History of Civilizations of Central Asia

Researcher network
Description of project
International Scientific Committee
Online edition
Online chapter
Photo gallery

The cross-roads of civilizations:
A.D. 250 to 750.

B.A. Litvinsky

Zhang Guang-da and R. Shabani Samghabadi

How to order ?

Summary :

This was a period which witnessed not only complex political events due to the arrival of warring dynasties and to ethnic movements, but also far-reaching social, economic and cultural upheaval. An epoch of rich and powerful empires such as the Sasanians in Iran and the T'ang in China. There were also waves of nomadic migrations and the constitution of steppe empires which swept over these sedentary populations and not only left their imprint on political and social life but frequently added a new ethnic component to the population. These multiethnic and multicultural societies had their roots in great religious traditions such as Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Christianity and Shamanism. The advent of Islam in the region at the end of this period brought fundamental changes to all aspects of life.

icon3.gif (76 octets) Table of Contents


icon3.gif (76 octets) Table of Contents

Description of the project
Mohammad S. Asimov,
President, International Scientific Committee

Members of the International Scientific Committee

List of contributors

Chapter 1 Historical introduction
BA Litvinsky and Zhang Guang-da

Chapter 2 Sasanian Iran - economy, society, arts and crafts
N.N. Chegini and A.V. Nikitin

Chapter 3  Sasanian Iran - intellectual life
A. Tafazzoli and A.L. Khromov

Chapter 4  The Kushano-Sasanian kingdom
A.H. Dani and BA Litvinsky

Chapter 5 The Kidarite kingdom in Central Asia
E.V. Zeimal

Chapter 6 The Hephthalite Empire
BA Litvinsky

Chapter 7 Eastern Kushans, Kidarites in Gandhara and Kashmir, and Later Hephthalites
A.H. Dani, BA Litvinsky and M.H. Zamir Safi

Chapter 8  The Gupta kingdom

Chapter 9  Khwarizm
E.E. Nerazik and P.G. Bulgakov

Chapter 10  Sogdiana
B.I. Marshak and N.N. Negmatov

Chapter 11 The city-states of the Tarim basin
Zhang Guang-da

Chapter 12 Kocho (Kao-ch’ang)
Zhang Guang-da

Chapter 13 Northern nomads
L.R. Kyzlasov

Chapter 14 The Türk Empire
D. Sinor and S.G. Klyashtorny

Chapter 15  The Western Regions (Hsi-yü) under the T’ang Empire and the kingdom of Tibet
Mu Shun-ying and Wang Yao

Chapter 16 Tokharistan and Gandhara under Western Türk rule (650 - 750)
J. Harmatta and BA Litvinsky

Chapter 17 Religions and religious movements - I
Ph. Gignoux and BA Litvinsky

Chapter 18  Religions and religious movements - II
BA Litvinsky and M.I. Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya

Chapter 19  The Arab conquest
BA Litvinsky, A.H. Jalilov and A.I. Kolesnikov

Chapter 20 Central Asia, the cross-roads of civilizations
BA Litvinsky and Zhang Guang-da


Bibliography and References