There are various forms of Arabic calligraphy. At its beginning, the Arabic calligraphy can be broadly categorized into two forms. The first is geometrical and angular, and the second is curved and flowing. From these two calligraphic methods emerged various styles. The Kufic script, the oldest and most venerable of the geometric calligraphies, can be executed with flowered edges or with geometrical knots, for example. While the cursive scripts include Thuluth, Raqaa and al-Nasekh etc.
The copier of manuscripts had to know very well the many arts of calligraphy in order to be a master in his work. He must use the ink with expertise, sharpen the pen correctly, cut it and hold it gracefully, all so that the movement of his hand during the writing of manuscripts is perfect (also for the talents of a manuscript copier). There is a highly respected methodology to the art of calligraphy. The dot, as the pure prime beginning of all writing, has deep mystical value while also being a physical measure for the dimensions of all the other letters in the alphabet. In this illustrative calligraphy manuscript, black ink is used to draw the letters, while diacritical marks are in red ink.