History of Civilizations of Central Asia

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Description of project
International Scientific Committee
Online edition
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The development of sedentary and
nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250.

János Harmatta

B.N. Puri and G.F. Etemadi

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Summary :

The emergence of the Achaemenid Empire, the invasions of Alexander the Great and the nomadic and sedentary civilizations are described in detail. With the rise of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom, the civilizations of Central Asia underwent a fundamental change through a progressive syncretism between Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Greek religions. The Kushan Empire overthrowing the Parthians in the East gave rise to a rich and prosperous trade through the Silk Roads linking China to the West.

icon2.gif (76 octets) Table of Contents


icon2.gif (76 octets)  Table of Contents

Description of the project
Mohammad S. Asimov,
President, International Scientific Committee

Members of the International Scientific Committee

List of contributors

J. Harmatta

Chapter 1 Ancient Iranian nomads in western Central Asia
A. Abetekov and H. Yusupov

Chapter 2 Media and Achaemenid Iran
M.A. Dandamayev

Chapter 3 Alexander and his successors in Central Asia
A.H. Dani and P. Bernard

Chapter 4 The Greek kingdoms of Central Asia
P. Bernard

Chapter 5 Parthia
G.A. Koshelenko and V.N. Pilipko

Chapter 6 Nomads in eastern Central Asia
N. Ishjamts

Chapter 7 The Yüeh-chih and their migrations
K. Enoki, G.A. Koshelenko and Z. Haidary

Chapter 8  The Sakas and Indo-Parthians
B.N. Puri

Chapter 9 The culture of the Xinjiang region
Ma Yong and Wang Binghua

Chapter 10 The Western Regions under the Hsiung-nu and the Han
Ma Yong and Sun Yutang

Chapter 11 The Kushans
B.N. Puri

Chapter 12 Economy and social system in Central Asia in the Kushan age
A.R. Mukhamedjanov

Chapter 13 Cities and urban life in the Kushan kingdom
B.A. Litvinsky

Chapter 14 Religions in the Kushan Empire
J. Harmatta, with the contributions of B.N. Puri, L. Lelekov, S. Humayun and D.C. Sircar

Chapter 15 Kushan art
G.A. Pugachenkova, S.R. Dar, R.C. Sharma and MA Joyenda, in collaboration with H. Siddiqi

Chapter 16 Languages and scripts in Graeco-Bactria and the Saka kingdoms
J. Harmatta

Chapter 17 Languages and literature in the Kushan Empire
J. Harmatta

Chapter 18 States in north-western Central Asia
N.N. Negmatov

Chapter 19 The nomads of northern Central Asia after the invasion of Alexander
Y.A. Zadneprovskiy

Chapter 20 The rise of Sasanian Iran
BA Litvinsky, with the contributions of M. Hussain Shah and R. Shabani Samghabadi

J. Harmatta