into coconut oil generated
power supply. The sooner the better, but more has to be done because
that requires a lot of coconut fruits to produce such a huge amount
of oil. To fulfil this initiative as a cost cutting measure against
the continued increasing oil price, individuals should start revisiting
their coconut plantation and plant more and more coconuts. I see
it a long way yet, as the largest copra producer in the country
(RIPEL - Russell Islands Plantation Estate) is far from solving
a two and half years industrial action.
It might be
worth a look at the following site. www.globalfinest.com/tech
I was looking for an efficient way of making diesel which didn't
rely only on coconut oil. The system below uses almost any waste
product but is priced a little out of my reach at around $5,000,000.
It would be ideal for an Aid Agency funded community project however.
for your enquiry regarding our new waste to diesel process. Our
process turns all bio waste into Hi Grade Diesel for general use
or to convert into electricity to upload into the national grid
- emissions free.
Our new patented
Waste disposal Process www.globalfinest.com/tech
is a proven, tested and running and is absolutely unique. This
is cutting edge technology, is NOT a pyrolysis system, hence we
have overcome the inherent problems of toxic emissions and limitations
of similar systems currently on offer in the marketplace. This
is a genuine breakthrough in dealing with landfills, waste animal
disposal, toxic transformer waste disposal and so forth.... everything
biomass..........The sizing of the plants available is a 500+
litre/hr ( minimum - depending on input materials ) decentralised
unit, in modular form and has an efficiency of between 70 - 94%...
depending on input material. Total Production costs are <40 -
50 cents per litre produced, dependent on the input material.
The system is Emissions free, closed loop and has no effect on
the environment. The very little that is not used by the process
and any residue is disposed of in a licensed landfill. Totally
inert. These are turnkey units with options of selling the diesel
on the petrochemical market (tax free) or using the diesel to
generate electricity on site and plugging into the national grid
or self re use. ( 2 Mw powerplants are offered.) Better returns
all round, especially now with the current price of a barrel of
oil around $US 70 ! ROI is remarkable and is well within any other
system available on the market today...and because its emissions
free, attracts even more subsidies from Government!.. win - win
! Most of the additional information you may want to read is on
Currie, Federated States of Micronesia
I have to
think this topic should generate a tremendous amount of response.
I am glad to see both Fiji and Samoa being mentioned and suggest
you explore recent events in Vanuatu. I also suggest you contact
"Luigi Guarino" <Luigi at spc.int>
office of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community as he has recently
written about this topic.
I am surprised
to read that 75% of the weight of copra is extractable oil. I
am also of the opinion that possibly the best opportunity for
now is in the outer islands of some of our groups where coconut
is still a managed crop and the cost of transporting diesel is
prohibitive. To my knowledge, it takes very little conversion
to run a diesel generator on coconut and through that provide
all the necessary power for the schools, clinics and communication
- or homes.
DeTerville, St. Lucia
I am an indigenous
person from the Island of Saint Lucia in the Caribbean Antilles
where coconut oil is extracted for cooking and for other domestic
use. The island exports coconut oil in large quantities.
Saint Lucia is one of the SIDS, and having regard to the fact
that coconut oil is already in use in the Pacific SIDS as fuel
for vehicles, I propose that there be a Knowledge Exchange Programme
among the SIDS.
The SIDS 2005
Mauritius Initiative, formed as a follow-up to the UN SIDS Conference
in Mauritius in January 2005, has focal points in the regions
of the SIDS, and is interested in collaborating with interested
partners in the promotion of "Coconut Oil as fuel for vehicles."
A. Economides, Cyprus
The only indigenous
oil produced by Cyprus in any significant quantities is olive
oil, which is still a rather expensive substitute for diesel fuel.
However, there is some renewed interest for utilizing mildly processed
waste cooking oil as a diesel admixture, which offers economic
and double environmental benefits: Managing a difficult waste
plus promoting a potentially renewable source of energy, at a
fraction of the cost.
When I lived
in Brazil it was common to have a pump at the gas station, delivering
alcohol, to use in cars. It needed only a carburettor change.
Could small islands grow enough sugar to support themselves in
your message on uses coconuts, which I will send out to the Carib-Agri
list - an e-mail list covering Caribbean agricultural issues.
Currently, list membership is in the region of 400 persons. I
have also added your address to the List. I hope there are issues
of mutual interest that we can exchange and discuss between the
Lists. Also, any of your members with an interest in agriculture
would be welcome to join the Carib-Agri list.
Innocent, St. Lucia
I am from
St. Lucia (Caribbean) and aware of the decline in the banana industry
in my particular country. I welcome this new venture where coconut
oil is concerned. I would suggest then that this idea be tried
in every Caribbean island where coconut seems to be the most obvious
plant seen in the vegetation, including my country St. Lucia,
which would indeed benefit the inhabitants of this sweet island.
and Bless you for this great information! And what a break through
for the island nations if we can make this happen--big time! I
always knew that the coconut has much much more to give and do
beside uses in healing, food, cleaning, etc.--please let's get
together and expand into the big stuff and soon! You're way ahead
but those of us who just heard about it--can you help us start
also? You should win the Pacific Nobel Prize!
Mohammed, Trinidad and Tobago
I just attended
the AMCHAM Health and Safety conference and yes there was a paper
presented on biodiesel. I am sure there will be definitely be
more research and development in this field because of the various
drivers and the impact on the environment. The Kyoto Accord and
presently the high/rising cost of the oil/gas prices are the main
drivers for this alternative fuel. For smaller less developed
countries this biofuel seems to be the best alternative. Hugo
Chavez just announced this morning that he will be using all idle
cane fields in Venezuela to make ethanol from the sugar. Our country
Trinidad & Tobago has closed down the Sugar Manufacturing Plant.
Forward thinking there by our government. Anyways I believe if
further research and development is carried out I believe the
price of the biodiesel could be quite competitive and serve as
an alternative to rising demand for less developed countries.
This is my contribution to this discourse. I believe McDonalds
is presently using used vegetable oil for their use in their fleet.
is producing that and a couple of cars are using coconut oil as
fuel, why not? Go for it. It's about time.
Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
I think islanders should start planting and taking care of their
coconut trees so that they can have enough to make oil for their
Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
It will take
years for people in some of the North Pacific island nations to
design a strategy for the people to start thinking about planting
coconut trees before thinking about alternate source of energy...coconut
oil. Copra was once the main export commodity from these small
islands. Cost per pound of copra had hit the bottom several times
and somehow, someone bailed the industry so the few people who
still live on copra can at least make some money to bring their
living conditions several notches closer to the so called "poverty
guideline." The other day, I sat in a meeting co-facilitated by
an ADB consultant. The lesson I learned was that we Micronesians
have to be realistic with our capabilities in terms of natural
resources. Our islands are "micro" and our visions and aspirations
should also be focused on what mother nature has generously given
Let's get started.
good. Go for it in Jesus name.
I was amazed to find out that coconut oil could be used to replace
diesel fuel ......where I am confused is that with the price of
coconut oil here (Jamaica) how can that be competitive to the
price of diesel fuel??........or is it only used in places where
you cannot get diesel??...a friend of mine produces coconut oil
and his main complaint is that he simply cannot get enough coconuts
to supply his needs.....the market here is more geared to the
coconut's water, and finding dried coconuts is getting to be difficult....combined
with the fight against disease to the trees, I can't see it being
a viable option for Jamaica....just wanted to share my thoughts.....
this endeavour. I am from the Philippines and palm oil is being
pursued to be planted in our area in Palawan. This kind of information
is very much welcome and informative to show our political leaders
who usually decide contrary to community opinion and demand that
there is big hope in our coconuts. Let the support be directed
towards the coconut industry instead. Thanks for the information.
we've had problems with disease wiping out our coconut industry
in the past. My question is: in small islands do we have enough
space to grow sufficient quantities of coconuts to make processing
of this fuel worthwhile? And also, what happens to the industry
if we have an epidemic that wipes out the coconuts again? Just
some thoughts that should be considered if we're talking about
developing a sustainable industry. This is an exciting idea though.
Energy: General comments
energy as it implies for small islands may not be that compatible
as renewable because the cost of sustaining this form of energy
will be high. This is due to the fact that small Pacific Islands
are surrounded by big salt water ocean and are prone to natural
disasters, cyclone earthquakes and etc that are always damaging.
The islands and population are small remote and the cost of transfers
and maintenance is not compatible as sustainable.
agree, we do not need chunky tyred, 4x4 phallic symbols on paved
roads, neither do we need gigantic jumbo jets pouring out more
pollution into the upper atmosphere in one hour than a fleet of
buses could do in a day. The world is not driven by need, but
by greed and speed. Here in Vanuatu we have bio-diesel that will
work in any diesel engine on its own. But the oil barons have
decreed that it must be mixed 50/50 with conventional diesel.
'If it don't come out of the ground, you can't use it' according
is clean and recharging with small wind generators like yachties
have is viable for private households. (Wind will blow all night,
when the sun don't shine.) This is the method we are hoping to
employ when we build our retirement home away from modernity.
I am green
through and through and have been designing power sources for
more years than I care to admit too. But… Yeah, there is always
a but. The most benign I ever heard was "If it's that simple,
someone would have thought of it before." But would they? No,
in this technology driven age, everything must be big and complicated.
The simple things are beyond the brain-bound.
A. Economides, Cyprus
are going up in Cyprus in line with the rest of the world and
working their way through the supply chain of just about every
product or service offered in the economy. Inflation is on the
rise. However, this could be a positive development for the protection
of the environment. During the next few years when more people
will be searching for substitutes, government environmental regulation
will be very important in encouraging that the substitutes that
make it to the market are not only cheaper but are also environmentally
renewable source of energy is to make a visit to Cuba and take
notice of the innovative way of finding alternates. I have made
three visits and always find the trip interesting.
energy is not an elixir and neither is it the only canoe by which
SIDS can disembark on greener shores.
with renewable energy (and technology transfers) are greatest
in developing countries, SIDS in particular. But there have been
marked improvements lately as more and more SIDS, with the support
of the donor and international community, attempt to remove the
so-called barriers to the widespread use and utilization of "feasible"
renewable energy technologies.
Some of these
barrier-removal activities include adoption of clear visions,
policies and governments' will to pursue a renewable energy path.
In Fiji, the Fiji Electricity Authority has adopted a vision "To
be a 100% renewable energy utility by 2011." Work Plans and investment
programmes are in place and implementations are well underway.
In Vanuatu, its Council of Ministers/Cabinet resolved "to achieve
a 100% renewable energy economy based on the use of renewable
energies and hydrogen fuels by 2020." This includes developing
it's geothermal potential to produce electricity for local use
& the manufacture of hydrogen based fuels. Niue and Greenpeace
Australia Pacific has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding
to work towards the large scale uptake of renewable energy for
power, heat and transport. The primary objective is a 100% indigenous
energy supply. In 2005, the Pacific Islands leaders endorsed the
Pacific Plan, which incorporates the Pacific Regional Energy Policy.
This policy "Supports the introduction of new commercially proven
technologies, including renewable energy technologies and generating
systems that are environmentally, economically, financially and
socially viable". Unfortunately tidal energy (as well as wave
energy and OTEC) is not a commercially proven technology as yet,
even though they have enormous potential for all the ocean-surrounded
SIDS. In SIDS such as Tuvalu, Kiribati and the Marshall Islands,
ocean-based energy appears to be the only option (hopefully feasible
option) for grid-based electricity from renewable energy.
other country-specific technical, financial, institutional, market
and awareness barriers which must be removed too if renewable
energy, tidal included, is to make a lasting difference. The Global
Environmental Facility (GEF)-supported Caribbean Renewable Energy
Development Programme (CREDP) for the Caribbean and the Pacific
Islands Greenhouse Gas Abatement through Renewable Energy Project
(PIGGAREP) for the Pacific Islands are but some of the needed
calls for SIDS to continue engaging in dialogues for effective
collaborative effort where the "polluters" finance a more SIDS-focused
development of the ocean-based technologies. CSD 15 is yet another
opportunity and SIDS must stand together and blow the same cone
shell in order to be heard.
María E. Font, Puerto Rico
In the late
seventies/early eighties, there was a Project called OTEC (Ocean
Thermal Energy Conversion) the theme was researched but not funded
because getting energy from such a source was deemed very costly.
I have had people contact the Sea Grant Library, which I'm in
charge of, trying to revisit such information because with the
high cost of fuel, now it seems feasible.
Hamlet, Antigua and Barbuda
I am particularly
interested in Ian Mohammed's comments. I am also of the firm belief
that small developing states needs (as a matter of urgency) find
an alternative to our current energy crisis. There are some small
states among us that can study the possibility of hydro electricity
(Dominica). There are other islands because of their mountainous
nature and proximity to the Atlantic sea breeze that may be able
to generate electricity using the electric wind generators. The
theory of biodiesel is ok however it will require a significant
amount of capital investment and research and development. The
energy super powers will not want to volunteer the technology
cheaply. Therefore we may be forced to find a cheaper productive
way to resolve our energy crisis. Nonetheless, biofuel, biodiesel,
ethanol & hydro electricity all makes sense. Mohammed I agree.
We need to do something fast.
example of using technology for saving energy comes from the Cook
the Rarotonga based science advisor to the Cook Islands government
was asked to advise about reequipping of Aitu with a diesel generator
to meet demands on the ancient machinery making electricity there.
His survey showed a glowing opportunity in the form of incandescent
lamps being used throughout the island. He rather creatively applied
for a grant of about $2500 with which he bought as many energy
saving fluorescent bulbs as possible. He then went to Aitu and
personally changed all incandescent bulbs to energy savers. Then
the crisis of 85% of generating capacity use of electricity dropped
to nearer 20% - literally overnight. Not only that but the long
life of the bulbs meant that the higher cost of the bulbs was
offset handsomely by the infrequent replacement.
And the old generator was able to carry on until a smaller and
more efficient unit could be located and purchased.
Did you know
that here in Labasa, Fiji Islands, we use bagasse as a source
of energy to supply electricity via steam engines. This power
is available through Fiji Sugar Coorporation (FSC) during the
crushing season. Bagasse is a waste product after extracting sugar.
The bagasse is in abundance (available in tonnes) some is used
while the rest is stored in tonnes. The crushing season is only
six months and this is when the diesel generators of Fiji Electricity
Authority (FEA) is resting. It starts only when there is an emergency
shut down at FSC and during the non-crushing season. The fact
is that FSC sells its waste power to FEA at a very cheap rate.
FSC produces enough waste power to supply industries, factories
and residents which can be located many kilometres from the source.
We hope that if fossil fuel is depleted the use of bagasse could
be an answer.
It is okay
to say we should switch to alternative sources of renewable energies
but more research is needed to refine these energy sources. More
money should be given to promote these kinds of research. Meanwhile,
we should also make more efficient use of oil NOW. We do not need
4-wheel drive macho machines on our paved roads and this mentality
I am from
Guyana and live now in New York. Even here people are beginning
to get on the band wagon of alternative sources of energy because
of the anticipated high fuel prices this winter. A number of homeowners
on Long Island are installing solar panels to help provide their
own energy and if they have enough, they can return it to the
big energy suppliers for a credit. Can you imagine that - in a
place where there isn't the constant strong sunlight as in the
tropics! Wind mills don't have to look ugly - there is a farm/plantation
of windmills in the Palm Springs area of California. I thought
that it looked beautiful - almost worth publicising as a tourist
attraction by providing tours to visit the site. A new look at
alternative energy sources is imperative.
Caribbean should invest in renewables, says energy expert
Dominican Republic (August 24, 2005) - If you can't sell them
abroad then keep bananas at home because they could be used to
fuel your car, asserted an energy expert.
continuing to burn valuable money importing expensive fossil fuels,
Caribbean states should look at investing in a number of developments
in the area of renewable energy - such as sugar and bananas.
is coming from an international expert on sustainability and renewable
energy, the Honourable Tom Roper.
In an interview
following the First International Conference on the Environment
and Sustainable Development held in the Dominican Republic, sponsored
in part by Counterpart International and the Caribbean Media Exchange
(CMEx), Roper said that Caribbean states should closely follow
ongoing investigations into the potential use of bananas for energy,
being conducted by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial
Research Organisation, a Government Research body in Australia.
is still a research project which is probably still a couple years
before becoming viable, it was a development Caribbean banana
producing states needed to watch carefully," Roper, a former Australia
Cabinet Minister, said.
He said Caribbean
states should also turn their attention to other similar developments
where a country like Mauritius was using sugarcane for a large
part of their energy generation, while in the Pacific region coconut
oil was being added to diesel to make it more efficient.
that there were a lot of technologies currently available which
this part of the world was not cashing in on, nor taking advantage
of available funding.
to be few if any engineers or financiers who know much about these
forms of energy and (who are) capable of making good proposals
readily available, and it's those countries that have the expertise
available that are obtaining funds for the projects, such as Brazil
which is receiving more than anyone else," he noted.
Based on this
finding Roper said that he has challenged the World Bank to provide
funds for the Small Island Developing States to allow them to
acquire the skills to prepare and present proposals. "If this
is not done and done quickly, we can very well see the Brazils,
Chilies, Argentinas, Indias and Chinas getting all the funds and
the 40 (small) island developing states getting nothing. So it's
a real challenge not just for individual governments of the Caribbean
but one for a group like the World Bank to provide assistance
so there can be a level playing field in terms of access to carbon
financing," he said.
He said so
far only six Caribbean states had started the process of accessing
the Clean Development Mechanism Fund, which allows Western countries
to purchase carbon credits from a developing country, as part
of its contribution to reducing Global Warming. "But while they
may have started the process, what they need to do is work with
the utilities and investors to access more of these projects,"
he said. The six states that have set up "designated national
authorities", the precondition for submitting projects, are Antigua
and Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and Trinidad
that Jamaica has made the most significant strides having two
major projects underway related to the area of emission reductions.
from across the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Pacific,
the United States and Europe explored the theme "Environment:
Our Partner in Development" during the three-day parley staged
by The International Center for Environmental and Sustainable
Development Studies (CIEMADeS) in collaboration with Counterpart
International, the Caribbean Media Exchange on Sustainable Tourism
(CMEx) and The National Geographic Society.
were also coordinated by the Global Foundation for Democracy and
Development (FUNGLODE), which was set up by the nation's president
Dr. Leonel Fernández, Universidad del Turabo in Puerto Rico and
the Université Quisqueya from Haiti.
Laisa Bale Tuinamoala
for a very interesting discussion on future sources of energy.
Last week I was in LA when I saw a TV advertisement, spearheaded
by the former US President Bill Clinton for the State of California
on alternative sources of energy using ethanol. The advertisement
states that Brazil has moved to energy independency by not relying
on oil. The advertisement advocated a campaign on proposition
87 whereby produces of oil would be forced to pay taxes in order
to fund renewable energy. Its food for thought for small island
states on the use of "company taxes" - to fund some well needed
research & public awareness campaigns. It may be a first step
toward some of the suggestions below.
For more info
on proposition 87, see http://www.yeson87.org/
Those of us
from SIDS have to research into use of all knowledge systems both
traditional and contemporary to create opportunities for social
and sustainable development. The coconut oil as an energy source
for automobiles is one energy source. How about the energy from
the sun, winds, and waves? In 2001 UNESCO conducted a workshop
for young artists on papermaking using barks of bananas at Port
Vila, Vanuatu. Today some of those artists have gone into making
paper from grass and sugarcane waste. These natural resources
grow abundantly in some of the SIDS.
message that I am putting forward is that we do not stop short
of innovative ideas to sustain livelihood in all our islands even
if things are going tough for us. Always look forward to taken
on any challenge with zeal.
Energy: Geothermal Energy
As much as
I can subscribe to your thoughts on alternatives I would like
to point out a very important source in many countries which is
missing. That is GEOTHERMAL ENERGY. Hope you can add that to your
Energy: Solar Energy
Cherio Boedh, Indonesia
isolated populations (e.g. the Punan in the interior of Kalimantan)
are resettled by the Indonesian government and the government
serves them with solar energy battery. Although rivers with cascades
and rapids are plenty but the hydroelectricity plant is relatively
expensive. Tidal electricity is probably not easy for simple people
to handle. The only chance for people living in small island is
probably wind driving electric plant or solar energy battery.
I can suggest from Indonesia.
Basil Fernandez, Jamaica
I agree with
the person from St Vincent. In the Caribbean we need to harness
the sunlight more effectively and more efficiently. The high cost
of the materials, we have found in Jamaica to be due to taxes
charged by the Government. If the taxes were removed the oil savings
would more than cover the loss to the Government.
must point out that we all have a role to play in conservation.
It is not a Government thing.
Sabra Kauka, Hawaii
the island of Kaua'i in the Hawaiian archipelago. I have recently
returned from an Educators Expedition to the Northwest Hawaiian
Islands. This is a vast area of ancient islands north of Kaua`i
on the Pacific plate extending toward Japan. We travelled on a
research ship, the Hi`ialakai, sponsored by the US National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration. Access to the North West Hawaiian
Islands is tightly controlled because they are part of a marine
sanctuary or refuge.
to circumnavigate and snorkel at Nihoa, Mokumanamana (Necker),
La Perouse Pinnacle, and Tern Island. There is a US Fish and Wildlife
Station at Tern Island that runs 99% on solar energy. It is the
only island of the ones I've mentioned that is currently inhabited.
My ancestors once lived on Nihoa and travelled to Mokumanamana
but no longer live there.
I think we
are all going to have to look very seriously at solar energy.
It comes to us from the heavens and the technology exists to harness
it. We just have to find a way to buy the solar panels and related
technology. Additionally, until now I have resisted wind energy
because I don't think windmills are very attractive. If you make
a windmill look like a tree I may be sold on that idea.
here on Kaua'i we have thousands of acres of fallow agricultural
land as all but one of our sugar plantations have closed. There
is a Renewable Energy Committee, composed of concerned community
volunteers, that is meeting to explore alternative uses for this
land and especially to address alternative sources of energy.
You've already mentioned wind, solar, biodiesel, waves, etc.
A very viable
idea that is being implemented on Kaua'i is to once again cultivate
palm trees for their oil and other uses. This is actually an old
idea that has come around again. In our rush for foreign oil we
have forgotten the many uses of our home-grown varieties. My message
for all of us who live on islands is to look in our own backyards
for those plants that can provide energy for our community.
Meistrell, St. Vincent & the Grenadines
I have operated
a resort on St Vincent since 1990. It is powered by solar panels.
Solar panels and the system is not inexpensive, however, may be
worth it. We have 4 refrigerator freezers. Each costs about $3,000
US, but use less than 5 amps @ 12 volts = less than 60 watts.
The large ones have one compressor for the refrigerator and one
for the freezer. They are over 10 times more efficient than the
best new standard refrigerator. You do have to defrost, as they
are not automatic defrost. Our ceiling fans take 4 amps @ 12 volts
= 3 watts. Our pause operating front loader washer ($1,000 US)
can be operated off the solar power with an inverter (cost $1,000
US). A necessary function in operating on your own power is that
you must be aware of usage and work to reduce it. You have to
be willing to use fans rather than air conditioning. But it can
be done. To become energy independent take not only the producing,
but also efficiency in the using. With proper design and monitoring
use could be reduced by 50% with the existing power plants.
We use 20
panels ($400 US each) on the main area, 6 on the managers quarter
(this needs to be expanded to 10 for full time use), 2 smaller
ones ($300 US each) on the each guest site, one 24 volt ($600
US) on the well.
2 considerations in efficiency in electricity. One is production
and the second even greater one is on efficient use. Are you willing
to give up air conditioning in exchange for fans and design buildings
to make use of the natural flows of air, green cooling from plants
and the use of LED's for lighting.
By the way,
there are windmills that will adjust for high winds. They change
their blades so as not to catch wind over their limits.
costs of solar or wind power are batteries, wiring, controllers,
but it is all doable and doesn't have to cost much (the people
that sell these items, will sell you more than you need). The
problem with the Caribbean is that people are long on talk and
short on action, so I don't see anything progressive happening
until the powers let those that can, be in charge of doing it.
mentioned tidal use, but our part of the Caribbean has little
tide, but I am sure it we got out head together we could still
design a system.
I am very
pleasantly surprised and a bit astonished at the letter from the
person in Vanuatu describing the use of coconut oil as fuel there.
I have not heard of this before and I think that this is the kind
of information that should be made widely available to many developing
countries which will be suffering from the higher cost of fuel
and which do not have their own sources of energy. I also would
like to recommend the use of solar energy, at least for cooking
in places where there is no electricity but an abundance of sunshine.
The solar cookers which are produced in many places but particularly
used in Kenya are very low cost - and their manufacture can provide
a source of employment for many people. There is a non-profit
organization "Solar cookers international" which promotes
the use of this type of cooking.
Energy: Tidal Currents
Michael Alexiou, Bahamas
just occurred on how to increase speed of tidal flow with greater
may already be in use - I don't know enough on the subject - if
this is useful to anyone then good.
Let natural tidal flow into a lagoon and at high tide close the
gates and retain the water in the lagoon to the high level. When
the tide has dropped open the gates and the head pressure will
increase the flow speed.
This can be done in reverse - keeping the tide out of another
lagoon until the natural tide outside is high and then opening
the gates and letting the high tide flood into the lagoon. The
timing can be fine tuned so that as one is open the other is closed
and water is flowing all the time.
be the worst victim as oil prices continue to rise well beyond
what they now are.
most small island nations and have negligible value in the world
market. They can and should be used for biodiesel fuel, but may
leave no land for food on low islands A far larger, completely
clean, inexhaustible, and completely untapped energy resource
for Pacific and Indian Ocean islands, which uses no land at all,
are the tidal currents that race 4 times a day through passes
in the reefs. We are working to apply revolutionary new generation
Gorlov helical turbines to turn tidal current into electrical
current. I presented a paper on its potential to make most small
islands energy self-sufficient at the UN Summit of Small Island
Developing States in Mauritius earlier this year. I will present
more information on its potential at next year's United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development. We are working with the
UN Industrial Development Organization to try to set up pilot
projects in the new technology in small island nations. All who
are interested should contact me for further information. (
<goreau at bestweb.net> http://www.globalcoral.org)
on tidal current supplying future energy needs is most timely
and as you are well aware, Dr. Goreau is already engaged in. While
tidal currents are most accessible to SIDS, anti-gravity technology
would certainly be another option but this is something not presently
available for consumer use according to my research. See
It is believed
that this is the technology used by the ancient Egyptians to build
the pyramids (Information apportioned from aliens of another star
system at that time).
In any event,
I will keep you and the others apprised of developments regarding
funding. This will enable us to accelerate a multi-tiered operation
addressing all of the environmental conditions both prevalent
and threatening. All the best.
currents can supply future energy needs. So can the wind and sun
as mentioned. But is the government willing to forego oil revenue
in order to reduce energy consumption? Oil companies would have
to shut down operations and many people will be out of jobs.
only think of the present and what we can get from it. We do not
thing about future generations and what they will have to live
with once we are gone. In Trinidad where we are presently rich
in oil, food prices/cost of housing are increasing rapidly and
by this I mean on a daily basis. In the past, what we called 'middle
class' is now barely making ends meet. So you can imagine the
really poor citizens. There is still a very high ratio of 'upper
class' or rich people who benefit from the oil revenue but these
monies are not evenly/fairly distributed and crime (robberies,
domestic violence, rapes, kidnappings) is at an all time high.
I truly believe
the Government is playing blind to the fact that we have reached
a crisis level in the cost of basic items such as food and shelter
(needs not wants) while they enjoy the fruits of the high prices
Vaasiliifiti Moelagi Jackson, Samoa
for your views and your concern over trying to save our small
islands and trying to cope with the fast development of our nations.
At the Pacific
Island Association of NGOs meeting last month most of the issues
discussed was the effect of the various Trade Agreements that
our small nations had committed to like Pacific Economic Partnership
Agreement (EPA), Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations
(PACER), Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA) and
the unfair negotiations upon accession of Pacific countries into
the WTO like Tonga, Vanuatu and Samoa. Therefore there was very
little time left to discuss all these issues like fuel costs,
But this relates
to the issue of having resources that we could not utilize into
saleable commodities due to our lack of funds and skill. For example
we have fish everywhere and yet we still cannot put a fish in
a can. We have coconut oil and some countries like Samoa, Papua
New Guinea and few others are struggling to utilize our coconut
oil into fuel.
It is yet
to see coconut butter produced locally or cosmetics being produced
from our coconut and flowers of the islands. Let alone herbs,
etc. With all these turned into commodities we still cannot compete
with the rest of the world in trade. Unless we have a Pacific
Trade Union, Caribbean Trade Union, etc.
and thinking although one thing is for sure - we may be poor financially
but most of the islands are enjoying peace and are able to sustain
themselves within their environment. They would be even richer
if they did not have to pay taxes, and high cost of infrastructure.
There is little
doubt that when in the course of evolutionary process, Homo sapiens
arrived on Planet Earth, this event created a potential for a
major environmental crisis, which is now being realised.
from one geological age to the next seems to be marked by a major
crisis, with a wide extinction of existing species and opening
up of niches for new species.
if the crisis that exterminated the dinosaurs had not happened,
either we would not be here today or we would look very different.
We face a great transition. Through multiple pressures and triggers
of change piled upon change, we are poised at a great divide even
as a new world struggles to be born. Our biosphere groans under
its burden. The pressure and processes are generating a host of
impacts and outcomes - the compounded impact that tends to catch
We shall see
a continuing shift in the proportion of animal biomass represented
by humans and livestock. Science is not the only way to solving
our problems. There are other knowledge system, some much older
and wider than science. In Zimbabwe science as a knowledge system
is barely a century old. Before that there was the indigenous
knowledge system which also deserves serious study because of
its continued influence on, and use by, the majority of our people
as they try to cope with the problems of their political, social,
is the product of culture. I believe science came to this country
as a knowledge system from colonial origins. Modern technology
took an exclusionist approach and was largely programmed to displace
indigenous knowledge systems. Countries such as Japan took a different
approach to science as Basil Davidson writes in his book: The
Black Man's Burden.
Rainer, Federated States of Micronesia
When we talk
about small islands, perceptions of the work may leave one in
doubt as to the actual size of a small island. The Pacific Region
is divided into three archipelagos: Micronesia (tiny islands),
Polynesia (many islands) and Melanesia (don't know). In these
island chains, size of an island varies. In Micronesia, the island
that I am originally from is about 00.7 square miles. This figure
includes the fringing reef that surrounds 4 tiny, tiny islands
situated to the north of the Eastern Caroline Islands. The question
one might ask is....How to sustain a population of more than 300
on an island that is less than a square mile?
challenges to these islands are transportation and communication.
Some of these islands can only be accessed by field trip ships.
Depending on the ability of the state government, the ship might
not be able to keep her monthly schedule. There are times that
the field trip ship will not visit these islands for more than
Some of these
islands can be reached by small plane, with limited space for
essentials that can sustain the population. Local produce takes
more than 6 months to yield enough for the population. Political
and economical changes and trends put forth challenges that island
people have to adjust to. People on these islands depend on SSB
radios to communicate with the capital cities and between islands.
Solar power was introduced and now people enjoy the brightness
that allows their children to use a better source of light to
do their homework and study.
education benefits from the government are very minimal due to
transportation limitations. With migration from the small islands
to the main islands increasing, the small island governments will
end up with a population that is susceptible to failure because
of lack of leadership. Leadership development training to the
outer island population is a must. The islanders need to be aware
of the world around them, what their potentials are, how to maximize
these potentials and then figure out a plan that can sustain their
Hope I am
making sense. Thanks for sharing and the opportunity for me to
agro-biodiversity food garden is for schools in the tropics. It
will be mapped using GIS and GPS individual or plant genetic populations.
Biomass will be measured. The 10-40+ plant species complex will
provide an outdoor biology/cultural/nutrition textbook addressing
the 'digital divide' which if not addressed further marginalizes
the poor (child soldiers, child sexual exploitation etc.) Students
will cooperate on line by helping with garden plant associations/companion
plantings, data input quality control etc., which in the end will
produce an individual student syllabus (developed country contribution
to digital divide chasm) which will substitute for term papers
and produce curriculum on agriculture/ watershed-catchment management/bioregional
seed exchange and local food security/ nutrition/health in developing
countries in fields beyond agriculture, biology/genomics/ intellectual