History of Humanity

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From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century

Editors
M. A. Al-Bakhit
L. Bazin
S. M. Cissoko
The late A.A. Kamel

Co-editors
The late M. S. Asimov
The late P. Gendrop
The late A. Gieysztor
I. Habib
Y. Karayannopoulos
J. Litvak King
P. Schmidt

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Summary :

This volume covers the period from the rise of Islam and its expansion to the "discovery" of the New World by Christopher Columbus.

During this epoch the Thematic part focuses on technical and scientific transfers promoted particularly by the Islamic world. It should be pointed out that the fundamental innovations, such as paper-making, decimal positional numbering and the stern-post-rudder, were products of the Asian civilizations and reached Europe through the medium of Islamic culture. In terms of cultural anthropology the regions conserve their great diversity, scientific and technical achievements tending towards universality and little by little becoming the common property of all humanity.

A group of 85 authors, from 38 countries have collaborated on this volume.

Table of Contents

 

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English:

1999, Routledge/UNESCO

  Table of Contents

A. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Mohammad Adnan Al-Bakhit, Louis Bazin, Sékéné Mody Cissoko

B. THEMATIC SECTION

Chapter 1 Environment and population
Victor L. Kozlov

Chapter 2 The Family, Domestic Groups and Society
Robert Fossier

Chapter 3 The State and the Law

Editor's Note
Louis Bazin

3.1 Europe

3.1.1. The principle
Rafael Gibert y Sánchez de la Vega

3.1.2. The practice
Aleksander Gieysztor (the late)

3.2 The Islamic World
Majid Khasuri

3.3 Nomadic States in Central Asia
Louis Bazin

3.4 South and South East Asia
Irfan Habib

3.5 East Asia
Guang-da Zhang

3.6 Africa
Yoro Fall and Isodore Ndaywel č Nziem

3.7 The Americas
William T. Sanders

Chapter 4 Economic Systems and Technologies
Richard W. Bulliet

Chapter 5 Communication and Transport
Richard W. Bulliet

Chapter 6 Knowledge and Sciences
Ahmad Yusuf Al-Hassan

Chapter 7 Religions, Ethics and Philosophy
Maurice Borrmans

Chapter 8 Art and Expression

8.1 The Ancient World
Oleg Grabar

8.2 The New World: the Evidence from Meso America
Alfonso Arellano Hernández

C. REGIONAL SECTION

PART I THE HEIRS OF THE Greco-Roman WORLD

Introduction
Yannis Karayannopoulos

Chapter 9 Byzantium

9.1 Historical Summary
Ljubomir Maksimovic

9.2 State Organization, Social Structure, Economy and Commerce
Yannis Karayannopoulos

9.3 Cultural Achievement
Panayotis Vocotopoulos

Chapter 10 Carolingian Europe
Pierre Riché

PART II THE CONFIGURATION OF EUROPEAN PERSONALITY

Introduction
Jacques Le Goff

Chapter 11 Medieval Western Europe
Jacques Le Goff

Chapter 12 East and Southeast Europe

12.1 Ethnic and Political Changes in the Balkan Peninsula
Vasilka Tapkova-Zaimova

12.2 The Christianization of the Slavs and other Ethnic Groups, Particularly those near the Black Sea
Vasilka Tapkova-Zaimova

12.3 Literary and Artistic forms of Expression

12.3.1 Literary forms of Expression

12.3.2 Artistic forms of Expression
Vasilka Tapkova-Zaimova

Chapter 13 Central and Northern Europe
Lucien Musset

Chapter 14 The Expansion of the European Influence
José Luis Martín Rodríguez

Chapter 15 The Corridor between Europe and Asia

15.1 The Kiev Russ
Anatoly P. Novoseltsev (the late)

15.2 The Armenians
Viada A. Arutjonova-Fidanjan

15.3 The Georgians and other Caucasians
Viada A. Arutjonova-Fidanjan

15.4 The Crimeans
Sergei P. Karpov

PART III THE MUSLIM WORLD AND ITS ARABIAN ZONE

Introduction
Abdul Aziz Duri

Chapter 16 Rise of Islam

16.1 Rise of Islam in Arabia
Abdul Aziz Duri

16.2 The Source of Islam
Azmi Taha Fu'ad Sayyed

16.3 The Formation of the Early Islamic Polity and Society : General Characteristics
Clifford Edmund Bosworth

Chapter 17 Expansion of Islam and Aspects of Diversity in Asia, Africa and Europe

17.1 Poles of Expansion from Arabia
Saleh Ahmed Al -Ali

17.2 Arab Expansion in the Muslim World
Saleh Ahmed Al-Ali

17.3 The Iranian Renaissance and the Rise of the National Language and Literature
Ehsan Yarshater

17.4 The Turco-Mongol Period
Françoise Aubin

17.5 The West of Islam

17.5.1. Al-Maghrib, Spain and Sicily
Younes Shanwan

17.5.2. The Sudan and Countries South of the Sahara
Djibril Tamsir Niane

Chapter 18 The Islamic World : Social and Material Life, Classes and Communities

18.1 Society and Material Culture of the Islamic World
Mounira Chapoutot Remadi and Radhi Daghfous

18.2 Non Muslims in Islamic Society
Benjamin Braude, Irfan Habib, Kamal Salbi, Ahmad Tafazzoli (the late)
Co-ordinated by Mounira Chapoutot Remadi and Radhi Daghfous

Chapter 19 Arabia and the Eastern Arab Lands (Al-Mashriq)
Farouk Omar Fawzi

Chapter 20 North and North-east Africa

20.1 Misr (Egypt)
Ayman Fu'ad Sayyid

20.2 Al-Maghrib
Mohammad Benaboud

Chapter 21 Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean Coast and its Islands
Manuel Sánchez Martínez

PART IV THE ASIAN WORLD

Introduction
Irfan Habib

Chapter 22 Iran
Seyyed Hossein Nasr

Chapter 23 Central Asia
Muhammad S. Asimov (the late) and Numan Negmatov

Chapter 24 Turkish Expansion towards the West:

24.1 Islamization of the Turks, Oghuz and Turkmen
Clifford Edmund Bosworth

24.2 The Turkmen Forays into Western Anatolia and the Balkans
Robert Mantran (the late)

24.3 The Turkmen in Western Anatolia and their Emirates
Halil Inalcik

Chapter 25 South Asia

25.1 India
Irfan Habib

25.2 Sri Lanka
Kingsley M. de Silva

25.3 Nepal
Alexander W. Macdonald

Chapter 26 South-east Asia and the Asian Islands in the Pacific
Denys Lombard (the late)

Chapter 27 China
Guang-da Zhang

Chapter 28 Japan and Korea

28.1 Japan
Françine Herail

28.2 Korea
Li Ogg

Chapter 29 Siberian-Manchurian Hunting Peoples: Nomadism

29.1 Siberian and Manchurian Peoples: Nomadism
Michail V. Vorobjev (the late)

29.2 The Turkish and Mongol Peoples of the Steppes: Pastoral Nomadism
Louis Bazin

Chapter 30 The Mongol Empire
Shagdaryn Bira

Chapter 31 The Tibetan Cultural Area
Yonten Gyatso and Fernand Meyer

PART V THE AFRICAN CONTINENT

Introduction
Sékéné Mody Cissoko

Chapter 32 Western Africa

32.1 The Peoples
Sékéné Mody Cissoko

32.2 The Economy
Sékéné Mody Cissoko

32.3 Societies and Political Structures
Sékéné Mody Cissoko

32.4 Religions

32.4.1. African Traditional Religions
Isaac Adeagbo Akinjogbin

32.4.2. Islam and Christianity
Sékéné Mody Cissoko

32.5 Arts and Sciences
Isaac Adeagbo Akinjogbin

Chapter 33 Nubia and The Nilotic Sudan
Yusuf Fadl Hasan

Chapter 34 Ethiopia
E.J. Van Donzel

Chapter 35 The Eastern Coast and the Indian Ocean Isles

35.1 Environment and Techniques
Edward A. Alpers

35.2 Trade and Urban Development
Edward A. Alpers

35.3 Arab Muslim Cultures and Local Cultures (Swahili) on the East Coast of Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands
Victor Matveiev  (the late)

35.4 Mixed Cultures of Madagascar and the other Islands
Rafolo Andrianaivoarivony

35.5 International Importance of the Region
Edward A. Alpers

Chapter 36 Central and Southern Africa
Isidore Ndaywel č Nziem

PART VI CIVILIZATIONS OF AMERICA

Introduction
Louis Bazin and Christine Neiderberger

Chapter 37 North America

37.1 North American Arctic Cultures
Jean Aigner

37.2 North-western North America
Roy L. Carlson

37.3 Prehistory of the Eastern Woodlands of North America
James B. Stoltman

37.4 The Greater Southwest
Linda S. Cordell

37.5 North-eastern Mexico
Jeremiah F. Epstein

Chapter 38 Mesoamerica and Central America

38.1 Mesoamerica. Central and Northern Areas
Paul Gendrop (the late), Jaime Litvak King, Paul Schmidt

38.2 Central America
Wolfgang Haberland

Chapter 39 South America

39.1 The Caribbean Area and the Orinoco-Amazon Region
Mario Sanoja Obediente and Iraida Vargas Arenas

39.2 The Central Andes
Luis Millones

39.3 Southern South America
Ana María Lorandi and Daniel Schávelzon

PART VII OCEANIA AND THE PACIFIC
Jacqueline de la Fontinelle and Michel Aufray

 

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