Selected innovative examples
The examples below were presented in Parties’ quadrennial periodic reports submitted in 2012. They represent a first selection of innovative examples of the implementation of the Convention at country and regional level, as identified by international experts.
1. Cultural policies and measures
The Argentine Cultural Industries Market (MICA)
Austrian creative sector support initiatives
The Argentine Cultural Industries Market (MICA) was held in 2011 to promote the country’s design, music, performing arts, audiovisual art, publishing and video games producers in domestic and international markets. Organized in a single space, it was a focused point of articulation between producers and the state agencies engaged in promoting the cultural industries (which in Argentina account for more than 300,000 jobs and 3.5% of GDP). The market was elaborated by different public agencies working closely with the relevant private sector counterparts, viz. the Argentine Book Chamber, the Argentine Publications Chamber, the Association of Argentine Videogame Developers, the National Theatre Institute and others. It involved all the different ministries concerned as well as specialized agencies. The event was also supported by foreign Embassies and international organizations (SEGIB, etc.). It had exhibition stands for each sector as well as for all national public agencies and each province of Argentina. Lectures by industry experts on key challenges facing the sector, workshops and debates, theatrical and musical presentations and the like were also offered. Presentations were organized at related international events such as the Guadalajara Book Fair, Womex, Medellin Music Market, the Frankfurt Book fair and Uniconvention. More than 34,000 people visited or took part in the event as a whole.
This initiative represents a successful cross-cutting project that innovatively promotes the cultural industries sector in all stages of the value chain, creates public awareness about it and provides professionals with learning opportunities regarding the challenges it faces.
Brazil’s national cinema policy
Two Austrian support initiatives to cultural industries can be highlighted as particularly relevant. From 2008 to 2013 roughly USD 33 million will have been invested in the evolve programme of Austria’s Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth, implemented in cooperation with the Austria economic service and arge creativ wirtschaft Austria that represents the creative industry sector within the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber. The initiative aims to strengthen the competitive and innovative capacity of the Austrian creative industries, through training, education and advisory services, networking as well as financial support to cultural enterprises, while a sub-fund entitled impulse finances the experimental development, first market application and distribution of creative products, pilot projects and best practice initiatives. Besides direct promotion, evolve also aims to strengthen the public awareness and visibility of creative goods and services.
In 2005 the Federal Ministry for Economy, Family and Youth introduced go international, a programme targeting international marketing that offers advisory services, events and support including workshops on export marketing, trade and fact-finding missions, support for presentations at trade fairs, publication of special directories and catalogues and bringing together Austrian entrepreneurs with potential foreign customers. In 2009-2010 USD 2.6 million were invested in the creative industries strand and as of March 2011 more than 400 Austrian entrepreneurs had increased their non-domestic turnover, while in 2009 the creative industries achieved an export share of 26 per cent (as compared to 12 per cent for other commercial service sectors).
These initiatives, which form part of a whole panoply of measures implemented in Austria, are excellent examples of a systematic public support for entrepreneurs and exports in the cultural industries sector.
The French book policy
Brazil’s cinema policy, implemented jointly by the National Film Agency (ANCINE) and the Ministry of Culture, aims to increase the presence of Brazilian films on both national and international markets. It encourages innovation, staff training, preservation and dissemination of audio-visual heritage, financial support, technical support, script-writing and coordination with the non-theatrical projection circuit. In 2011, the legal structure was updated to extend to pay television, and a new law establishes a new regulatory regime extending to actions promoting diversity in the conditional access audio-visual broadcasting. The new legislation makes explicit reference to the principles of the 2005 Convention. An Audio-visual Sectoral Fund finances a wide range of projects. From 2007 to 2011, 26 tenders have been launched and 250 projects selected. In addition, ANCINE ensures that film quotas are respected, with cinemas having to meet a minimum quota of 3 to 14 different Brazilian films, per cinema, for 28 to 63 days, depending on the size of the cinema. In 2011, the National Congress expanded the scope of the quotas to apply to pay television, also establishing quotas and group programming channels for all companies.
This policy, accompanied by the necessary legislative measures, illustrates the potential for a film promotion effort conducted in a consistent and proactive way by public authorities in a developing country.
Germany’s Cultural and Creative Industries Initiative
This policy aims to encourage the promotion and maintenance of cultural diversity in the book sector in France. It is based on the action of the National Book Centre (CNL) as well as numerous partners. The law on fixed book price adopted in 1981 has a threefold objective: (i) the equality of citizens before the book, which shall be sold at the same price throughout the country, (ii) maintaining a dense decentralized network of bookstores, especially in disadvantaged areas, iii) supporting pluralism in the creation and publishing of books, especially for difficult works. In 2011 a new law established a single price for the digital book and a support network of libraries and media centers involving all institutional actors. The CNL and its partners are also committed to promoting foreign literature in France, through a program of support for the translation of foreign-language works into French and organization of promotional campaigns for these works in France. Regarding the promotion of French books abroad, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the CNL and its partners annually spend more than ten million euros for this purpose through modalities such as translation aids, transport aid, support for authors’ creative work, participation in major international fairs, the professionalization of French bookstores, creation and production of quality French publishing, promoting and supporting ideas, knowledge and scientific culture expressed in the French language, with the help of a network of 300 media centers and direct aid to the various actors of the French abroad.
This policy aims to protect creators and consumers. It is an effective response to the economic and technological permutations in the cultural sector. It is a widely followed model, especially in Europe and Latin America.
Mexico’s National Programme for Culture, 2007-2012
Germany’s Federal Government has launched several initiatives to promote and to stimulate innovation in advertising, the art market, broadcasting, the software and games, design, the architecture, book and performing arts markets, the film industry, the music industry and the press market. These include the Cultural and Creative Industries Initiative (CCII), the German Federal Film Fund, the Initiative Music and the German Computer Game Prize. The CCII seeks to improve company competitiveness and to enhance the entrepreneurial skills of independent professionals and freelancers. A Centre of Excellence for the Cultural and Creative Industries was established in 2009 as a platform for information, advice and networking with a view to strengthening the sector and acting as an intermediary between the ‘creative classes’ and economic policy-makers. The Centre of Excellence’s remit includes establishing the cultural and creative industries as a publicly-recognised independent economic sector, improving access to existing support measures, further developing the range of professional training and continuing education on offer, optimising market opportunities for cultural professionals and creative people, and opening access to international markets. Eight regional offices also provide similar services in close cooperation with the Länder.
These measures represent a good example of the importance of providing comprehensive information and capacity-building infrastructure at the national (Federal) level to help individuals and companies operating in the cultural and creative industries.
Public information and education in Mongolia
This programme, put in place and led by the National Council for Culture and the Arts (CONACULTA), in cooperation with other relevant bodies in the cultural field, seeks to address the country’s needs in a wide range of cultural domains ranging from heritage, both material and immaterial to all forms of cultural expression, arts education and participation. It contains a special focus on promoting understanding of the development potential for municipalities, states and regions of the arts and culture in general and the cultural industries in particular. Encouraging diverse cultural expressions as a basis for union and social cohesion is a key objective, together with others such as the promotion of access to, enjoyment of and participation as regards cultural goods and services, the provision of spaces for cultural production of quality and increasing the contribution of culture to social welfare. The programme’s main axes are heritage and cultural diversity, cultural infrastructure, national and international cultural promotion, public incentives for creation and sponsorship, training and research in various cultural fields, the promotion of reading, culture and tourism and, last but not least, the cultural industries. The programme is stated to be the product of a broad process of consultation with the country’s artistic communities, intellectuals, academics, civil society entities and cultural operators.
This programme embodies an overarching policy vision that fully integrates the awareness and promotion of diversity that also includes cultural goods and services.
Montenegro’s multi-purpose cultural centre
The Arts Council of Mongolia has carried out since 2010 a broad range of advocacy activities via a TV Programme called ‘Arts Network’ implemented in cooperation with the national broadcasting organization MNPRTV. . The aim of these activities is to promote the diversity of cultural expressions with a view to making arts and culture institutions more visible to the general public, to helping the latter understand the significance of the arts and culture and their potential for the development of individuals and society, as well as providing it with information on the diversity of cultural expressions internationally. Three goals are pursued through the telecasting of the following three programmes: ‘Urlan’, which introduces both Mongolian and foreign artists to the public highlighting the different styles of artistic performance; ‘Knowledge’, which covers ancient and modern history as well as the history of world art and religions; and ‘Calendar, a programme that provides updates to viewers on cultural and art activities currently taking place in major cities around the world, as well as on possibilities of participation for Mongolian artists. The information helps to build understanding and favourable public opinion on these matters. The Embassy of Norway supported this initiative in 2010, allowing the Arts Council of Mongolia to present the cultural expressions of both Norway and Sweden to Mongolian viewers, while also presenting the diversity of Mongolian arts and culture itself.
This initiative shows how public service broadcasting can be used imaginatively in a developing country as an instrument of public information and awareness building with respect to cultural diversity.
Inclusive Creative Industries’ Joint Program in Peru
Montenegro is planning to create an ambitious new multimedia centre in an abandoned refrigerator factory covering a surface area of 140,000 square metres and located in the former royal capital, Cetinje that is to be called the Marina Abramović Community Center Obod Cetinje. It will be a center of production, presentation, distribution and development of various artistic forms, including performing arts, of which Marina Abramović is a leading figure, but also visual arts, film and video, educational and environmental programmes, architecture, science and new technologies. The future centre is being conceptualized and designed as an incubator for change, as well as a driver for cultural development, both locally and throughout the country. Thus the Center will also be engaged in social and educational programs, cooperation and networking, ecology, and local community building. It will also have its own dedicated collection, a multimedia library and archive, and will rent out its spaces. In addition to its cultural activities, this multi-functional center will also develop a whole series of economic and service ventures which should provide a significant contribution to both the reanimation of the Obod factory compound itself and to the revitalisation of the entire town of Cetinje. The first phase of the project is envisaged to be completed in 2013.
This cultural centre is designed as an incubator for change, as well as a driver for cultural development and stimulator of artistic innovation, both locally and throughout the country.
Critical Neighbourhoods' Initiative in Portugal
This multi-pronged ‘Joint Program’ (JP) aims to promote culture as a driver of economic development for vulnerable groups in four regions of Peru: Ayacucho, Cusco, Puno and Lambayeque (2010 – 2012, co-funded by ILO, WTO, UNIDO, UNDP, UNESCO and FAO). These regions have been selected both because they are poverty-stricken and because of their potential for inclusive development, once an enabling environment has been created. The JP also targets market access and the sharing of successful business models in ‘inclusive cultural industries’. It seeks to strengthen public-private structures in each region, with entrepreneurs as active partners in building marketing and general business-relevant capacities among the most vulnerable groups that also involves building the capacities of local and regional governments. It also proposes a regulatory and public policy framework. Care is being taken to consolidate lessons learned, so that JP outputs and outcomes are disseminated to all its stakeholders, partners, networks, etc., with a view to its replication. JP is led and coordinated by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism and partners include the Ministry of Culture and its regional directorates, producers associations and NGOs. Finally, it has set quantified targets such as the following: employment provided for 200 inclusive cultural industry entrepreneurs; 4,800 government officials, private sector leaders and community leaders (of which at least 30% women) made aware of inclusive cultural industry opportunities; 100 students trained and 100 trainers trained (of which at least 30% women and 50% from the poorest segment of the population); 1,300 representatives of public sector, private sector and civil society informed about the issue and its opportunities; 120 members of parliament made aware of and favourable to the proposed regulatory framework.
This Joint Programme links cultural industry development and poverty reduction strategies, maximizing the potential of the ‘One UN’ framework, which has set quantified output and outcome targets as benchmarks.
The Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) Centres in Uruguay
Launched in 2005, in the framework of a national urban management policy, this inter-ministerial initiative promotes cultural expression in four different urban areas: Vale da Amoreira (Moita), as a ‘decentralised art: artistic experimentation space’; Cova da Moura (Amadora), as a ‘a creative space’ and Lagarteiro (Porto), as an arts education network at the primary and pre-primary school levels. The initiative aims to foster cultural exchange and ‘fusion’ between and among the different communities resident in these neighbourhoods. In Vale da Amoreira, the artistic component is considered to be a structuring dimension of the entire intervention and the creation of a community studio has enabled production (and built production capacities) of and for different artistic products from the various established artists’ collectives, together with an exchange of services between different types of artistic skill. Approximately 1200 young people are involved in the project, spanning a range of activities linked to artistic expression. The public image of the zone has been transformed: it is no longer associated principally with marginality but rather with the various cultural and artistic initiatives. Another key aspect is the construction of important cultural infrastructure within the Lisbon and Tagus Valley region. This is the Artistic Experimentation Centre (financed by the European Economic Area Financial Mechanism and the Institute of Housing and Urban Renewal) that will be managed by Moita Municipal Council, not as a traditional cultural infrastructure but rather as a facility that will foster artistic engagement by the entire community.
This is a good example of an art-centered urban management and development intervention whose core rationale is the promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions of the local inhabitants.
Burkina Faso’s national cultural impact study
The Ministry of Education and Culture (MEC) Centres have been built up since 2007 to facilitate citizens’ access to educational and cultural goods and services together with scientific and technological innovation, as well as favour social integration and citizen participation. They operate particularly for the benefit of population groups that have been the most disadvantaged due to economic, educational and territorial reasons or as a result of some kind of disability. They have made it possible to bring cultural and educational goods and services to rural areas. The Centres seek also to promote awareness of rights: human, social, political, environmental, gender and cultural. Their outreach, dissemination and development-related activities include visits by artists, scientists and technical experts, exhibitions, debates and other activities, as well as non-formal education projects; promotion of digital literacy is a particular focus. The Ministry works with provincial authorities as strategic partners, while the National Telecommunications Authority serves as a technological ally. A noteworthy aspect of this scheme has been the systematic gathering of impact indicators for the period 2007-2011: ‘5676 activities, in which cultural and educational goods circulated between 114 towns and villages of up to 5000 inhabitants, for which 3787 artists, workshop organizers and performances were contracted at an average cost of $4,300.00 per activity, which means on average 4 activities per month. About 75% of the population (3 out of 4 inhabitants) took part at least in one activity’.
This effort to bring cultural and educational goods and services to rural areas and disadvantaged groups is a good example of how in a developing country relatively simple means can be employed to promote cultural awareness and participation within a broad human development framework and how an impact monitoring component can be integrated into the project.
China: market development, investment and flow promotion measures
In 2012, the government of Burkina Faso carried out a study on the economic and social impacts of culture. The study revealed that the cultural dimension is present in the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the national economy, in each of which cultural actors are significant contributors. They generate revenue from salaries and honoraria, their work yields interest on investment and produces dividends, as well as foreign exchange and tax income for the government. The study found that in 2009, the cultural sector directly employed 164,592 people, or 1.78 % of the workforce. Its contribution to Gross Domestic Product was 159 million US dollars, or 2.02% of GDP.
In addition, the majority of income earned by artists and performers was generated by their activities overseas. In the social sector, it was observed that the country’s very large number of usages, practices and expressions are prime sources of social energy for development efforts, notably in the following domains: conflict resolution; nation-building; contribution to sustainable development via projects of environmental protection; the social emancipation of women, which plays a major role in the strengthening of the crafts and design sector.
This initiative responds to a key challenge for many developing countries, namely the need to compile a robust evidence base in order to support the advocacy for the strengthening of cultural and creative industries.
Promotion and development of publishing, books and reading in Côte d’Ivoire
In order to foster the cultural market, in 2004 China’s Ministry of Culture issued an Opinion on Encouraging, Supporting and Guiding Non-Public Sectors of the Economy to Develop the Cultural Industry, an instrument that lowered market access thresholds significantly. In 2005, the State Council published Decisions on the Access of Non-Public Capital to the Cultural Industry that opened up a range of cultural industry sectors to non-public capital and also promulgated a Regulation on the Administration of Commercial Performances; amendments in 2008, further expanding access for market entities from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, as well as funding channels.
In 2009, the Ministry of Culture published similar extending support to private artistic performing groups in the form of funding, government procurement, performance venues and equipment, simplified approval processes, talent cultivation and commendation and rewards. Also, with a view to bringing in foreign capital in line with WTO entry commitments, the Chinese authorities have made it possible under certain conditions for foreign investors to establish enterprises as wholly-owned or joint ventures, notably in print publication or the production of read-only CDs. Without prejudice to China’s rights of examination and approval of audio-visual products, foreign investors are now allowed to establish cooperative ventures, with Chinese partners as the dominant party, for the distribution of all audio-visual products except films.
Similarly, in order to improve the international trading in and commercial exhibition of artworks, the ‘Interim Provisions for Export-Import Management of Artworks’ were published in June 2009. From 2007 to 2010, China imported as finished articles from abroad: 2,982,414 book titles, 222,608 periodicals, 4,977 newspaper titles, 46,651 audio-visual products and 8,160 electronic publications. Copyrights were imported for another 52,669 book titles, 1,961 audio-visual products and 382 electronic publications. China admits 20 revenue-sharing international films every year in fulfillment of its WTO entry commitments. In the year 2011, total box office income nationwide based on imported films earned almost 9 billion US dollars compared to a little over 11 billion dollars from domestic films.
Each of these three sets of policy measures and the results they have had demonstrate the way in which the Government of China is applying both the letter and the spirit of Articles 6, 14 and 15 of the Convention.
Support for domestic film industry – Denmark
The Ministry of Culture in Côte d’Ivoire reports on having put in place a policy framework for the promotion of publishing and reading. The framework’s key components are measures of direct support to the publishing industry; the creation of a national public library and school library network; promotion of E-book publishing; and measures to promote the international recognition of literary creation in the country.
This policy approach has been conceived and gradually implemented by a Department of Books and Reading that was created within the ministry in 2006. It has included the elaboration of legislation for the promotion of the publishing industry; the organization of national level consultations on authors’ and artists’ rights; the reinforcement of public library facilities through the CLAC programme of centres established for the dual purpose of promoting both reading and cultural animation (animation culturelle), and the plan to establish a national centre for this purpose – the Centre Ivoirien de Lecture Publique et d'Animation Culturelle (CILPAC). Concurrently, the country has also resumed its participation at a range of book fairs and is also organizing the Abidjan International Book Fair (SILA). In line with these priorities, the year 2012 was declared Book Year by the Ministry and a range of activities were carried out: book presentation and discussion events (carrefour du livre) in all the regional cultural directorates; a book caravan that visited a number of key cities; a mobile library for women and the project to build a National Library (Grande Bibliothèque de Côte d'Ivoire).
This set of legislative, administrative and infrastructure development measures for the book sector is a good example of a ‘joined up’ approach to policy-making in the publishing industry sector.
Special fiscal measures and incentives for cultural goods and services – EU
The film industry has been given the highest priority in Denmark for the last almost 20 years. The strategic points of focus of the Danish support for the domestic film industry are the distribution and promotion of Danish films abroad, international co-production and media literacy. For the last 15 years the market share of Danish films has been more than 25% of all tickets sold domestically in a market place of more than 200 films per year. The success Danish film has experienced at home has to a large extent influenced the market position of Danish films abroad. Approximately 40% of all Danish films are distributed outside Denmark, and approximately 30% of all ticket sales for Danish films take place abroad.
In recent years, the Danish audiovisual production sector has strengthened its effort to create and co-produce high quality films with partners from all over the world. Today, approximately half of all Danish films are co-productions with foreign partners.
The Danish policy has helped the national film industry to strengthen its position in the European and global audiovisual markets. International co-productions are central to this strategy, both in economic and cultural terms.
Consolidating the knowledge base and impact of cultural policy - Finland
The EU legal framework allows its Member States to grant cultural expressions a special status. In respect to VAT, special conditions are possible for certain cultural expressions. Member States may apply a reduced VAT rate to certain cultural products and services that are listed in the VAT Directive. As a general rule, Member States may have a maximum of two reduced rates set no lower than 5%, which they may apply at their discretion to goods and services listed in the VAT Directive. In the case of cultural expressions, this includes publications; admission to shows, theatres, circuses, fairs, amusement parks, concerts, museums, zoos, cinemas, exhibitions and similar cultural events and facilities; reception of radio and television broadcasting services; supply of services by writers, composers and performing artists, or of the royalties due to them.
Member States may also apply a reduced rate to the importation of works of art, collectors' items and antiques. Certain cultural services are exempt from VAT, such as cultural services and the supply of goods by bodies governed by public law or by other cultural bodies recognized by the Member States. The activities, other than those of a commercial nature, carried out by public radio and television bodies are also exempt.
The Commission manages legislation that provides for control over the export of cultural goods such as paintings, sculptures and photographs from the EU, thereby contributing to protecting the cultural diversity and identity of the EU Member States.
The European Union’s taxation framework allowing reduced VAT rates on cultural goods and activities recognizes the particular nature of those products and facilitates their circulation and commercialization.
Norwegian Government’s grants and guaranteed income for artists
In 2008-2009, Finland developed a broad set of indicators, in order to steer cultural policy and to survey the information needs. In total there are over 150 individual indicators, corresponding to four main categories:
• consolidating the cultural base,
• creative workers,
• culture and citizens, and
• culture and the economy.
These indicators allow Statistics Finland to quantify production, supply, finances, public support, labor force, education, participation and enjoyment in diverse fields of art and culture in its biannual “Cultural Statistics” report. In 2007 a cultural satellite account was launched, based on standard industrial classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE). This satellite account makes it possible to generate robust information on the economic impact of culture. The main cultural satellite account was extended in 2009 with the development of a regional dimension, which provides information on the output, added value, and employment in the cultural sector in different regions of the country.
Finland’s set of indicators is a valuable tool in the elaboration of evidence-based cultural policies. It enables policy makers and investors to assess and measure the impact of the cultural sector on the economy, which in turn enables them to design more effective policies.
Establishment of cultural and creative industry promotion mechanisms in Serbia
The objective of the grants and guaranteed income programme is to give creative and performing artists the opportunity to actively pursue their artistic career and to aid younger artists in establishing themselves as artists. There is a variety of different grants for young, established and older artists. Guaranteed income is granted to professional artists who have made a qualitative contribution to the arts over a period of several years. In addition to work grants, miscellaneous grants are allotted to artists for specific purposes such as travel, studies or materials relevant to the applicant’s artistic work and development. The schemes for grants and guaranteed income for artists are currently being revised. The main goal of the revision is to create a system that ensures that a greater number of artists can access the grants. Guaranteed income will gradually be replaced by long-term work grants.
The Norwegian grants and guaranteed income programme offers a comprehensive system of large-scale material support for artists.
The British Film Institute’s ‘First Light’ Programme
In May 2011, the Ministry of Culture of Serbia established the National Council for Culture, an arms-length body whose mission is to advise the National Assembly, the ministry and the Government as regards cultural affairs. After the ratification of the Convention, the Department for Contemporary Production in the ministry became the Department for Contemporary Production and Creative Industries. A special position of Coordinator for Cultural Industries Development was also established, with responsibility for providing administrative and professional support to the development of cultural industries, preparing analyses, reports and information on the results achieved in the field, proposing measures for the improvement of conditions in the field, as well as providing the groundwork for the elaboration of legal and regulatory texts.
In 2010, the Ministry established a Working Group to assist it in the development of support programmes in the cultural and creative industries and the promotion of trans-sector cooperation in this domain. The specific mandate of the Working Group was to propose priority measures and activities, to establish a competition procedure, to propose a budgetary envelope, as well as suggest alternative models of funding, potential partners for cooperation, etc. The Coordinator for Cultural Industries Development took part in the deliberations of the Working Group, which resulted in the "Creative Serbia 2020" programme, consisting of proposals for the improvement of institutional and developmental support to the sector and the encouragement of the entrepreneurial spirit amongst all creative industry actors. Although these proposals did not become a formal programme of the government, the different stakeholders continued their joint efforts to strengthen the sector’s development, notably through the public private partnership platform called "Creative Serbia" coordinated by the Creative Economy Group in Belgrade. In 2011, a publication called Creative Serbia was also brought out.
This set of government-initiated mechanisms constitutes a coherent ‘infrastructure’ of measures to develop the cultural and creative industries sector.
Viet Nam: measures to bridge internal cultural divides
This programme is based on the fact that film-making has become a popular pursuit among young people. Ever more accessible technology means that more and more young people are creating their own films. However the quality of these films varies greatly and young people require support from professionals to unlock their creative potential.
The aim of ‘First Light’ is to enable young people to learn the craft, structure and language of filmmaking using an industry model and high-end equipment, in collaboration with professionals. First Light’s Young Film Fund was set up in 2001 to enable young people aged 5 – 19 to tell their stories, recount their experiences, learn new skills and share their views through creative filmmaking projects.
The Fund comprises two grant schemes: ‘Pilot’, for projects involving one short film and ‘Studio’, for projects involving between two and four films. In addition, First Light works in partnership to ‘theme’ funding rounds – offering extra support to applicants and a focus for the films. In 2011/12 the programme has continued to prioritize documentaries (with The Grierson Trust) and archive film (with BFI) and launched the first comedy shorts strands in partnership with YouTube. To fill an identified gap in talent development for the post 19 age group, ‘First Light’ launched ‘Second Light’ in 2009; this seeks to bridge the gap between the work that First Light does in reaching and engaging a wide range of young people from disparate backgrounds and abilities, and the new entry programmes and courses that feed talent into the film industry. The pilot, funded by the UK Film Council and Creative Skillset (the industry body in the UK that supports skills and training for people and businesses to ensure the UK creative industries maintain their world class position) aimed to test a model for an effective and sustainable scheme to help young under-represented filmmakers get into the industry.
The over-arching driver for the programme was that the UK film industry should have an up to date, technically informed, skilled and diverse workforce representative of the diversity of the country’s population. Building on the pilot model, Second Light developed a series of one to four day, skills-specific work-shops targeted at groups under-represented in the industry. Through these grant programmes and other projects, First Light has enabled over 40,000 young people between the ages of five and 25 to make more than 1,000 films and to create hundreds of media projects, including magazines, TV and radio broadcasts, comics and games.
This programme is a good example of a strategy to promote the creativity of young people in a core creative industry sector, film, through the promotion of technological literacy.
The project Developing Information Technology and Communication in Rural Areas from 2011 to 2020 was designed to develop the infrastructure for a modern and compliant information technology-communication network at grassroots level. Its aims are multiple: reducing the information gap between rural and urban areas; creating favorable conditions for people in rural areas to get access to and process information quickly and conveniently; ensuring two-way communication from central to grassroots levels, so that people in rural areas can receive information and make their voices heard, thus promoting grassroots democracy. Its activities include radio and television services, and the provision of magazines and newspapers to rural people.
The aim under the project is to ensure that all towns and villages (‘communes’ in Viet Nam) will have post and telecommunication services, including both telephones and multi-service broadband connections; that the entire territory will be covered by the national radio and television network; that the newspapers, radio and television stations and news portals of the Party, state, socio-political organizations at central and local level will have special contents and programmes on agriculture for farmers and rural areas, providing information suitable with the needs, educational attainment level and customs of people in rural areas.
Similarly, the national programme on Providing Information to Mountainous, Remote, Border, Sea and Island Areas in the Period 2012-2015 of the Ministry of Information and Communication aims at strengthening the grassroots information and telecommunication system; reducing the gap between different areas in relation to the provision and enjoyment of information; contributing to economic development, improving the cultural and spiritual life of the people; and ensuring safety and national defense in mountainous, remote, sea, island and border areas. The Programme has been implemented in 62 poor districts and seven districts with high rates of poor households; many of these are in ethnic minority and mountainous areas.
These two sets of measures are good examples of how in a developing country setting with great disparities between urban and rural populations, the access to the basic technological infrastructure for cultural and creative industry development may be systematically put in place by the government.
2. International cooperation
Brazil’s international audio-visual cooperation policy
Denmark’s international cooperation policy
Brazil’s policy has three goals: a) encourage international co-productions, b) support the participation of Brazilian films in international festivals and c) promote Brazil in the international audiovisual sector. The policy is designed to facilitate national producers internationally to encourage partnerships and access to financing. Brazil has a number of international co-production treaties with various countries which helps this process.
A major challenge has been to encourage Brazilian producers to become accustomed and qualified to work with international industry standards (given the size of Brazil’s internal market and language barriers, producers usually work locally). US$ 35,7 million has been allocated to implement this policy.
This policy has resulted in greater visibility and international presence of Brazilians in the film industry circuits.
Culture in France’s overseas development assistance
In 2009 a comprehensive strategy was formulated in Denmark in order to strengthen the internationalization of Danish cultural life and promote international cultural exchange. The new strategy is focused on five strategic priorities, such as “the artist in a globalized world” “professionalization and networking in a global market” and “foreign culture in Denmark.”
An International Cultural Panel (ICP) was established in 2010 bringing together representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Business and Growth as well as the Danish Arts Council and the Danish Arts Agency Heritage Agency of Denmark, the Danish Film Institute, the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (DCCD), the Danish Cultural Institute and the centres for Crafts, Architecture Centre and Design.
The ICP adheres to nine principles of international cultural work summarized in the Danish report. The main challenges are: to stay focused on building sustainable, professional working networks with foreign actors and the art and culture scenes of other countries and the necessity to cooperate across Ministries and key players working with cultural exchange.
The Danish approach reflects an idea of international cultural policy which not only aims to support one’s own culture but also emphasises the necessity, utility and possibilities of culture for development and innovation through international cooperation. It also demonstrates a strong inter-ministerial and transversal component.
Ibero-American regional cultural cooperation programmes (Ibermedia, Ibermusicas, Ibersecena, etc.)
The overall objectives of the French international cooperation policy in the domain of culture are: to accompany artists, authors and cultural operators from countries in the South; support the exhibition of their work and contribute to their recognition in international markets; support independent cultural industries in the perspective of sustainable development; contribute to the development of institutional capacity building and management skills in the cultural sectors of countries of the South. French policy to support culture in countries of the South has long recognized the crucial importance of culture in its international political, economic, development and social policies. In a multitude of ways it has integrated culture through legal, institutional and financial measures and through many frameworks, policy and programmes.
France recognizes the importance of culture as a factor in sustainable development in its ODA programmes, especially in Francophone Africa. Avenues for the allocation of ODA resources include the development of sustainable tourism at heritage sites, assistance for publishing, a range of measures in the audio-visual industries, and the encouragement of the innovative use of new information and communication technologies.
One concrete example of this policy is the World Cinema Support Fund (Aide aux cinémas du monde) dedicated to international co-productions. This new fund was jointly created by the Ministry for Culture and Communication and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and is managed by the Centre National du Cinéma et de l'Image Animée (CNC) and the Institut français. The Fund has replaced a funding programme that was specifically reserved for countries on France’s development priority list. It is now open to all countries and grants support as a subsidy either before or after completion of a project. Subsidies are granted to foreign feature-length film projects that are seeking support from French co-producers. In 2012, it has a total budget of 6 million euros.
France’s approach recognizes the importance of integrating culture in the international political, economic, development and social policies through diverse measures and programmes. The French experience gained from the inclusion of culture in its ODA programmes aimed at facilitating sustainable development in developing countries illustrates how a complete package can be made up of a range of measures directed at different needs in different countries, tailored to suit their particular circumstances.
Integrating Mongolia’s Foreign Policy and Cultural Policy
The Ibero-American Summits have adopted a number of cultural cooperation programmes such as Ibermedia in the cinematographic and audiovisual sector; Iberescena for the performing arts; Ibermuseos, in the field of museums and museum studies; Ibermusicas strengthening the Ibero-American musical space for the protection of musical heritage and for the promotion of new creations; Iberoquestas, to give support to youth orchestras and spread musical diversity; Iberrutas, for the protection of migrant rights from an intercultural perspective; and Iberarchivos, to promote archive development in Ibero-America. Each member country makes a financial contribution to the programmes.
The 18 participating countries of the Ibero-American Support Fund Ibermedia finance its work through annual contributions. Its objectives include the encouragement of coproduction, distribution and screening of Ibero-American films and the promotion of training for professionals of this sector. An evaluation of the Ibermedia conducted in 2008 established that it had contributed in a significant way to the modernization and development of the film industry in the region. The Ibermedia financing for co-productions may be the only resource available for the growth of national cinema. The evaluation indicated that US$ 110,000 from financial aid has had a multiplier effect of almost 1000%.
Even small contributions made by countries participating in multilateral networks have significant benefits in return. They serve not only to finance projects but they also become a concrete area of exchange of practices, of information and contribute to can greater cooperative policy progress.
Nigerian Cultural Centers
Working to refine its institutional framework with respect to international relations and cooperation, Mongolia set out in 2011 new Foreign Policy Guidelines and a new Directive on the Advocacy of Mongolian Culture and Arts Abroad that take into account the State Policy on Culture. These documents reflect the view that in order to help intensify Mongolia’s development in culture and arts, it is crucial to promote access to international markets for Mongolian cultural goods and services and increase the capability of the cultural and arts institutions of Mongolia.
To this end, Mongolia has signed agreements and protocols in the field of culture with over twenty countries in Asia and other regions of the world. Cooperation plans have been established between Mongolian and foreign artists, cultural entrepreneurs and professional art associations to conduct exchanges of art performances and exhibitions, train specialists, improve facilities, conduct joint studies in culture and history, publish books, organize cultural days and participate in international art and culture competitions, festivals, meetings and symposia.
These policies aim to promote the culture and arts sectors within the country with a view to integrating them more into Mongolia’s international cooperation policy. They indicate that access to foreign markets is considered an important opportunity for the country’s development.
Spain’s culture and development strategy and framework based on the Convention
Nigeria has taken measures to foster international cooperation both within and outside its borders. Thus, the African Art Expo held in Nigeria has created an avenue for the promotion of various cultural expressions from African countries. Nigerian Cultural centres have been established in China and Brazil and are being planned in six additional countries.
While Nigeria notes that these centers have helped promote Nigerian cultural expressions, a cultural centre can serve as a veritable locus of exchange, reaching out not only to civil society but to more official levels.
Côte d’lvoire’s bilateral agreements for regional cultural cooperation
The principles and objectives of Spain’s policy on international cooperation in development in the field of culture are set out the Culture and Development Strategy of Spanish Cooperation, which was approved in 2007. This document draws largely on the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions.
The strategic approaches put forward for the sector are:
(i) professional training, with emphasis on culture and development projects
(ii) political dimension of culture and its contribution to development
(ii) economic dimension of culture in its contribution to development
(iv) relation and complementary link between education and culture
(v) sustainable management of cultural heritage for development
(vi) relations between communication and culture with impact on development
(vii) driving processes that recognise cultural rights
The National Plan for External Cultural Action was approved in 2010 to promote cultural cooperation as a factor and key element in development cooperation, considering culture as a resource in its own right, whose access, diversity, heritage conservation, training, commercial handling and industrial promotion should be given priority in development policies.
Spain thus provides an example of an international development strategy that integrates culture and the principles of the Convention in a very organic and comprehensive manner.
Culture at the heart of international cooperation strategies for development – EU
Bilateral cultural agreements between countries can be an effective means for focusing attention on particular aspects of the cultural, social and economic relationships between states. Such agreements may allow for greater specificity in identifying areas of potential cooperation and exchange than is possible in a multilateral context. For example, Côte d’lvoire has had a longstanding accord for cultural cooperation with Morocco, which led five years ago to the establishment of a cultural representation for Côte d’lvoire in Morocco itself. The accord promotes cooperation between institutions such as the countries’ respective national libraries, as well as sharing experiences and knowledge across all fields of the arts. Two further bilateral agreements of a similar nature were entered into by Côte d’lvoire in 2009. These agreements are with Guinea and Burkina Faso. Their objectives include: to contribute to a better mutual understanding; to promote cooperation in the film, book publishing and music industries; to reinforce the fight against piracy and fraud; and to exchange experiences in heritage conservation.
All of these agreements are helping to break down barriers between the countries concerned and to build a stronger sense of regional solidarity in the cultural field. They have been directed particularly at ensuring that appropriate administrative arrangements for implementing the objectives of the agreements are in place. Goodwill on its own is not enough; it must be underpinned by administrative and other mechanisms essential for putting goodwill to work.
Andorra’s Art Camp Project to promote international artistic exchange
The EU and its Member States recognize culture as a fully-fledged sector of cooperation with African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP) under Article 27 of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement. This creates a comprehensive framework for cultural cooperation with 79 ACP countries. Article 27 of the Cotonou agreement states that the cultural dimension is to be implemented at all levels of development cooperation. Its central principles include supporting the development of capacity in the cultural sector, strengthening cultural industries and enhancing market access opportunities for cultural goods and services. The second revision of the Cotonou partnership agreement, signed in June 2010, changes the title of Article 27 from ‘Cultural development’ to ‘Culture and development’ and introduces two new points: (i) recognizing and supporting the role of cultural actors and cultural networks and their contribution to sustainable development; and (ii) promoting the cultural dimension in education and the participation of youth in cultural activities. Cooperation is supported through the European Development Fund.
The revision of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement reflects EU’s recognition of culture as a key element in cooperation and development strategies.
A unique means for promoting international artistic exchange can be seen in Andorra’s Art Camp Project, which each year brings together more than 30 artists from around the world for an intense two-week period to work and to discuss common concerns about art and the future of the planet. Three editions of the project have been held so far, in 2008, 2010 and 2012, undertaken through the initiative of the Andorran National Commission for UNESCO. Funding has come via the Commission as well as from the government of Andorra. The artists attending the Camp, many of whom come from far away, share their culture at a series of thematic evenings held during the two weeks. They can work in a variety of locations for the duration of the Camp, including art schools, sports centres, or in the open air. They are also able to participate in a series of cultural visits to learn more about Andorran culture and to interact with local artists.
The Art Camp attracts wide media coverage in the press, radio and television. At the conclusion of the Camp, a Manifesto is produced, which is distributed in four languages: Catalan, French, Spanish and English.
Overall, the project is an effective means for promoting international artistic dialogue and exchange.
3. Preferential treatment for developing countries
Austria: Artists’ exchanges and residencies
Fostering an enabling environment in Bolivia
The Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture offers accommodation and the use of a community studio, a contribution to the costs of living as well as material costs, assistance and support, visits to museums and galleries and contact to foreign artists. At the end of the stay the artists are offered the possibility for a small exhibition of their works to the public. Recently, the Federal Ministry hosted artists from Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Cuba, Georgia, Montenegro, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and United Arab Emirates.
This case is a good example of an artist exchange and residency programme that allows for international market exposure at the end of the residency for artists from developing and emerging countries.
Canada: support to mobility of artists from developing countries
Since 2009, Bolivia has implemented diverse activities that together help create an enabling environment for the development of the cultural sector. Among those of relevance to the implementation of the Convention are: Reading Foment Program that created book fairs all around the country, artistic vocational training workshops (since 2009), cultural and artistic promotion through the realization of many audiovisual productions and agreements with public media organizations, among other activities supported by the Ministry of Cultures.
The various initiatives illustrate how the country is fostering an enabling environment for the emergence and development of the cultural industries at the national level.
European Union: Fostering knowledge and expertise creation in ACP (Asia, Caribbean and Pacific) countries
The Federal Government of Canada introduced various measures supporting Canadian artists going abroad as well as foreign artists coming to Canada. In addition to financial support for mobility the Canada Council for the Arts maintains a database with key information on cultural professionals to facilitate connections affiliated with mobility. The Council also provides funding for organizations to invite foreign artists and to financially assist them to access new markets. In addition to such general measures the federal government has also implemented specific exemptions for various categories of culture professionals travelling to Canada: exemptions on work visas for artists and their team who come to prepare performances as well as culture professionals in various functions such as judges or jury members.
The Canadian approach combines financial assistance with visa facilitation, such work visa exemptions, thus addressing the two main obstacles to the mobility of artists from developing countries.
France: support to mobility and market access for artists from developing countries
ACP Cultures+ is EU’s support programme to cultural sectors in Asia, Caribbean and Pacific countries (EUR 30 million, 2011-2015). The aim of the programme is to reinforce the creation and production of cultural goods and services in ACP countries and, in particular, to promote South-South cooperation, improve access to local, regional, European and international markets and build capacity of culture professionals.
The programme also created an ACP Cultural Observatory, operating under the Secretariat of the ACP Group of States , which aims at a better view and understanding of the cultural sector in the ACP region, its emerging trends and features, and will help structure the sector on a professional and political level. The budget for this action is over EUR 6 million, of which EUR 2,1 million in grants have been allocated to six projects currently in progress in the areas of performing arts, visual arts and music, including technical training, organization of art events, professional seminars and networking as well as artists' residences. A pilot project in five countries also targeted the strengthening of the culture sector with a view to maximizing the sector’s economic and job potential.
The ACP Cultures+ Programme offers an important contribution to the cultural policy landscape with the creation of an Observatory. This is a critical investment to assist developing country Parties to strengthen their capacity in all areas of cultural and creative industries.
Germany: financial support, mentoring or apprenticeship and technical assistance
France supports mobility of artists from developing countries to participate in cultural seasons and festivals and provides dedicated grants and residences programmes (over the past ten years, 1000 artists from developing countries have benefited from these programmes). Specific mobility programmes for artists such as Beyond the Walls targeting young creators in the fields of visual and performing arts and Louis Lumière targeting young film directors are implemented, along with initiatives addressing cultural professionals coordinated by Bureau d’accueil des artistes et professionnels étrangers and sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and Communication.
A special effort is made to foresee and resolve problems related to entry visas for artists and cultural professionals from developing countries. France has developed a framework so that cultural professionals are updated on visa requirement on a fairly regular (twice yearly) basis. France recognizes that visa facilitation is a recurring issue throughout the cultural sector which must constantly be addressed.
The French mobility programmes target both artists and cultural professionals from developing countries, providing financial support and regularly updated information on visa requirements addressing barriers regularly faced.
Mongolia’s strategic support to its cultural industries
World Cinema Fund stands out as an effective tool for the preferential treatment of filmmakers and films from developing and emerging countries. It was created in 2004 as an additional project of the Berlinale International Film Festival for feature-length films, and as a result of a cooperation between the festival, the Federal Foundation for Culture, Goethe Institut, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Deutsche Welle/DW Academy, the Foreign Ministry and German film producers. The WCF’s budget for supporting co-production and distribution totals about EUR 400,000 (USD 530,000) per year. Support is focused on the following regions: Latin America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and the Caucasus.
Since 2004, 1,651 films have been submitted from developing and emerging countries, 93 of which have received financial support. These films are shown at renowned festivals and have since received numerous distinctions such as their Golden Palms, Golden Bears and Oscar nominations.
This Fund stands out as an effective tool to provide preferential treatment for filmmakers and films from developing and emerging countries through financial support, mentoring or apprenticeship and technical assistance.
Slovenia’s initiative to build capacities of Afghan artists through training and technical assistance
Mongolia enjoys tariff concessions provided by developed countries such as the USA, Canada, and many countries of the European Union. These concessions are granted on the basis of the Certificate of Origin of Goods from Mongolia. For the period 2006-2015, trade concessions with the EU enabled the export of a number of cultural products including statues and other decorative items made of wood, paints, photos, leather and semi-leather cloths, items for decoration, jewelry boxes, hand bags, purses, etc.
This is an excellent example of the use of trade agreements by a developing country to facilitate market access and market penetration and to provide strategic support to domestic cultural sector and cultural industries.
Sweden: North – South cooperation/partnerships
Slovenia has been implementing a wide array of capacity-building projects for young Afghan artists, including the strengthening of technical and institutional capacities at Herat University’s Faculty of Fine Arts.
In 2010, projects included the digitalization of the Herat University library, art workshops and exhibitions of the works of Afghan refugees. Also in 2010, a Slovenian youth cultural center, Pionirski Dom, in cooperation with the Slovenian Ministries of Defence and Foreign Affairs and the Embassy of the United States in Ljubljana, carried out a project entitled “Art Without Borders”. In 2011, Slovenia continued to actively support the further development of graphic arts, notably with a project providing the Faculty of Fine Arts with graphic equipment which enabled its professors and students to further develop their knowledge of graphic techniques.
This case illustrates a wide array of projects leading to the establishment of a process of institutional and individual capacity-building.
The Swedish Arts Council manages and implements a Sida-funded programme Partner Driven Cooperation in the Field of Culture 2011-2013. The overall objective is to strengthen cooperation in the field of culture between Sweden and Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, China, India, and Indonesia aimed at contributing to poverty reduction and equitable and sustainable development.
This new programme builds on the experience of the Swedish-South African Culture Partnership Programme (CPP) implemented in 2004-2008. CCP focused on nurturing cultural partnerships for development. A mid-term review conducted after the initial three years of CCP found that 25 Swedish and 25 South African institutions had jointly worked on building long-term projects and relationships and that the activities were relevant to both countries’ needs. The evaluators also noted that the programme showed an impressive range of creative work from grassroots organizations and professional institutions.
The partnership-driven approach promoted by Sweden gives recipients greater autonomy and responsibility in the design and implementation of cultural cooperation programmes and offers an alternative to the donor-driven model which dominates the field.
4. Integration of culture in sustainable development
Incorporation of culture in Latvia’s planning for sustainable development
Art Incubators in the Creative Industries Strategy of Lithuania
Latvia 2030 is a long-term strategy guiding the country’s economic and social development.. This strategy explicitly includes culture, in particular the nation’s human and cultural capital, as essential elements in the development programme. It sees Latvia’s creative potential as one of the main driving forces of development. The objectives of the strategy are reflected in the National Development Plan (NDP) 2007-2013 adopted in 2006, and the Strategic Development Plan (SDP) 2010-2013 adopted in 2010. Both of these instruments give strong emphasis to the creative sector. The SDP is explicitly designed to increase the country’s competitiveness, with priority for economic growth, social security and reforms in the public sector. In the cultural arena it aims to develop creative industries, to expand audiences, and to increase the export of cultural services.
Latvia’s case is a good illustration of how the cultural sector in all its aspects is integrated into a national development process and has become an integral and essential part of sustainable development programming across the board.
Namibia’s Policy on Arts and Culture
The Creative Industries Promotion and Development Strategy has been in operation in Lithuania since 2007 with the objective of encouraging the establishment of creative industries, improving their competitiveness and increasing their contribution to the economy. One measure for implementing this strategy is support for art incubators co-funded with the European Regional Development Fund. An art incubator is a non-profit organisation which provides its infrastructure and facilities to artists and others working in the creative industries in order to enable them to create and present their works to the public. The art incubators also initiate business start-ups, and encourage local communities to participate in cultural life.
Business incubators are a well-established means of encouraging entrepreneurial initiative and providing relevant skilling to potential SMEs in a number of sectors. Their use in the cultural sector as in Lithuania is especially important as a means of providing small-scale financing and technical assistance to emerging creative businesses.
Agenda 21 for Culture in Quebec
Namibia’s Policy on Arts and Culture is implemented under the National Development Plan Two (NDP2) that includes provisions to optimise the economic contribution of the arts and culture, and to support artists, cultural organisations and others across all areas of the arts.
This approach has been further integrated into the country’s Medium-term Plan.
Namibia is a good example of a developing country which has many significant development issues to deal with, and has recognised the integral role for a range of measures to promote culture and the arts as essential contributors to its national development plan.
Monitoring sustainable development: Switzerland’s MONET project
The government of the Canadian province of Quebec has elaborated an “Agenda 21 for Culture” as a basis for its efforts to integrate culture into the province’s sustainable development programme. The Agenda establishes principles and objectives which cover cultural, social, economic and environmental sustainability. The strategy emphasises cultural diversity, sustainable use of cultural resources, and promotion of creativity and innovation. It is recognized for the manner in which it engages the interests and participation of all branches of government, civil society and the private sector.
The Agenda 21 for Culture in Quebec is an important example of the way a strategy for sustainable development could be built, particularly at a regional or provincial level.
Building inclusive and creative societies – Uruguay
Switzerland has put in place a system of indicators entitled “Monitoring Sustainable Development” (MONET) covering a range of aspects of sustainable development as it is reflected in social cohesion, economic efficiency, and ecological responsibility. The inclusion of culture as an essential component of this system focuses mainly on its attention to the impact of the arts and culture on social cohesion, in areas such as cultural participation and the preservation of cultural heritage.
The Swiss case is an example of good practice in extending national monitoring systems for sustainable development to include culture, provided that appropriate and measurable indicators can be agreed upon.
United Kingdom: Tara Arts, a case-study of cross-cultural artistic outreach
Uruguay’s National Youth Plan 2011-2015 integrates culture among its strategic action lines. It also provides a framework for the coordinated implementation of various programmes that pay special attention to the cultural development of youth.
These programmes include the Art and Culture Workshops that promote culture as a tool for social integration, facilitate a more democratic access to culture and encourage the creation and circulation of art. The workshops set out to develop spaces in which young people can be both users and actors, thereby contributing to citizenship-building processes. Another example of the projects carried out within this framework is the Programme for Cultural and Social Inclusion, which targets young people with different social and economic backgrounds. Its aim is to support cultural and artistic expression through the development of projects, which receive expert assistance and serve the local communities in their search for new strategies for social inclusion.
Uruguay’s National Youth Plan coordinates on the national level a number of programmes which use culture to facilitate the social integration of young people. It is a good example of how culture and creativity can be promoted in a social perspective.
National Strategic Framework – Italy
It is well established that the arts are one of the most powerful means to bring people together, to bridge boundaries between cultures, and to promote intercultural dialogue and understanding within the community. Occasionally a specific artistic enterprise such as a museum, a theatre group, or a music ensemble is established with the explicit objective of pursuing these intercultural ideals.
An excellent example is Tara Arts, a theatre troupe in South-West London that specializes in the production, promotion and development of world-class cross-cultural theatre. It was founded in 1977 by a group of young Asians, and was the first Asian-led theatre company to be formed in the United Kingdom. To celebrate its 30th birthday in 2007, Tara Arts reopened its theatre space as a full-scale venue and now hosts and presents theatre and other live performances there with the aim of showing “global theatre to local audiences”.
The company is supported by funding from Arts Council England, donations from trusts and private sources, and earned income. Its mission is focused particularly on the development of emerging young and mid-career artists, and on the use of theatre as an intercultural space.
The company is a good illustration of the role of the arts in promoting social cohesion and interethnic understanding within a community.
National strategies and plans – Ecuador
One of the priority guidelines of Italy’s National Strategic Framework is the promotion of the country’s natural and cultural resources as assets for sustainable development, especially in rural regions. Those resources are integrated in protection policies and used as a competitive advantage by regions, as they provide economic opportunities for the local population.
A number of programmes aimed at goods and infrastructures have been created to promote the cultural and creative potential of selected regions and are coordinated by the Ministry of Cultural Properties and Activities in Rome. A technical assistance project – Network for the governance of cultural projects – was carried out in 2009-2011 and generated methodological and digital tools for local administrations of the regions concerned. Specific indicators were designed to monitor and evaluate the impact of these interventions.
Italy’s National Strategic Framework promotes natural and cultural resources as assets for the sustainable development of rural regions.
Danish Cooperation Strategy for Culture and Development
The National Plan of Good Living (Sumak Kawsay, 2009 - 2013) is a long-term sustainable development plan which that integrates culture in several ways. Under this plan, the government bodies in charge of culture were restructured so that they could implement the new cultural policies meeting the social and cultural needs of the country. The new framework includes four programmatic axes: de-colonization, cultural rights, cultural entrepreneurship, and shaping the New Contemporary Ecuadorian Identity.
This comprehensive framework aims to promote the production, commercialization and enjoyment of the products from the diverse Ecuadorian cultural industries. It places an emphasis on the respect for the laws and regulations that are oriented towards the strengthening of cultural industries as strategic resources. Its goal is also to increase the access of all people both inside and outside the country to Ecuadorian cultural production, through broadening access to live cultural creation and stimulating the development of technologies. It is meant to create equal opportunities for the whole population through decentralized institutional tools that can help bridge the gap in people’s access to goods and services. This aspect is complemented by the systematic diffusion of cultural and artistic expressions abroad and the strengthening of cultural cooperation with other countries and international organizations.
Ecuador places cultural industries at the centre of its new development policy. It uses culture as an economic stimulus in the broader thrust to guarantee the equality of all people, including vulnerable and marginalized groups.
Burkina Faso: Inclusion of culture in the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development
The Danish Strategy for Culture and Development brings art and culture at the heart of the country’s international cooperation plan. The broad objectives of this strategy are to ensure freedom of expression; strengthen peace and reconciliation; promote intercultural dialogue; and enhance economic growth through creative industries. More specifically, it aims at strengthening local job creation, entrepreneurship and creation of dynamic meeting spaces for artists and cultural actors, as well as the sustainability of creative industries in developing countries. It places an emphasis on education and training within these sectors.
An important aspect of this strategy is ensuring that cooperation is demand-driven, i.e., it revolves around cultural partnerships established at the initiative of local partners with a shared vision for the cultural sector and standards of equality, transparency and sustainability. The choice of partners is also based on the need and relevance in the country of implementation, with a strong focus on capacity and mutuality. The target beneficiaries are often children and youth, as they have a decisive role in building future societies.
In this framework, support is granted for capacity development in business management, the protection of property rights, access to finance and other inputs, and also to national and regional networks of cultural industries entrepreneurs. Technical assistance is provided through locally based actors. One example is the Design Network Africa (DNA) project. This network was established in 2011 to identify needs within the design sector, with the aim of supporting creative industries in Africa. Design Network Africa (DNA) has aimed to establish authentic interaction for outstanding designers throughout the African continent who produce original, contemporary work. The programme brings aesthetic visionaries from East, West and Southern Africa together and focuses on all aspects of commercial design from product development to marketing, business acumen to production capability, etc. The network supports the designers through local mentoring and support from professional facilitators.
Denmark’s new cooperation strategy integrates culture as driver of development. It puts local partnerships and sustainability of cultural industries at the core of its action plans. This demand-driven aspect ensures that projects are targeting local needs and building long-term capacities.
Bosnia-Herzogovina: The Intersectoral Group on Culture of the Republic of Srpska
As we have noted, many countries have national strategies for sustainable development, but not all of them take specific account of the importance of the cultural sector in the development process. Burkina Faso is a country where the role of culture in national planning is taken account of in exemplary fashion.
Burkina’s development is subject to the Strategy for Accelerated Growth and Sustainable Development (SCADD), covering the period 2011–2015. The overall objectives of the strategy address issues of community health, education, poverty reduction, environmental sustainability and growth performance. Culture is included as a priority sector, with a range of objectives including development of the cultural industries, promotion of cultural exports, funding mechanisms and the advancement of cultural tourism.
The experience in Burkina Faso, which is being closely monitored through various mechanisms at national and regional levels, provides a good illustration of a comprehensive programme for taking effective account of culture in a country’s national development strategy.
Bangladesh: National Children’s Award Competition
In any country, a comprehensive cultural policy will involve not only the Ministry of Culture or its equivalent, but also a range of other areas of public administration, in recognition of cultural policy’s multi-faceted nature. In implementing such a cultural policy spanning areas such as the arts, education, industrial growth, urban and regional development and so on, a government must ensure that appropriate administrative arrangements are in place to ensure coordinated action.
Such an arrangement is illustrated by the Intersectoral Group on Culture in the Republic of Srpska within Bosnia-Herzegovina, set up as a means for coordinating the administration of culture across the government. The Group includes a very wide range of ministries covering finance, economic relations, education, regional cooperation, trade, industry, justice and many others. The work of the Intersectoral Group is of great importance in stimulating culture through tax incentives and in protecting the rights of artists.
Different countries will deal with the question of administrative coordination in different ways. The Bosnian example is a case showing a very comprehensive approach to this issue, with every possible ramification of cultural policy accounted for.
Armenia: Promotion of literature and publishing
Children are amongst the most vulnerable groups in any society, and their cultural needs may be neglected unless deliberate action is taken. These are needs that must be met if children are to grow up into well integrated, creative and culturally aware citizens.
Bangladesh has a National Children Policy that aims to ensure that every child under the age of 18, including those from ethnic minorities, receives services of education, health, nutrition, entertainment and security. One particular programme in this area, which has been in existence since 1976, is the National Children’s Award Competition. This programme is the initiative of the Bangladesh Shishu Academy, a national organization dedicated to the development of the physical, mental and cultural talents of children. The Academy is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, and is run by a 13-member board of management.
The Award encourages children all over the country to participate in creative activities such as art, music, theatre and dance. It has enabled many child artists to be recognized for the first time and it has helped to build children’s confidence as a basis for their future career development.
Cultural Industries Skills Training - Argentina
A varied programme of initiatives has been put in place in Armenia to support the film, theatre and publishing industries. One example is the initiative concerning the field of publishing, which constitutes a particular focus for Armenia’s international cultural policy and its pursuit of sustainable cultural development. Measures undertaken include:
• support for individual writers, especially young and beginning authors who show literary potential -- the support is provided via assistance in publication, attendance at international book fairs, etc.;
• promotion of intercultural dialogue via translation processes that operate as a bridge between languages; in particular since 2007 a conference of translators and publishers from several countries in the region has been held, the effects of which have included enabling Armenian society to learn about books published in other countries;
• an annual festival called “Return to Books”, which has been held since 2009 with the purpose of appreciating the role of books and reading in bringing people from different cultures together;
• designation of Yerevan as “World Book Capital”, an honour that has promoted literary diversity via a series of city-wide events and exhibitions;
• implementation of a procedure for the free distribution and sale of literature published in Armenia with funding support from the state.
Armenia provides an example of good practice in implementing a multi-faceted strategy to support the promotion and protection of the diversity of its cultural expressions in line with the provisions of the Convention.
Argentina’s inter-ministerial programme “More and Better Jobs” launched in 2009 has provided training to over 1500 young people to develop skills such as audio-visual production, photography, performing arts, lighting, sound, new radio technologies, music instrument repair, etc., that are essential for professional development in the sectors making up the cultural industries. The purpose of the programme is to meet the demand by diversifying the labor supply, taking into account that the cultural industries represent a growing economic sector in Argentina with more than 200,000 jobs across the country.
The first graduates of this programme have now found jobs in the areas for which they received training.
Argentina’s skills training programme maximizes the development potential of cultural industries by helping young people to find jobs in the cultural sector.
5. Involvement of civil society
Austrian Working Group on Cultural Diversity
Promotion of the Convention among civil society in Brazil
The Austrian Working Group on Cultural Diversity (ARGE) was set up in 2004 as a ‘network of networks’ including among its members associations, unions, academic institutions and individual artists. It is funded by the Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture.
Each network/interest group within the ARGE liaises with its constituencies on issues of common interest. In this way, the ARGE’s decisions potentially represent more than 3,500 individuals active in the arts and culture. A specificity of the ARGE is the participation of representatives of the governments of the Lander at ARGE meetings.
It is also noteworthy that the Convention Points of contact within the Federal Ministries responsible for culture, the arts, education, foreign affairs, internal affairs, law, economy and trade, science and media participate in ARGE meetings ensuring that all relevant stakeholders work together to implement the Convention. It obviates challenges in continuity when civil servants, politicians or civil society representatives change jobs or are shifted to other departments.
With the entry into force of the Convention the ARGE extended its fields of activity to encompass (i) sharing and exchange of information, (ii) providing expertise and know-how on cultural policy developments to public authorities, (iii) organizing awareness-raising activities and (iv) monitoring the implementation process as well as developing concrete proposals on how to further this implementation process.
This working group provides a unique forum for continuous dialogue and exchange between representatives of civil society and the public authorities from all government Ministries on matters relating to the Convention.
Bulgarian advisory councils under the Ministry of Culture
In Brazil, civil society participates in the creation, implementation and monitoring of public cultural policies in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture, National Council of Cultural Policy, various councils at the municipal level, etc.
During the development of the National Plan for Culture 2011-2020, which is the first Brazilian Government policy document referring to the 2005 Convention as the legal framework, the Ministry of Culture organized a series of workshops on cultural policies in all States of the Federation. These workshops targeted artists, students, researchers and cultural entrepreneurs and discussed, inter alia, the content and issues related to the Convention. Managers and specialists of the Ministry of Culture participated as speakers and as trainers in these workshops.
The Brazilian example illustrates a large-scale consistent effort undertaken by the Government to promote the Convention throughout the country, targeting specifically artists, cultural professionals and entrepreneurs.
Participative governance of culture in Canada
National public expert and advisory councils have been created under the Ministry of Culture for specific domains of activity. Members of the councils include civil society representatives and representatives of academic institutions (universities, art schools and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences). The councils are consulted in the process of elaboration of new cultural policies and measures, or when specific situations or issues arise.
One of the tasks tackled by the councils is the preparation of a draft National Strategy for Development of Bulgarian Culture and Arts up to 2020.
The Bulgarian case illustrates how a Ministry of Culture relies on a wide multi-stakeholder network of advisory councils that provide feedback to the Ministry and facilitate the elaboration of adequate cultural policies and measures.
Coalitions for Cultural Diversity
Civil society’s participation in developing and implementing cultural policies and measures is an important characteristic of Canada’s governance model. For example, in 2009 the Government organized national copyright consultations to provide all Canadians the opportunity to voice their opinion on how the government should address the modernization of copyright laws in an increasingly digital-based context. Canadians were able to participate in this consultation in various manners, including a focus group and an online submission centre that respectively allowed for 2,500 comments and 8,000 submissions to be collected. Nine round tables gathering over 100 participants were held across the country, with the objective of obtaining points of views from experts and organizations. Moreover, the live broadcast of two public meetings on the Web allowed more than 800 Canadians from across the country to participate in the conversation in person and over the Internet. Following this consultation, a bill entitled the Copyright Modernization Act was introduced to the House of Commons.
This type of broad direct consultations with civil society, including the end users and beneficiaries of cultural policies and measures, is a good example of participative governance of culture that is in the spirit of the Convention.
Ecuador’s Citizen Participation Council
The International Federation of Coalition for Cultural Diversity (IFCCD) comprises 43 national Coalitions worldwide and is dedicated to the promotion of the Convention. The IFCCD thus groups over 600 professional culture organizations representing creators, artists, independent producers, distributors, broadcasters and editors in the publishing, motion picture, television, music, performing arts and visual arts fields. The director general of the Canadian Coalition, who also acts as the executive director of the Federation, carries out several international missions each year to promote the Convention at civil society and governmental meetings, such as the Organization of American States, the Commonwealth and OIF (Organisation international de la Francophonie).
Nearly two-thirds of the national Coalitions are in African and Latin American developing countries. The exchange of information promotes the development of common positions, allowing the Federation to actively participate in the work of the Convention’s bodies.
The work of the national Coalitions and the IFCCD has been described as pivotal for the Convention in several Parties’ reports. With its wide international network, the IFCCD produces an inestimable synergy in terms of expert knowledge and resources, which it uses to further international cooperation for development.
The activities of the National Point of Contact in Germany
Ecuador has recently established a Citizen Participation Council, in an effort to improve the flow of information between the Government and citizens, as well as to promote participative governance. Local, regional, and national institutions are working together to create a cultural information system by sharing information with the Ministry of Culture. This information is then fed back to the community in awareness-raising programs at the local level.
The Citizen Participation Council is, by constitutional right, the fifth power of the State. The Council oversees the Tranparency Secretariat, the agency that monitors the accountability of the State. In the framework of the Council, activities and initiatives such as the Cultural Participation Programme actively engage civil society.
This example illustrates how an effort to democratize governance can be successfully applied to the cultural sector.
The Alliance of Culture in Latvia
In March 2007, the Federal Government designated the German Commission for UNESCO (DUK) as the National Point of Contact for the information exchange and implementation of the Convention in Germany. The work of the Point of Contact is funded with an annual sum of EUR 51,000 (USD 68,000) from the Federal Foreign Office. On the basis of this mandate, the Point of Contact has since initiated numerous projects and measures with a focus on awareness-raising and the participation of civil society, more recently in the Arab region.
For instance, in June 2009, together with the International Federation of Coalitions for Cultural Diversity (IFCCD), the DUK organized the U40 World Forum on the occasion of the Second Conference of Parties to the Convention (UNESCO Headquarters, Paris). Through a worldwide selection process, 50 young experts from 34 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin- and North America, as well as Europe, were selected to participate. The Forum provided a platform for an exchange of information and for getting acquainted with initiatives for the promotion of cultural diversity from all the regions of the world. The DUK continues to provide the Secretariat for the expanding U40 network.
Providing earmarked funding for the national Point of Contact for the Convention enables the latter to dedicate the necessary time to the promotion, coordination and resource mobilization activities in favor of the Convention.
The U40 network in Mexico
Civil society organizations are increasingly involved in shaping cultural policies in Latvia, actively bringing forward concerns of civil society to public authorities. The following activities are undertaken by civil society: (a) active involvement and defending positions concerning the planning of the State budget within the sphere of culture; (b) participation in advisory bodies established under the Ministry of Culture, the Latvian National Commission for UNESCO and other public institutions; (c) advancing international cooperation and networking, promoting new forms of art (for example, digital art) and raising visibility of topical issues of contemporary artistic expressions; (d) bringing forward the issues of education and developing cooperation with higher education institutions; (e) reaching direct cooperation between civil society organizations and the Ministry of Culture concerning the exchange of information.
Regular meetings are held between the representatives of the Ministry of Culture and civil society, in order to discuss, analyze, improve and develop cultural processes in Latvia. The main counterpart for the Ministry of Culture is the Alliance of Culture, a network uniting three large associations and 5000 arts and cultural education institutions and organizations, as well as arts professionals, artists, producers and activists.
Latvia provides an example of vibrant and proactive civil society that organizes in associations and networks to better position itself in relation to governmental counterparts and have a say in cultural policy making.
Civil society consultation process in Norway
The U40 network offers young people Under 40 – postgraduates, PhD students, young professionals– the opportunity to participate in the international debate on the implementation of the Convention.
The 2011-2012 strategic objectives of the U40 Mexico include contributing to the visibility and application of the 2005 UNESCO Convention in the 31 States and 1 Federal District of Mexico. Education and awareness-raising, as well as the enhanced involvement of civil society and private enterprises with Convention are also on the agenda.
To work towards these objectives, the U40 Mexico and the Toluca Town Hall organized in 2011 the Inter-American Meeting for Cultural Diversity that brought together 43 young culture experts and professionals from Mexico and abroad. The meeting consisted of a series of four conferences open to the public and three workshops that discussed the implementation of the Convention at the local, national, regional and international levels.
Mobilizing young professionals to promote the objectives of the Convention in Mexico is a good example of an investing in the future approach.
Paraguay’s National Council of Culture
Norway counts roughly 16 500 civil society organizations active in the field of culture. The voluntary arts and cultural sector has been acknowledged as a vital contributor to cultural diversity since the first White Papers on culture were presented to the Parliament in the 1970s. Voluntary organizations are recognized as vital partners for public authorities in implementing new measures in the cultural field, and public authorities are called upon to cooperate with voluntary organizations to achieve cultural policy objectives and secure the independence of the voluntary arts and cultural sector.
The Norwegian official hearing scheme obliges Government Ministries and their agencies to circulate policy proposals, including cultural policies, for general review to all public and private institutions and organizations concerned including non-governmental and voluntary organizations. The body that circulates a proposal for review should also consider using other ways to ensure participation on the part of those affected, e.g. through the use of information and communication technology, meetings, etc. The period for review is normally three months and no less than six weeks.
This is an example of a formal consultation process with civil society that establishes effective mechanisms for timely feedback and subsequent review of government policies, including cultural policies.
‘Citizens of Culture’ movement in Poland
The National Council of Culture was established in Paraguay in 2010 and includes, along with central and local governmental actors, representatives of various cultural sectors and industries. The Council’s sectoral Working Groups launched the same year have become the main instrument of involvement of civil society in cultural policy-related debates and decision-making. They have contributed to the first study of Paraguay's audiovisual industry, the draft Cinema and Audiovisual Law and in a draft revised Book Law.
Efforts to support independent art organizations in Slovenia
The Citizens of Culture movement established in Poland in 2009 aims to secure common and equal access of citizens to cultural life in accordance with the Constitution. The movement’s objectives include increasing access to culture, in smaller towns, raising cultural competences of citizens, increasing expenditures on culture up to 1% of the state budget, supporting experimental arts and cultural activities. In 2011, a roadmap towards these objectives entitled ‘Pact for Culture’ was signed by the Prime Minister, thus engaging the Government to cooperate with civil society and to take the necessary steps to enable the implementation of the provisions of this social contract between Government and citizens.
This is a good example of a concerted and effective civil society action taken with the aim of engaging with Government in culture, particularly outside the large cities.
The UK Coalition for Cultural Diversity’s joined up efforts
According to Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, civil society is involved in cultural policy development mainly through National Council of Culture, Chamber of Culture of Slovenia and Expert commissions of the Minister. The National Council for Culture is an independent body which directs the national strategy for culture. The Chamber of Culture of Slovenia is a voluntary organization of professional associations that monitors and evaluates the effect of cultural policy on cultural development, gives its opinion on the national programme for culture and on the annual implementation reports, considers bills and other draft regulations and regulatory proposals for the regulation of individual issues in the field of culture. Expert commissions are consultative bodies of the Minister for specific areas or aspects of culture.
In 2009 and 2010 the Slovenian Association of Arts and Culture carried out a project "Networking and capacity building of NGOs in culture" through which it encouraged advocacy for culture as well promoted "structured dialogue" between civil society and public authorities in the field of culture. The immediate result of the project was the establishment of a special working group to solve issues related to improvement of working conditions for professional independent art organizations.
This is a good example of a productive dialogue and cooperation between civil society organizations and the Ministry of Culture in pursuit of specific policy objectives.
Governmental support to civil society in Burkina Faso for actions to implement the Convention
In the United Kingdom, the Convention is being actively promoted by the UK Coalition for Cultural Diversity (UKCCD), a not-for-profit civil society body established in 2007, which circulates information on the Convention to government and civil society organizations, holds publicity events, and distributes regular newsletters. UKCCD is a founder member of the International Federation of Coalitions for Cultural Diversity (IFCCD), and is also a member of the European Coalitions for Cultural Diversity (ECCD), a body that monitors the impact of different policies on such sectors as audio-visual, copyright, education, public service broadcasting, and trade. UKCCD’s work has included, inter alia, meetings with the Arts Council of England, the British Council, the British Screen Advisory Council, the Federation of Entertainment Unions, the National Association of Local Arts Councils and the National Campaign for the Arts. UKCCD members are experts in their respective fields within the arts sectors. They are also active in promoting measures to implement the aims of the Convention in domains such developing new digital licenses for greater legal access, ensuring the inclusion of arts and culture in the education system, and contributing to both national and EU policy.
The efforts of UKCCD are a good illustration of the ways in which a non-governmental entity is able to take the initiative in spreading the messages of the Convention in a developed country setting that is also one in which the cultural and creative industries are leading sectors.
Government has worked with civil society organizations in Burkina Faso on measures that relate to the successful implementation of the Convention. The country’s cultural policy, adopted in 2009, was elaborated and has since been implemented, in cooperation with a range of civil society bodies, for which mechanisms of financial and technical support have been put in place, notably as regards the development of cultural enterprises.
Civil society also has access to the statistics gathering unit created in the Ministry of Culture, which systematically informs civil society bodies and professional organizations about financing opportunities and supports various activities of cultural and artistic education, notably for the benefit of children and young people, organized by the latter. Various theatre and dance companies have mobilized foreign partners to help in financing activities of creation, production, distribution and training in the two fields. Four national forums of artists and intellectuals for culture were organized between 2010 and 2012.
The experience of Burkina Faso demonstrates how, despite very limited resources, a planned governmental strategy can be designed to support civil society initiatives that promote the implementation of the Convention.