History of Humanity

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From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD

The late E. Condurachi
J. Herrmann 
E. Zürcher 

J. Harmatta
J. Litvak King
R. Lonis 
T. Obenga 
R. Thapar 
Zhou Yiliang 

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Summary :

The 14 centuries covered by this volume see the emergence of new forms of urbanization and also the generalization of new techniques such as iron-working and irrigation. Science in the modern sense of the term, based on the observation of nature, makes its appearance and develops independently of myth and religious systems. This period also sees the expansion of universal religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and, in the seventh century, Islam.

Ninety-eight authors, from 30 countries, worked on this volume.

Table of Contents


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1996, Routledge/UNESCO

  Table of Contents

Federico Mayor, Director-General of UNESCO

Charles Morazé, former President of the International Commission

General Introduction
Georges-Henri Dumont, President of the International Commission

The International Commission

Series list

List of figures

List of maps

List of plates

The contributors


A Overview
Joachim Herrmann and Erik Zürcher

B Thematic Section

1. Concepts of nature, philosophy and science
The late Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Leslie Gunawardana, Joachim Herrmann, Fritz Krafft, David W. Phillipson, William T. Sanders, Nathan Sivin and Erik Zürcher

2. Applied sciences and technology
Johannes G. de Casparis, the late Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Leslie Gunawardana, Joachim Hemnann, Fritz Krafft, Michael Loewe, Domenico Musti, David W. Phillipson, William T. Sanders, R. S. Sharma, Nathan Sivin and Erik Zürcher

3. Nudear regions and peripheries
Johannes G. de Casparis, Richard N. Frye, Joachim Hemnann, David W. Phillipson, William T. Sanders, Romila Thapar and Erik Zürcher

4. Ideologies and the first universal religion
Johannes G. de Casparis, Joachim Herrmann, Trevor 0.Ling, David W Phillipson, William T. Sanders, Ninian Smart, Romila Thapar and Erik Zürcher

5. Languages, writing and literature
Alexander K. Adelaar, Wilt L. Iderna, Reimar Müller, David W. Phillipson, William T. Sanders and Romila Thapar

6. Art and architecture
Johannes G. de Casparis, Richard N. Frye, Joachim Herrmann, Michael W. Meister, David W. Phillipson, Anna Sadurska

C Regional Section

Joachim Herrmann and Erik Zürcher

I Western Asia

Gherardo Gnoli

7. Western Asia between 700 BC and 250 BC

7.1 Assyrians and Babylonians
M.A. Dandamaev

7.2 The Iranian tribes and the Persian Empire
Gherardo Gnoli

7.3 The fall of the Old Persian Empire and the rise of the Seleucids
Gennadi A. Koshelenko

8. Western Asia between 250 BC and AD 224

8.1 The disintegration of the Seleucid Empire
Gennadi A. Koshelenko

8.2 The Arsacid Parthians
Jozef Wolsk

8.3 The Sasanian Empire
Philippe Gignoux

9. Arabian Peninsula before Islam

9.1 The Arabian Peninsula, the rise of Arabia Felix and the Himyarite era
Abdul Rahman Al-Ansary (edited by Richard N. Frye)

9.2 Arabia before Islam
Abdul Rahman Al-Ansary (edited by Richard N. Frye)

II The Mediterranean World and European History

Joachim Herrmann

10. The Mediterranean World and its Northern neighbours until 300 BC

10.1 The Greek World during the archaic and classical periods

10.1.1 The early times of the polis
Raoul Lonis

10.1.2 The polis in classical times
Raoul Lonis

10.1.3 Religion, philosophy, science and technology
Claude Mossé

10.1.4 Language and literature
Luciano Canfora

10.1.5 The arts
Angelos Delivorrias

10.2 Alexander and the Macedonian Empire

10.2.1 The formation of the Macedonian Empire
Pierre Briant

10.2.2 Cultural contacts between the Greeks and the Orient
Pierre Briant

10.3 Etruscans and Italic peoples and Rome

10.3.1 Etruscans and Italic peoples
Mario Torelli

10.3.2 Rome up to the end of the Second Punic War
Luigi Capogrossi Colognesi

10.4 Peoples and tribes north of the Mediterranean

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

10.4.1 The Scythians
Janos Harmatta

10.4.2 Thracians and Illyrians
Alexander Fol

10.4.3 Hallstatt-Civilization, early Celts and Scandinavia
Radomir Pleiner

11. The Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire between expansion and crisis: the societies outside the Roman borders

11.1 The Hellenistic World after Alexander

11.1.1 Political and social life, philosophy, 1888 religion and literature
Edouard Will

11.1.2 Science and technology
Claude Mossé

11.1.3 Hellenistic arts
Angelos Delivorias

11.2 The Roman Empire from the end of 300 BC to 200 AD

11.2.1 Structural changes from the early Republic to the Empire
Claude Nicolet

11.2.2 War, reform, revolutionary movements
Jan Burian

11.2.3 The origins of Christianity
Friedhelm Winkelmann

11.2.4 The Roman contribution to scientific and cultural development
Pierre Grimal

11.3 The Roman Provinces in Africa, Europe and Asia

Editor's note
Joachim Hemnann

11.3.1 Western Asia
José Maria Blazquez

11.3.2 Western and Central Europe
José Maria Blazquez

11.3.3 Anatoha and south-eastern Europe
The late Valentin Vasilevic Velkov

11.4 Northern tribes, tribal leagues and their relations to the Roman Empire

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

11.4.1 Thracians, Celts, Illyrians and Dacians
Alexander Fol

11.4.2 Celts, Germanic tribes, Slavs and Sannatians
Joachim Herimann

12. The decline of the Roman Empire and the beginnings of the Medieval society

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

12.1 The Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries
François Paschoud

12.2 Christianity and the Christian Church between 284 and 476
Jacques Fontaine

12.3 Invasions, migrations, popular movements and the decline of the Roman Empire

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

12.3.1 The Huns
Istvan Bóna

12.3.2 Popular movements
Rigobert Günther

12.4 Northern tribes, tribal units and the Roman Empire

12.4.1 The struggle for survival
Basiliki Papoulia

12.4.2 The period of justinian
Yannis Karayannopoulos

12.4.3 The invasion of Slavs and Avars (c. 568 to 626)
Vasilka Tapkova-Zaimova

12.5 The formation of tribal kingdoms between AD 400 and 600

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

12.5.1 Goths, Vandals, Lombards
Herwig Wolfram

12.5.2 The Merovingian Kingdom.
Waltraud Bleiber

12.6 The Roman heritage and the beginning of the Medieval Society

12.6.1 The problem of continuity
Joachim Herrmann

12.6.2 Economic base and social structures of early Medieval societies
Joachim Herrmann

12.6.3 The Roman ideological and cultural heritage
Joachim Herrmann

12.6.4 Byzantium and the Roman tradition
Vassil Gjusselev

13. Peoples and tribes in Central, Northern and Eastern Europe

Editor's note
Joachim Herrmann

13.1 Britons, Anglo-Saxons, Irish and the Roman heritage
Catherine Hills

13.2 The Baltic region: Scandinavians, Balts, Finno-Ugrians
Lech Leciejetvicz

13.3 Tribal societies in Eastern Europe
Valentin V Sedév

13.4 Slavs, Avars and the Merovingian kingdom
Joachim Herrmann

III The African Continent

David W Phillipson

14. North Africa

14.1 The Libyco-Berbers
Raoul Lonis

14.2 The Phoenicians
Brian H. Warmington

14.3 Cyrenaica and the Greek colonies
Raoul Lonis

14.4 The Romans and their influence
Brian H. Warmington

14.5 The Vandals
Ammar Mahjoubi

14.6 The Byzantine provinces
Ammar Mahjoubi

15. The Nile Valley

Editor's note
David W Phillipson

15.1 Egypt

15.1.1 The Napata period
Barbara Watterson

15.1.2 The Saite age
Théophile Obenga

15.1.3 The Persian conquest and the last indigenous dynasties
Mohamed L Bakr

15.1.4 Ptolemaic rulers
Erich Winter

15.1.5 Roman and Coptic Egypt
Barbara Watterson

15.2 Nubia

15.2.1 The Kingdom of Kush
Peter L. Shinnie

15.2.2 Post-Meroitic period
Peter L. Shinnie

15.2.3. The early Christian period
Stefan Jakobielski

16. Sub-Saharan Africa

16.1 'Neolithic' in West Africa
Alex Ikechuk Okpoko

16.2 'Neolithic' in Central Africa
Raymond Lanfranchi

16.3 'Neolithic' in Eastern Africa
David W Phillipson

16.4 Early metal-using peoples in West Africa
the late Nwanna Nzewunwa (revised by David W Phillipson)

IV South Asia

Romila Thapar

17. Protohistory and early historical period 700-200 BC

17.1 Archaeology and ecology of the northern subcontinent
K. T. M. Hedge

17.2 Literature, archaeology and historical reconstruction c. 700-400 BC
Romila Thapar

17.3 The formation of states and the Maurya empire
Romila Thapar

18. A South Asia from 200 BC to AD 300

18.1 Dynastic patterns of the northern subcontinent: commercial and cultural links
Braja Dulal Chattopadhyaya

18.2 State formation in peninsular India and Sri Lanka
Sudharshan Seneviratne

19. South Asia from AD 300 to 700

19.1 The northern subcontinent
R. S. Sharma

19.2 The peninsula
R. Champakalakshmi

19.3 Sri Lanka
Leslie Gunawardana

V South-east Asia, Australasia and the Pacific

Johannes G. de Casparis

20. Protohistory and the early historical period
R. P. Soejono andPornchai Suchitta

21. South-east Asia from AD 300 to 700
Srisakra Vallibhotama and Dhida Saraya

22. Australia and the Pacific

22.1 Australia
Barry Cundy

22.2 The Pacific
Peter Bellwood

VI Central Asia and the Nomads

Richard N. Frye

23. Nomadic Cultures of Central Asia from. 700 BC to AD 300

23.1 Iranian nomadic tribes in Central Asia
Richard N. Frye

23.2 Archaeological cultures of Southern Siberia and Mongoha
Vadim M. Masson

23.3 Hellenistic culture in Central Asia
Gennadi A. Koshelenko

23.4 The Xiongnu Empire
Denis Sinor

23.5 The fall of the Graeco-Bactrians: Sakas and Indo-Parthians
Richard N. Frye

23.6 The rise of the Kushan Empire
Richard N. Frye

23.7 The Oasis states of Central Asia
Richard N. Frye and Boris A. Litvinsky

24. Nomadic and urban cultures of Central Asia from AD 300 to 700

24.1 Peoples and states after the decline of Parthia in AD 226
Werner Sundermann

24.2 The Northern nomads, Sogdiana and Chorasmia
Richard N. Frye and Boris A. Litvinsky

24.3 City-states in the Tarim Basin
Werner Sundermann

24.4 Late Kushan kingdoms
Werner Sundermann

24.5 Origin and rise of the Chionites/Xyon/Huns
Werner Sundermann

24.6 The rise of the Hephthalite Empire
Werner Sundermann

24.7 Annexation of the Hephthalite vassal kingdoms by the Western Turks
Janos Harmatta

24.8 The rise of the Turk power
Ildiko Ecsedy and Werner Sundermann

VII East Asia

Erik Zürcher

25. The Eastern Zhou (from 800 to 300 BC)
Chang Kivang-chih and Choyun Hsu

26. The Early Chinese Empire: Qin and Han (221 BC-AD 220)

26.1 The Qin Empire
Chen Chi-yun

26.2 The Han Empire
Chen Chi-yun

26.3 Qin-Han: Arts and material culture
Michael Loewe

27. East Asia (from AD 200 to 500)

27.1 Early Medieval China
Erik Zürcher and Fukui-Bunga Fumimasa

27.2 Early Korea
Zhou Yiliang

27.3 Early Japan
Zhou Yiliang

VIII The Americas

William T. Sanders

28. North America
Philip C. Weigand

29. Mesoamerica

29.1 The transition from the Formative to Classic civilization
William T. Sanders

29.2 The Classic period in central and southern Mexico
William T. Sanders

29.3 The Classic period of Maya civilization, AD 1-900
Norman Hammond

30. South America

30.1 The formation of the Classical Andean world
Luis G. Lumbreras Salcedo

30.2 The Circurn-Caribbean and the Orinoco Amazon areas
Mario Sanoja Obediente and Iraida Vargas Arenas

30.3 The southern frontiers of Andean civilization and the cultures of Southern South America
Alberto Rex Gonzalez

Chronological table



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