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UNESCO - Dialogue among Civilizations

How we see others,
how others see us

Proceedings of the International Symposium
Paris, 13 and 14 December 2001

Bio-sketches of contributors

Jean Baubérot

Professor Jean Baubérot has been President of the École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE) since February 1999. Former prizewinner of the Concours Général in History, he has doctorates in history and in philosophy and human sciences from the University of Paris-Sorbonne. Director of the Groupe de Sociologie des Religions et de la Laïcité (CNRS-EPHE) from 1995 to 2001, he holds the only Chair in French higher education devoted to secularism, entitled ‘History and sociology of secularism’.

The eighteen works he has written or edited include Un christianisme profane? (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1978), Le pouvoir de contester (Geneva, Labor et Fides, 1983), Cent ans de sciences religieuses en France (Paris, Cerf, 1987), La laïcité, quel héritage? (Geneva, Labor et Fides, 1990), Vers un nouveau pacte laïque? (Paris, Seuil, 1990), Pluralisme et minorités religieuses (Louvain, Peters, 1991), Religions et laïcité dans l’Europe des douze (Paris, Syros, 1994), La morale laïque contre l’ordre moral (Paris, Seuil, 1997), Une haine oubliée (with V. Zuber, Paris, Albin Michel, 2000, Académie Française award), Histoire de la laïcité française (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, coll. Que sais-je?, 2000), Religion, modernité et culture au Royaume Uni et en France (1800–1914) (with S. Matthieu, Paris, Seuil, 2002).

Twelve of his works have been translated into various languages, and he has given courses and lectures on secularism in the universities and research centres of twenty-four countries.

In 1997–98, he worked with Ms Ségolène Royal, minister responsible for citizenship education. He is a member of the National Order of Merit.

Jean Favier

Born in 1932 in Paris, educated at the École Nationale des Chartes and the Sorbonne, Jean Favier is an archivist and palaeographer, holder of a degree in history and a Ph.D. He has been a lecturer at the universities of Rennes, Rouen and Paris-Sorbonne. In 1975 he became Director-General of the Archives de France, and in 1988 was elected President of the International Council on Archives. Then, in 1994, he was appointed President of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Since 1997, he has chaired the French National Commission for UNESCO. He is a member of the Institut de France (Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres).

He has published over twenty works mainly devoted to the history of the Middle Ages, including his thesis on Les finances pontificales à l’époque du Grand Schisme d’Occident, 1378–1409 (Paris, De Boccard, 1966), and works appealing to a wide public such as Philippe le Bel (Paris, Fayard, 1978), La guerre de Cent Ans (Paris, Fayard, 1980), François Villon (Paris, Fayard, 1982), Le temps des principautés (Paris, Fayard, 1984), Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages (New York, Holmes & Meier, 1998), Les grandes découvertes, d’Alexandre à Magellan (Paris, Fayard, 1991), Dictionnaire de la France médiévale (Paris, Fayard, 1993), Paris, deux mille ans d’histoire (Paris, Fayard, 1997), Charlemagne (Paris, Fayard, 1999) and Louis XI (Paris, Fayard, 2001). He has written a number of television series and currently presents Questions pour l’histoire for France Inter.

Alain de Libera

Alain de Libera, born 27 September 1948, holds a degree in philosophy. He is Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Science of Religion Section, for courses on the history of Christian theologies in the medieval Western world.

A lecturer in the history of medieval philosophy at the University of Geneva, he is a member of the Conseil d’Orientation et de Coordination des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Société.

He is also editorial director of the Des travaux collection (Paris, Éditions du Seuil) and a member of the editorial board of Critique (Paris, Éditions de Minuit).

His publications include Penser au Moyen-Âge (Paris, Seuil, 1997), La philosophie médiévale (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1998), La querelle des universaux (Paris, Seuil, 1996), L’art des généralités (Paris, Aubier, 1999) and La référence vide (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2002).

Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont

Following Turkish, Persian and Arabic studies at the École Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantes (ENLOV), now the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO), Jean-Louis Bacqué-Grammont learned Chagatai Turkish, the language of the memoirs of Babur – founder of the Great Mughal dynasty – for which he provided a French translation, published by the Imprimerie Nationale under the auspices of UNESCO. His familiarity with Ottoman and Persian palaeography gave him access to a substantial amount of unpublished material. This resulted in Les Ottomans, les Safavides et leurs voisins, 1500–1524 (Istanbul, Netherlands Historical and Archaeological Institute, 1987), an expanded version of his doctoral thesis, as well as several dozen articles on foreign relations under the Ottoman Empire and the editorial direction of seven collective studies (including an entire volume published by the German Archaeological Institute in Istanbul) on cemeteries of the Ottoman period examined from various perspectives.

He was Director of the French Institute for Anatolian Studies in Istanbul from 1984 to 1991. Since 1992, he has conducted an international research programme on the prosopography of the sixteenth-century Ottoman administration. In 1997 he published La première histoire de France en turc ottoman (1572) (Paris, L’Harmattan). His research also focuses on Ottoman geographical literature. Author of some 150 articles, books and translations, he is a corresponding member of the Turkish Historical Society and the Turkish Language Society (Ankara).

François Déroche

Born 24 October 1952, former student of the École Normale Supérieure in Paris and holder of a degree and doctorate in philosophy (1976 and 1987), François Déroche was a resident scholar of the French Institute for Anatolian Studies (Istanbul, 1983–86).

Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études Historical and Philological Sciences Section since 1990, he is a member of the scientific board of the Max van Berchen Foundation (Geneva), Vice-President of the international committee of the International Congress of Turkish Art and of the Société d’Études du Maghreb Préhistorique, Antique et Médiéval, and joint editor of the Islamique collection at the Presses Universitaires de France.

He published the manuscript catalogue of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (2 vol., 1983 and 1985), The Abbasid Tradition (London, 1992; translation into Persian, 2000) and a Manuel de codicologie des manuscrits en écriture arabe (Paris, 2000; forthcoming translations into Arabic and English); in collaboration with S. Noja-Noseda, he brought out a facsimile of the Arabic Koranic MS 328a of the Bibliothèque Nationale (Lesa, 1998) and, with A. von Gladiss, Der Prachtkoran im Museum für islamische Kunst (Berlin, 1999).

Editor of Les manuscrits du Moyen Orient (Istanbul/Paris, 1989), Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient (Paris, 1997) and Art turc – Turkish Art (Geneva, 1999), he has written some forty articles on manuscripts in the Arab and Islamic world.

Roberte Hamayon

After university studies in linguistics, ethnology (Sorbonne, 1958) and Russian (École des Langues Orientales, 1964), Roberte Hamayon obtained a Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of Paris VII in 1973, thesis published as Eléments de grammaire mongole, Dunod, 1976 (with M. L. Beffa), and a Ph.D. from the University of Paris X in 1988, thesis published in 1990 (see below).

First a librarian (1963–65) and then a researcher (1965–74) at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), since 1974 she has been Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Science of Religion Section.

Founder of the Centre for Mongolian and Siberian Studies and its journal, Études mongoles et sibériennes at Paris X in 1970, she has carried out many ethnological missions among the Mongolian peoples of Mongolia, Siberia and China.

Her main recent publications are La chasse à l’âme. Esquisse d’une théorie du chamanisme sibérien (Nanterre, Société d’ethnologie, 1990 – Ph.D. thesis), Taïga, terre de chamanes (Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1997), and a number of articles on religious reconstruction in the post-communist world.

Françoise Aubin

Françoise Aubin, Research Director Emeritus at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and at the Centre for International Studies and Research (CERI) of the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, is a specialist on China, Mongolia and Islam with a particular interest in cultural and institutional history in the Far East and Central Asia, especially its historical depth and spread across Eurasia. She participated in UNESCO’s History of Humanity, the Encyclopaedia of Islam, and the Encyclopaedia Universalis. Her other publications include ‘La Mongolie des premières années de l’après-communisme: la popularisation du passé mongol dans les mass media mongols (1990–1995)’, in Études mongoles et sibériennes, XXVII, 1996; ‘Renouveau gengiskhanide et nationalisme dans la Mongolie postcommuniste’, in Cahiers d’études sur la Méditerranée orientale et la monde turco-iranien (CEMOTI), XVI, 1993; ‘Les sanctions et les peines chez les Mongols’, in Transactions of the Jean Bodin Society for Comparative Institutional History, LVIII, 1991.

Jean Tulard

Jean Tulard is a member of the Institut de France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences), Professor at the University of Paris-Sorbonne and Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Historical and Philological Sciences Section.

He is the author of many works on Napoleon and his era, including Le mythe de Napoléon and Napoléon et le cinéma, which analyse the Napoleonic legend.

Luis Filipe Ferreira Reis Thomaz

Born in S. Domingos de Rana, Cascais, Portugal, in 1942, Luis Filipe Ferreira Reis Thomaz obtained a degree in history with a thesis on Os Portugueses em Malaca (1511–1580) at the Arts Faculty of the University of Lisbon, where he was a lecturer from 1965 to 1988.

He holds diplomas from the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales in Paris (Malay-Indonesian), from the University of Paris III (classical Indian studies) and from the Catholic University of Paris (Syriac). From 1978 to 1982 he was Visiting Professor at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in Bangi, Malaysia, at the Universidade da Ásia Oriental in Macao and at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, Brazil.

Since 1987 he has been Assistant Professor, then Associate Professor, at the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa and a lecturer for Master’s degree courses in the history of Portuguese discoveries and expansion; he conducts seminars on the Portuguese in the East, the Portuguese in North Africa, naval matters and cartography, and teaches the history of Asia, history of the Indian Ocean, Malay, Sanskrit, Ge’ez and Syriac.

He is the author of some hundred articles published in journals, encyclopaedias and specialist dictionaries, as well as several books: De Malaca a Pegu – Viagens de um feitor português (l512–l5l5) (1966), Timor: Notas histórico-linguísticas (1974), A viagem de António Correia a Pegu em l5l9 (1976), Le Portugal et l’Afrique au XVI siècle (1989), A lenda de S. Tomé Apóstolo e a expansão portuguesa (1991), A carta que mandaram os Padres da Índia, da China e da Magna China, um relato siríaco da chegada dos portugueses ao Malabar e seu primeiro encontro com a hierarquia cristã local (1992), A questão da pimenta em meados do século XVI – Um debate político do governo de D. João de Castro (1998) and, with Geneviève Bouchon, Voyage dans les deltas du Gange et de l’Irraouaddy en l521 (1988).

Ségolène Demougin

After higher studies in Strasbourg and Paris (University of Paris I and École Pratique des Hautes Études), Ségolène Demougin specialized in the social and institutional history of Rome, with particular emphasis on the prosopography and practice of Latin and Greek epigraphy. Her research initially focused on the second aristocracy of the Empire, the Equestrian Order, on which she has written two books (L’ordre équestre sous les Julio-claudiens, Rome, 1988, and Prosopographie des chevaliers Julio-claudiens, Rome, 1992), and organized an international Symposium (L’ordre équestre, histoire d’une aristocratie, IIème s. av. J.-C. – IIIéme s. ap. J. C., Rome, 1999). Numerous aspects of Roman administrative, political and social history have also drawn her attention, while her current research is focused on imperial splendour in the reign of Augustus. Research Director at the French National Centre for Scientific Research and Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études Historical and Philological Sciences Section, she has published over sixty articles and twelve books.

Jean Chesneaux

Born in 1922, Jean Chesneaux holds a degree in history (1945) and a Ph.D. (1962).

He is Honorary Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, VIth Section, now the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Paris VII.

His research and teaching are focused on East Asia and the Pacific in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He has conducted many study trips to East Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Caribbean and the French overseas departments and territories.

His recent publications (excluding those on modern Chinese and Vietnamese history) include Transpacifiques (Paris, 1992), La France dans le Pacifique, de Bougainville à Mururoa (Paris, 1992), Habiter le temps (Paris, 1996), L’art du voyage (Paris, 1999), and Jules Verne, un regard sur le monde (Paris, 2001).

Bruno Neveu

Former student of the École des Chartes and member of the École Française de Rome, Bruno Neveu is an archivist and palaeographer. He holds doctorates in philosophy and law.

Currently he is Director of Studies in the Historical and Philological Sciences Section, École Pratique des Hautes Études, of which he was President from 1994 to 1998.

          A member of the Institut de France (Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques), he is a historian of the Classical Period in Europe (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries), particularly the history of religious ideas and institutions.

His main publications are Sébastien Joseph Du Cambout de Pontchâteau (1634–1690) et ses missions à Rome (1969), Un historien à l’école de Port-Royal: Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont (1637–1698) (1966), Correspondance du nonce en France Angelo Ranuzzi (1683–89), 2 vol. (1973), L’Erreur et son juge. Remarques sur les censures doctrinales à l’époque moderne (1993), Érudition et religion au XVIIème et au XVIIIème siècle (1994), Les facultés de théologie de l’université de France, 1805–1885 (1998). He is also the author of a number of articles on the diplomatic, intellectual and spiritual history of modern Europe, universities, the Roman pontificate, relations between criticism and dogma, and Gallicanism.

Antoine Valéry

Born in 1946 in Paris, Antoine Valéry has been a barrister at the Paris Court of Appeal since 1971. First Secretary of the Conférence du Stage (1976), he was Chargé de mission at the French Delegation to the Consultative Committee of the Bars and Law Societies of the European Community (1984–85).

Secretary of the Commission Internationale et Communautaire de l’Ordre (1989) and member of the Conseil de l’Ordre (1 January1989 to 13 January1992), he was deputy administrator of the Caisse Nationale des Barreaux Français (1992–98).

He is a member of the Association Française d’Arbitrage and of the working group on the criminal justice and prison aspects of the Committee on Violence and Delinquency set up by the French Prime Minister in 1976.

Secretary-General (from 1978) and Vice-President (since 1999) of the Institute for Training in Human Rights of the Paris Bar, he was a delegate to the World Conference on the Independence of Justice in 1983. He is a member of the Extra-municipal Coordinating Commission on Human Rights of the City of Paris and the Working Group on Child Protection set up by the Minister-Delegate for Humanitarian Activities and Human Rights in 1993.

Since acting as a UNESCO invited expert in 1987, he has been adviser to the French Delegation at sessions of the UNESCO General Conference. Since 1991 he has been a member of the Commission of the French Republic for Education, Science and Culture – French National Commission for UNESCO – and since 1999 chairperson of the Human Rights and Ethical Questions Committee. He was awarded the National Order of Merit in 1986.

Abdelkébir Khatibi

Abdelkébir Khatibi, born in 1938 at El Jadida, Morocco, is a researcher in the social sciences, a writer, and Director of the University Institute for Scientific Research in Rabat.

His works relating to the social sciences include Vomito blanco (1974), Maghreb pluriel (1983), Figures de l’étranger (1987), L’art calligraphique de l’Islam (1995).

He is also a novelist: La mémoire tatouée (1971), Le livre du sang (1979), Amour bilingue (1983), Un été à Stockholm (1990); and a poet: Le lutteur de classe à la manière taoïste (1976), Dédicace à l’année qui vient (1986).

François-Xavier Guerra

Born in 1942, François-Xavier Guerra has been Professor of Modern History at the University of Paris I since 1985. Director of the Centre de Recherches d’Histoire de l’Amérique Latine et du Monde Ibérique of the University of Paris I-Sorbonne, he specializes in the political and cultural policy of the Hispanic world, initially studying the Mexican Revolution (Le Mexique de l’Ancien Régime à la Révolution, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1985, 2 vol.). For several years, he has been concentrating on the period of independence, the liberal revolutions and nation-building in Latin America, on which he has written several books including Modernidad e independencias. Ensayos sobre las revoluciones hispánicas, 3rd ed., Mexico City, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2000.

In addition to publishing dozens of articles, he has organized and edited a number of symposia and collective works: with A. Annino and L. Castro Leiva, De los imperios a las naciones. Iberoamérica (Zaragoza, 1994); with M. Quijada, Imaginar la nación (Münster-Hamburg, 1994); Mémoires en devenir. Amérique Latine. XVIe-XXe siècles (Bordeaux,1994); Las revoluciones hispánicas. Independencias americanas y liberalismo español (Madrid, 1995); with A. Lempérière, Los espacios públicos en Iberoamérica. Ambigüedades y problemas. Siglos XVIII-XIX (Mexico City, 1998).

Jacques Le Rider

Born in 1954, Jacques Le Rider has been Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Historical and Philological Sciences Section, for courses on European history and Europe and the Germanic world since September 1999.

In 2000 he received the Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

His most recent publications are Modernity and Crises of Identity. Culture and Society in Fin-de-siècle Vienna (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1993); Nietzsche en France, de la fin du XIXe siècle au temps présent (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, coll. Perspectives germaniques, 1999; Journaux intimes viennois (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, coll. Perspectives critiques, 2000); Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Ecrits autobiographiques 1789–1815 : Annales, Campagne de France, Siège de Mayence, Rencontre avec Napoléon, 1808, translated by Jacques Porchat, revised, completed and annotated by Jacques Le Rider (Paris, Editions Bartillat, 2001). 

Mounir Bouchenaki

Mounir Bouchenaki was born in 1943 in Tlemcen, Algeria. He holds a diploma in history from the Arts Faculty of Algiers (Algeria) and a Ph.D. in archaeology and ancient history from the Arts Faculty of Aix-en-Provence (France). From 1975 to 1981, he served as Deputy Director, then Director, of Fine Arts, Monuments and Sites at the Ministry of Information and Culture in Algiers.

Having joined the UNESCO Secretariat in 1982 as a programme specialist in the Division of Cultural Heritage of the Culture Sector, he was promoted Head of the Section for Operational Action and Training in 1985, then Director of the Division in 1992. From February 1999 to September 2000, he also served as acting Director of the World Heritage Centre. He was appointed Assistant Director-General for Culture on l November 2000 (having served in this post in an acting capacity since 1 January 2000).

He has written several books and articles on archaeological research and protection of the cultural heritage.

He has been admitted to the Order of Arts and Literature by the French Ministry of Culture and has also been decorated by the Polish Ministry of Culture. In 2000 he received the ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) Award for his work in the field of cultural heritage.

Doudou Diène

Born in Senegal in 1941, Doudou Diène was a prizewinner in philosophy of Senegal’s Concours Général, holds a law degree from the University of Caen, a doctorate in public law from the University of Paris and a diploma in political science from the Institut d’Études Politiques in Paris.

Having joined the UNESCO Secretariat in 1977, in 1980 he was appointed Director of the Liaison Office with the United Nations, Permanent Missions and United Nations departments in New York. Prior to this he had served as deputy representative of Senegal to UNESCO (1972–77) and, in that capacity, as Vice-President and Secretary of the African Group and Group of 77.

Between 1985 and 1987, he held the posts of Deputy Assistant Director-General for External Relations, spokesperson for the Director-General, and acting Director of the Bureau of Public Information. After a period as Project Manager of the ‘Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue’ aimed at revitalizing East-West dialogue, he was appointed Director of the Division of Intercultural Projects in 1993 (currently Division of Intercultural Dialogue). In this capacity, he is also responsible for intercultural dialogue projects concerning geo-cultural areas such as the Slave Route, Routes of Faith, Routes of al-Andalus and Iron Roads in Africa. In 1998 he was placed in charge of activities pertaining to interreligious dialogue.

He has taken part in a number of radio and television programmes: Neuf siècles de guerres saintes (May 1996), UNESCO/ARTE; Sur la piste des caravanes: L’endroit de toutes les rencontres (February 1998) and Sur la route des épices (March 2000), UNESCO/NDR/ARTE; and a programme in the Thalassa series on The Slave Route (FR3, April 1998). He is co-author of Patrimoine culturel et créations contemporaines and of Vol. 35, No. 2 of the Journal of International Affairs on the New World Information Order. He has also published many articles on the issue of intercultural and interreligious dialogue in journals such as Archeologia, Historia, Sciences et Vie, Actualité des Religions, Diogenes, etc. Editorial director of From Chains to Bonds, (UNESCO, 1998), he wrote the preface to Tradition orale et archives de la traite négrière (UNESCO, 2001), as well as the editorial of Newsletter No. 2 of ‘The Slave Route’ (UNESCO, 2001).

Fumihiko Sueki

Fumihiko Sueki obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo in 1994. Since 1995 he has been a Professor in the university’s Graduate School of Humanities and Sociology, where he teaches Buddhism, in particular Japanese Buddhism. He works mainly on the reconstruction of the intellectual history of Buddhism in Japan from ancient to modern times. His recent research also covers Zen philosophy and comparative studies of modern Buddhism. His publications (in Japanese) include the History of Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo, 1992), Miscellaneous Essays on Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo, 1993), Studies in Buddhist Doctrines in the Early Heian Period (Tokyo, 1995) and Studies in the Formation of Kamakura Buddhism (Kyoto, 1998). He has contributed a number of articles in English to the Japanese Journal of Religious Studies and other journals. In 1997 he was Visiting Professor at the Ruhr-University in Bochum, Germany, and in 2001 guest researcher at Renmin University in Beijing, China, and Visiting Study Director of the Science of Religion Section, École Pratique des Hautes Études.

Jerzy Kłoczowski

Jerzy Kłoczowski, a Professor of History specializing in medieval studies, was born on 29 December 1924 in Bogdany, Poland. In 1941 he joined ZWZ (Association of Armed Struggle) and when the organization became the Home Army, he served in the Baszta (‘Turret’) regiment at headquarters. He was seriously injured during the Warsaw Rebellion and lost his right hand. On leaving the military hospital at Skierniewice in April 1945, he went to Copernicus University in Toruń, where he earned a degree and, in 1950, a Ph.D.

He arrived in Lublin in 1950 and started work at the Catholic University of Lublin as a tutor. He became Head of the Department of Medieval History and Auxiliary Historical Sciences in 1952. In 1956 he became Assistant Professor, in 1967 Associate Professor, and in 1974 he was nominated full Professor. In 1957 he became Head of the Institute of Historical Geography of the Church in Poland, and five years later Head of the Department of the History of Polish Culture. Between 1968 and 1974 he was Dean of the Faculty of Humanities.

He was a lecturer at the Collège de France in 1977, at Merton College (Oxford, UK) in 1980, the University of Paris-Sorbonne from 1985 to 1987, the University of Wisconsin-Madison (Wis., USA) in 1985 and at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (N.J., USA) from 1989 to 1990. Since 1991 he has been Director of the Institute of East-Central Europe in Lublin and chairperson of the International Federation of Institutes of East-Central Europe.

In September 1980 he joined the Solidarnosc movement, and in 1981 he was in charge of the works of the University of the East-Central Region. After 13 December 1981 he worked underground with Solidarnosc, becoming a member of Lech Wałęsa’s Civil Committee in 1987 where he served until June 1990. In 1989 and 1990 he chaired the Civil Committee for the Lublin Region. At that time he was also a judge in the State Tribunal. From June 1990 to November 1991 he was a Senator of the Republic of Poland representing Lublin Province, a member of the Commission for Foreign Affairs at the Senate, and a representative of the Polish Parliament at the Council of Europe. Since spring 1990 he has chaired the Polish Commission for UNESCO, served on the Executive Board in 1990–91 and chaired the Polish Delegation for the General Convention of UNESCO in Paris, autumn 1991.

His publications, numbering some 700, mainly concern the history of Christianity in Poland and East-Central Europe. His most recent works are Chrześcijaństwo i historia [Christianity and History], 1990; Uniwersalizm i swoistość kultury polskiej (as author and editor) [Universal and Specific Aspects of Polish Culture], Vol. I–II, 1990; Młodsza Europa [The Younger Europe], in press, PIW Warsaw; Historia Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej [A History of East-Central Europe], Vol. I–II, in press, Presses Universitaires de France.

Oleg Grabar

Born in 1929 in Strasbourg, France, and an American citizen since 1960, Oleg Grabar is Emeritus Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University (USA) as well as Aga Khan Emeritus Professor of Islamic Art and Architecture at Harvard University.

Specializing in the history of the arts in Muslim countries, he is a corresponding member of the French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the author of some sixteen books and over 200 articles. The most recent of these include The Great Mosque of Isfahan (New York University Press, New York, 1990); The Mediation of Ornament (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1992); Penser l’art islamique: Une esthétique de l'ornement (Albin Michel, coll. Bibliothèque Idées, Paris, 1996|); L’ornement: Formes et fonctions dans l’art islamique (Flammarion, Paris, 1996); The Shape of the Holy (Princeton University Press, 1996); The Dome of the Rock, with Saïd Nuseibeh (Rizzoli, 1996); La peinture persane (Paris, 1999); Mostly Miniatures (Princeton University Press, 2000); Islamic Art 650–1260, with Marilyn Jenkins-Madina (London/New Haven, 2001).

Honours and memberships of learned societies include the Henry Russell Award, University of Michigan (1958); College Art Association; Medieval Academy of America; American Oriental Society; American Research Center in Egypt; Middle East Studies Association; American Academy of Arts and Sciences; American Philosophical Society; German Archaeological Institute (honorary member); Istituto per gli Studi del Medio e Estremo Oriente, Rome (Honorary Member); British Academy (Corresponding Fellow); Austrian Academy (Honorary Member); Levi della Vida medal, UCLA (1996); Charles L. Freer medal for contributions to the study of the arts of Asia (2001).

Felipe Fernández-Armesto

Felipe Fernández-Armesto studied at Oxford University (Arnold Prize 1971, 1st class Honours 1972, Ph.D. 1977) and has been a member of the Faculty of Modern History there since 1983. He is also a Professorial Fellow of Queen Mary, University of London, where he teaches history and geography, and is well known in the UK for journalism and broadcasting (especially his appearances as presenter of the BBC’s Analysis).

His recent publications include Millennium (latest ed. London, 1999), Truth: A History (New York, 1998), Las Islas Canarias después de la conquista (Las Palmas, 1998) and Civilizations: Culture, Ambition and the Transformation of Nature (New York, 2001). His work has been translated into twenty-two languages and reviewers have likened him to Gibbon, Montesquieu, Toynbee and Braudel.

Recent honours include the Caird Medal of the National Maritime Museum, London (1995), the John Carter Brown Medal (1999), Fellowship of the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences (1999), and a Union Pacific Visiting Professorship at the University of Minnesota, USA (2000). His latest book, Food: A History, was published in the UK in October 2001.

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