History of Civilizations of Central Asia

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Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century

Editors
Chahryar Adle and Irfan Habib

Co-Editor
Karl M. Baipakov

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Summary :

This volume continues the history of Central Asian civilizations from c. 1500 to c. 1850, a period which saw the last medieval empires, notably the Uzbeks, Safavids, Mughals and Dzungars, and witnessed the early impact of colonialism. Like the preceding volumes, the present one also deals with all the diverse elements of culture. It describes the last phase of nomadism as a viable system of social organization; the effects on Central Asian economies of the shift of the main lines of international trade from the Great Silk Route to the oceanic routes; the various schools of art; the last great age of classical Persian literature and the growth of Turkic literatures; and, finally, in the religious sphere, the Shi`ite triumph in Persia, the conversion of the Mongol peoples to Buddhism, and the rise of Sikhism. It also analyses the problem of the lag in Central Asian scientific and technological development in relation to Europe and the nature of early colonialism – notably British and Russian – in Central Asia. The conclusion sums up the main trends in Central Asian history from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century.

icon4.gif (76 octets) Table of Contents

icon4.gif (76 octets)  Table of Contents

Description of the project
M. S. Asimov

Members of the International Scientific Committee

Contents

Description of the project
M. S. Asimov

Members of the International Scientific Committee

List of contributors

Editors’ note

Introduction
The Editors

Chapter 1. The khanate (emirate) of Bukhara
Part One:
- The Shaybanids
R. G. Mukminova

Part Two:
- The Janids (Astarkhanids)
R. G. Mukminova

Part Three:
- The Manghits
A. Mukhtarov

Chapter 2. The khanates of Khiva and Kokand and the relations between the khanates and with other powers
Part One:
- The khanate of Khiva (Khwarazm)
M. Annanepesov

Part Two:
- Ferghana and the khanate of Kokand
H. N. Bababekov

Part Three:
- Relations between the khanates and with other powers
M. Annanepesov

Chapter 3. The Kazakhs
K. M. Baipakov and B. E. Kumekov

Chapter 4. The Kyrgyz
T. Tchoroev (Chorotegin)

Chapter 5. The Turkmens
M. Annanepesov

Chapter 6. The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks), and the peoples of southern Siberia
Part One:
- History of the Dzungars: introductory survey
J. Miyawaki

Part Two:
- The Dzungars and the Torguts (Kalmuks) in China
Bai Cuiqin

Part Three:
- The peoples of southern Siberia in the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries
L. R. Kyzlasov

Chapter 7. The Tarim basin
Ma Dazheng

Chapter 8. The Mongols
N. Ishjamts

Chapter 9. The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the trans-Pamir states
Part One:
- The Pamirs and Badakhshan
H. S. Pirumshoev

Part Two:
- The trans-Pamir states
A. H. Dani

Chapter 10. Persia during the period of the Safavids, the Afshars and the early Qajars
E. Eshraghi
Part One:
- The Safavids (1501-1722)

Part Two:
- The Afshars, a short-lived military empire (1736-47), and the Zand regime (1747-94)

Part Three:
- The early Qajars at the threshold of the modern world (1795-1848)

Chapter 11. Afghanistan
Mir Hussain Shah

Chapter 12. The Mughal empire and its successors
M. Athar Ali

Chapter 13. International relations
Part One:
- Inter-state relations (c. 1500-1850)
Iqtidar A. Khan

Part Two:
- Colonialism and Central Asia
Irfan Habib

Chapter 14. Society
Part One:
- Social structure
- - Nomadic societies
The Editors
- - Sedentary societies
S. Moosvi

Part Two:
- The status of women
- - Transoxania
A. Tabyshalieva
- - Iran
S. Moosvi
- - India
S. Moosvi

Chapter 15. The economy: Production and trade
Part One:
- Production
- - Northern areas (Transoxania and the steppes)
- - Pastoral production
N. Masanov
- - Agriculture
The Editors
- - Handicrafts
K. M. Baipakov
- Southern Central Asia
S. Moosvi

Part Two:
- Trade
A. Burton

Chapter 16. Monetary systems and prices
Part One:
- Northern parts of Central Asia: monetary policy and currency circulation under the Shaybanid and the Janid (Astarkhanid) dynasties
E. A. Davidovich

Part Two:
- Eastern and northern Central Asia (c. 1750 to c. 1850)
E. V. Rtveladze

Part Three:
- The monetary system in Safavid Persia
S. Moosvi

Part Four:
- The monetary system and price movements in India
S. Moosvi

Chapter 17. Science and technology
Irfan Habib
Part One:
- Science

Part Two:
- Technology

Chapter 18. Architecture
Part One:
- Architecture in Transoxania and Khurasan
G. A. Pugachenkova

Part Two:
- The architecture of the Mughal empire (north-western regions)
A. H. Dani

Part Three:
- The eastern region of Central Asia
Liu Zhengyin

Part Four:
- Mongol architecture
E. Alexandre

Chapter 19. Arts of the book, painting and calligraphy
Part One:
- Iran and north-western Central Asia
O. Akimushkin
- - Iran
- - North-western Central Asia

Part Two:
- Painting in Mughal India
A. Okada

Part Three:
- Eastern Central Asia
Liu Zhengyin

Chapter 20. Applied arts: metalwork, ceramics and sculpture
A. Ivanov
- Metalwork
- Ceramics
- Sculpture

Chapter 21. Applied arts: textiles and carpets
Part One:
- Textile fabrics other than carpets
M. Ashrafi

Part Two:
- Textile arts in Transoxania
L. Carmel and M. Niyazova

Part Three:
- Carpets
E. Tsareva

Chapter 22. Literature in Persian and other Indo-Iranian languages
Part One:
- Literature in Persian
K. Aini

Part Two:
- Literature in Pashto
R. Farhadi

Part Three:
- Literature in the Indic languages of Pakistan and north-western India
Irfan Habib
- Appendix:
The languages of Afghanistan
R. Farhadi

Chapter 23. Turkic and Mongolian literature
Part One:
- Turkic literature
A. Kayumov

Part Two:
- The epic tradition and historical literature in Turkic
I. Togan

Part Three:
- Mongolian literature
G. Kara

Part Four:
- Mongolian lexicography and historiography
Sh. Bira

Chapter 24. Philosophy, logic and cosmology
M. Dinorshoev

Chapter 25. Religious movements
Part One:
- Islam
- - The Sufi orders in northern Central Asia
Th. Zarcone
- - Shicism in Iran
Irfan Habib
- - Islam in India
Irfan Habib

Part Two:
- Buddhism
Y. Ishihama

Part Three:
- Hinduism
J. S. Grewal

Part Four:
- Sikhism
J. S. Grewal

Part Five:
- Shamanism
C. E. Bosworth

Part Six:
- Cultural and religious cross-fertilization between Central Asia and the Indo-Persian world
J. Calmard

Conclusion
The Editors

Maps:
General map of Central Asia (1500-1850)
The khanates of Central Asia
Eastern and northern Central Asia: the Dzungar expansion
The Mongols after the fall of the Dzungar empire
The changing frontiers of Iran
The Mughal empire and its neighbours (1605)
Afghanistan. Map of languages and dialects

Bibliography and References

Glossary

Index