PROMOTING THE QUALITY AND PERTINENCE OF EDUCATION — EDUCATIONAL PLANNING
Production by IIEP of training modules for educational planners and managers,
Against the 1980s backdrop of economic crisis, unemployment and indebtedness, the role of the planner changed, as was clearly brought out by a workshop organized by IIEP in 1989 on the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary (15) and also as reflected in the "Framework for Action" approved in 1990 by the World Conference on Education for All. The topic chosen for the International Congress held in Mexico City in 1990, some twenty years after the first international conference, was Planning and Management of Educational Development. Following in the footsteps of the Faure Commission report, the Mexico City Congress viewed education as a lifelong process and underscored the basic requirements of planning, namely to construct forward-looking scenarios that made it possible to explore the future and initiate processes of social change through education, and to democratize and decentralize planning and management by greater participation at intermediate and local levels and the use of the various ways and means available in formal and non-formal education. Planning services would increasingly be called upon to prepare educational policy options and measures to reduce disparities or even to undertake the ‘strategic piloting’ of education. (16)
Finally, in 1996, the report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, highlighted the ingredients needed to ensure the success of strategies for educational reform and the choices for education which are also the choices of society, in which all the stakeholders in the educational undertaking should be involved at the central and local levels, by opening up spaces for democratic decision-making.
In the next few biennia, the UNESCO’s action will also address the challenges and the consequences for educational policies and planning of the evolution of contemporary society: rapid urbanization and the struggle against poverty, pollution and environmental degradation, the participation of women in socio-economic development and fostering peace.
We want education to be democratized, but also to become democratic, which means assuming the right and the duty to participate. These two conditions must also be met when speaking of planning. If we really do want education for all, we must also establish a type of planning which is the responsibility of all and which at the same time is put into practice by all. Planning will thus become an integral educational process and a factor for democratization and social change.
The risk of interpreting “everyone in general” to mean “nobody in particular” is always present. How can it be avoided? First of all, planning must shake off its vague and impersonal connotations so as to involve those concerned at the practical level, starting at the grass-roots. For it is there that all the factors and individuals that shape education are to be found and have their being.
Manuel Bartlett Diaz, Secretary of Public Education of Mexico, Mexico City Congress, 1990.
|Regional Conferences of Ministers of Education,
a unique and original means of international co-operation
Wadi D. Haddad
Deputy Secretary of the World Bank and Special Adviser to the Director General of UNESCO
Educational planning is actually a series of untidy and overlapping episodes in which a variety of people and organizations with diversified perspectives are actively involved – technically and politically. It entails the processes through which issues are analyzed and policies are generated, implemented, assessed and redesigned. Accordingly, an analysis of the education sector implies an understanding of the education policy process itself – the 'how' and 'when' of educational development.
Education Policy-Planning Process: an Applied Framework, UNESCO-IIEP, 1995
Ricardo Díez- Hochleitner
UNESCO Sources, No. 78, April 1996
Learning: the Treasure Within. Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, UNESCO, 1996
|Africa||Latin America and the Caribbean||Arab States||Asia and the Pacific||Europe and North America|
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(15) The Prospects for Educational Planning, F. Caillods, UNESCO-IIEP, 1989.
(16) Does Education Need Strategic Piloting?, S. Lourié in the work by F. Caillods (note 15).
TO KNOW MORE (see also CD-ROM, Vol. I)