Summaries 1 to 15

1. A comparative study of the academic achievement of regular and extension students of Addis Ababa Commercial College

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Addis Ababa (Commercial College)

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Addis Ababa University

CONTACT/ADDRESS: School of Graduate Studies, AAU

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: June 1995

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 74 + 4 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: AAU Libraries, School of Graduate Studies

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Sentayehu Taddesse

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1994-1995

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1990-1992

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM

OR SUB-SECTOR: Tertiary

6. KEY WORDS: Academic performance, extension students, continuing education, comparison, higher education, adult education.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Document study supported by structured interviews and statistical analysis.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Academic performance in full-time and part-time learning.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: The difference in the academic achievement of regular and evening students.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Support services for evening learners; teaching methods.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regular and evening (extension) students at AAU differ significantly in terms of their academic achievements. Years of study break, age at entry and marital status are significant factors affecting academic achievement. Gender has no significant effect on academic achievement.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Higher education institutions should offer intensive guidance and counselling services to extension students.

13. COMMENTS: This is an MA dissertation for a degree in Educational Psychology.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Tables and statistical analyses covering high-school grades, sex, time elapsed before entering college and marital status.

 

2. A critical examination of the 1979-1991 Ethiopian National Literacy Campaign

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Southern Louisiana University

CONTACT/ADDRESS: Southern Louisiana University, USA

PLACE PUBLISHED: The Red Sea Press, New Jersey

PUBLICATION DATE: 1994

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 22

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: AAU and MSU Libraries

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Tilahun Sineshaw (Southern Louisiana University)

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1984-1990

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1979-1991

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Paper

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Non-formal education, adult literacy.

6. KEY WORDS: Literacy campaign, adult education, literacy strategy, non-formal education, literacy.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Documentary, field work and ethnographic methods as part of a doctoral thesis.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: The conduct and achievement(s) of the literacy campaign 1979-1991.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: The literacy campaign 1979-1991.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The planning of the literacy campaign was based on unwarranted assumptions and statistics. The management discouraged local initiative. The training of trainers was ineffective. The use of the mother tongue was positive. The nation was sensitized about illiteracy. The youth took advantage of the campaign.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS:

13. COMMENTS: This paper is part of a doctoral thesis, and has some texts of interviews with literacy campaign learners and operators. The paper is published in Marcus, H. (ed.), New Trends in Ethiopian Studies. Papers of the 12th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, held at Michigan State University, September 1994, pp. 217-238.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA:

 

3. A review of Sidama's basic education provision and its prospects up to 2006

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Sidama Zone

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Irish Development Cooperation

CONTACT/ADDRESS: Irish Embassy, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: August 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 86 + 91 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: Irish Embassy, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Ayalew Shibeshi, Lebesech Tsega, Zewdu Desta

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 8-30 July 1996

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1996-2006

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Primary

6. KEY WORDS: Sidama, basic and primary education, policy environment, functional adult literacy.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Survey employing participatory rural appraisal techniques.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Shortage of schools, quality decline, lack of dedicated and competent teachers, weak non-formal education.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Primary level.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Functional adult literacy, radio education, socio-economic profile of the zone.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Education is under-sized and unevenly distributed. Girls are under-represented. The primary level has a high drop-out rate, crowded classrooms, a shortage of qualified teachers, few female teachers, limited instructional materials, poor buildings and untrained education officers.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Increase the supply and rehabilitation of schools and the recruitment and training of teachers. Enhance learning environment. Strengthen educational management and gender sensitivity. Strengthen functional adult literacy and improve Kebele Development Committees.

13. COMMENTS: The study includes also a comprehensive plan of action with emphasis on basic education for the years 1996-2006.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Eleven tables and seven graphs on enrolment, number of teachers, facilities, expenditure and the functional adult literacy programme in the zone.

 

4. A study of basic non-formal education provisions and demands in Tigray

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Tigray Region

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Tigray Regional Education Bureau

CONTACT/ADDRESS: Tigray Regional Education Bureau, Makele

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: June 1994

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 55 + 12 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: Tigray REB, Makele

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Abebe Ghedai, Asefaw G/Egziabher and G/Medhin Kidane

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: April-May 1994

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Non-formal education

6. KEY WORDS: Non-formal education, literacy, community skills training centres.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Field observation and unstructured interviews.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Co-ordination of non-formal education goals and objectives with regional and national strategies for development; participation in literacy programmes and at the community skills training centres.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Non-formal education.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is a multi-sectoral regional literacy programme co-ordinating committee down to zonal and wereda level to reactivate literacy programmes. Thousands of illiterates were able to achieve skills in literacy and numeracy. Awareness was created among the general public. There are no clearly identified goals and objectives, no proper record-keeping or follow-up and no reading rooms for neo-literates. The female participation rate was low.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: The programme should not narrowly focus on literacy skills; the programme should include functional life skills. Major beneficiaries should be young adults, out-of-school youth and grass-roots leadership bodies. Instructional staff must be graduates of primary education and should receive pedagogical training. Formal schools should serve as local points for the programme. Adult education courses need to be offered at TTIs. Collaboration with indigenous secular or denominational groups needs to be encouraged.

13. COMMENTS: There is some qualitative material from field visits and interview results.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Three tables on the field visit schedule, areas visited and proposed plan of intake for basic literacy programmes.

 

5. A study of Ethiopian technical and vocational education

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: JICA

CONTACT/ADDRESS: JICA Project Office, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: March 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 80 + 44 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: JICA Project Office, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Negat Education Services

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1996

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1995-1996

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Technical and vocational education

6. KEY WORDS: Assessment of status and trends, appraisal of policies, strategies, plans and structures, Japanese assistance.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Desk study.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: The financial condition of technical and vocational education and training.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Present status of technical and vocational education.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Ethiopian economy; development policy.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A decline in budgetary allocation for technical and vocational schools is observed. Female enrolment in business and economics is high but very low in technical fields. Efficiency of technical and vocational schools is very high. However, the curriculum of technical and vocational schools is not flexible. Employing agencies are hardly involved in the training. Machines and equipment are out of date. There is a shortage of spare parts, consumable materials, and repair and maintenance facilities. There are no specially prepared textbooks. Over 75 per cent of the teaching force is under-qualified and lack relevant experience.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: The following areas are suggested for Japanese assistance: rehabilitating the existing technical and vocational schools, constructing boarding facilities, commissioning textbooks, supporting libraries and curriculum development.

13. COMMENTS:

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Five figures and several annexed tables.

 

6. A study of the Ethiopian primary education system

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: JICA

CONTACT/ADDRESS: JICA Project Office, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: March 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 93 + 44 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: JICA Project Office, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Negat Education Services

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1996

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1995-1996

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Primary education

6. KEY WORDS: Primary education, Japanese assistance.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Desk study.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Poor quality of primary education as evidenced by inadequate teacher training, a negligible supply of textbooks and equipment, and overcrowded classrooms.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Primary education in view of Japanese assistance.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Ethiopian economy; development policy.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following the regionalization of governance, primary-school management is being decentralized. Twenty-two per cent of school-age children attend school; among these, 38 per cent of school-age females attend school. The gap between male and female attendance is greater in rural areas than in urban centres. The language of instruction has changed from Amharic to nationality languages. The primary-school teacher training programme is found to be inadequate. Poor working conditions and low salary have made the teaching profession unattractive. The existing curriculum is considered irrelevant to Ethiopian conditions. The quality of instruction is poor owing to a lack of textbooks and equipment, and an unmotivated teaching force. Schools in towns are over-crowded while schools in the rural areas are under-utilized. The education sector is under-financed.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Japanese assistance will only bear fruit if it enhances national efforts at central, regional, zonal, wereda and school levels. The suggested areas of intervention include construction of primary schools; provision of printing facilities, tapes, radio receivers and batteries; establishing repair and maintenance workshops; upgrading of publicly owned sub-standard schools; improving pedagogical centres; supporting handicraft education; and providing materials and equipment for sports and physical education.

13. COMMENTS:

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Four figures and several annexed tables.

 

7. A study on the management of financial and material resources in the technical and vocational schools of Ethiopia

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Addis Ababa University

CONTACT/ADDRESS: School of Graduate Studies, AAU

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: June 1995

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 100 + 43 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: AAU Libraries

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Haileselassie Gebregziabher

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1994-1995

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Secondary

6. KEY WORDS: Technical and vocational schools, resource management.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Survey using questionnaire for data collection from 10 schools.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Low level of efficiency in resource management in technical and vocational schools.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Resource management in technical and vocational schools.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resources are used for non-educational activities. Teachers are not involved in the planning process. Non-governmental schools are better in the management of resources. Most principals and administrative staff lack professional training and experience.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Restrict the use of financial and material resources to educational activities only. Motivate and encourage teacher participation in resource management functions. Improve the level of training for principals and administrators. Provide managerial autonomy.

13. COMMENTS: This is an MA dissertation for a degree in Educational Administration.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Analysis of 12 tables.

 

8. Access and supply of educational facilities

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: World Bank (JPHRDF) and FDRE

CONTACT/ADDRESS: PHRD Project Office, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: September 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 58 + ix + 27 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: PHRD Project Office, Ministry of Education and World Bank, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Tirussew Teferra, Mulugeta G/Selassie, Zelalem Fekadu and Abdinasir Ahmed (IER)

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: December 1995 - August 1996

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1992-1995

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Primary, junior secondary and senior secondary.

6. KEY WORDS: Disparities, access and supply of educational facilities, school size, class size, pupil/teacher ratio, female participation.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Base-line survey data collected through questionnaires from the centre and all regions.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Inequitable access to educational facilities and services across regions; low student enrolment; low female participation; disparities in school size, class size and school-building type.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Evaluating the status and accessibility of educational facilities and services.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is inequitable distribution of educational facilities and services across the regions. Over 93 per cent of schools are government-owned with a persistent though unevenly distributed increase in the number of schools. There are variations in the rate of the school-going population among regions. There has been a slight decline in female participation at primary and junior secondary levels with an increase at senior secondary level. The median size of schools was 337 for primary, 325 for junior secondary and 948 for senior secondary. The largest schools are in the urban areas. The pupil/teacher ratio was slightly below 50:1. More than three quarters of school-buildings were made of wood/chika (mud) and other materials such as grass and iron sheets.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Promote equity of access for educational services. Encourage the private sector and the community to be involved in the establishment of educational facilities. Utilize the available resources, both facilities and personnel, more efficiently. Develop a mechanism to increase the low participation rate of female students. Introduce a scheme for up-grading the qualification of teachers at all levels. Raise the involvement of females in the teaching profession.

13. COMMENTS: This is one of the Ethiopia Social Sector Studies undertaken through the PHRD Project financed by the Japanese Policy and Human Resources Development Fund administered by the World Bank and FDRE.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Nineteen tables and eight figures on school type and size, enrolment, pupil/teacher ratios, number of schools, and rate of growth in student enrolment and number of schools.

 

9. Adult literacy for development in Ethiopia: a review of policy and performance at mid-point

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: UNESCO

CONTACT/ADDRESS: 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France

PLACE PUBLISHED: Paris

PUBLICATION DATE: 1994

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 23

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: UNESCO and Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: S. H. Bhola (UNESCO, Ministry of Education)

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: December 1985 - January 1986

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1979-1986

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Paper

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Non-formal adult education

6. KEY WORDS: Literacy, national literacy campaign, adult education, non-formal education.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Documentary study supplemented by discussions with officials.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: No capacity for the training of trainers; poor co-ordination of the literacy campaign.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: The first five years of the literacy campaign.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Development, training of trainers, management of adult education.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is an adult education policy and a separate department of adult education in the Ministry of Education with a full-time staff of 600. Administration below the central level is not so effective. There were positive outcomes. The NLCC curriculum stressed literacy, not functional literacy. More classes were held in Amharic than in any other language. Capacity for the training of trainers does not exist. There is an educational radio programme but the number of receivers is unknown. The task ahead is by no means easy; there is campaign fatigue.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Professionalization of adult education is necessary. A clear language policy is needed to assist transfer from nationality language (mother tongue) to Amharic. There is a need for inter-agency co-ordination.

13. COMMENTS: The paper was based on a report made in 1986. It did not appear for public readership until 1994 in Africana Journal which does not appear in Ethiopia.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Membership in mass literacy organizations; basic development education centres; funding; and number of instructors, literacy centres and learners.

 

10. An analysis of the work-oriented character of the Ethiopian primary school curriculum

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Amhara and Eastern Gojjam Administrative Regions

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Addis Ababa University

CONTACT/ADDRESS: School of Graduate Studies, AAU

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: June 1994

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 78 + 20 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: School of Graduate Studies, AAU Libraries

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Andualem Chere

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1992-1993

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Primary school curriculum

6. KEY WORDS: Primary school curriculum, work-oriented curriculum, curriculum, attitude development.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Content analysis of textbooks for Amharic, science, social studies and agriculture.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Work attitude formation or development.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: The integration of practical work in the primary school curriculum.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Work aspiration of students.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority (63 per cent) of the paragraphs in the textbooks make no reference to work. Neutral paragraphs are relatively high in grades 1-3. There is no balance between white-collar referenced and blue-collar referenced paragraphs. The most frequently mentioned blue-collar work is farming and the most frequently mentioned white-collar work is teaching. The majority of students consider manual work degrading. The curriculum, according to some teachers, does not prepare or only partially prepares students for life in the future.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Textbooks should reflect equal respect for all types of work. Inculcate the usefulness of manual work through reading material and textbooks.

13. COMMENTS: This is an MA dissertation for a degree in Curriculum and Instruction.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Several tables on answers to questionnaire items.

 

11. An assessment of training needs in adult and non-formal education

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Amhara, Oromiya, Addis Ababa, SNNP Regions

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: IIZ/DVV

CONTACT/ADDRESS: IIZ/DVV Project Office, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: November 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 52 + 1 annex page

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: IIZ/DVV Project Office, Addis Ababa; Bahir Dar Teachers College

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Jember Wolde Mariam, Adane Tessera, Tsehai Jembru (Bahir Dar Teachers College)

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1995-1996

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Report

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Adult and non-formal education.

6. KEY WORDS: Training assessment, adult education, non-formal education, training needs, adult educators.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Field survey with three types of questionnaire.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Lack and/or inadequacy of training by those working in adult and non-formal education programmes.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Training needs of adult educators.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: Evaluation of graduates of BDTC programme; the future of BDTC diploma programme.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Those working in the sub-sector are untrained or inadequately trained. Weredas need more trained persons. The BDTC diploma programme requires overhauling, and more and better training is needed.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Short-term as well as long-term training is needed and training should start at all possible institutions. Teacher education programmes should introduce adult education and NFE into their curricula. The BDTC diploma programme should be revamped in course content and the quality of instructional staff.

13. COMMENTS:

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Several tables indicating questionnaire responses.

 

12. An evaluation of development co-operation between the European Union and Ethiopia, 1976-1994

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: European Commission

CONTACT/ADDRESS: EC Delegation, Addis Ababa and EC DGVIII, Brussels

PLACE PUBLISHED: IDS, Brighton, UK

PUBLICATION DATE: June 1996

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 36 + 11 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: EC Delegation, Addis Ababa; AAU Institute of Development Research; IDS, Brighton

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Simon Maxwell, Deryke Belshaw, Will Campbell, Penny Jendon, Teferra Mengesha and John Toye (IDS), and Abdulhamid Bedri Kello and Getachew (IDR)

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 5-31 March 1995

3. PERIOD COVERED: 1976-1996

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Report

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: All levels

6. KEY WORDS: European Commission, evaluation, relevance, efficiency, effectiveness.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Documentary supported by discussions.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: The relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of EC/EU aid to the education and health sectors in Ethiopia are issues examined.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: EC/EU aid to the education sector.

10. OTHER CONCERNS: EC/EU aid to the health sector.

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Projects were relevant but somewhat unfocused. Implementation was uneven and handicapped by constraints on the Ethiopian side. Under-funding and uncertainties surround the sector as a whole. The government and the EC/EU showed flexibility in reorienting programmes to ensure disbursement.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Policy papers should cover all inputs to the sector. Resources should be concentrated in order to achieve greater focus, capacity-building and provision of technical assistance at the level of beneficiary institutions.

13. COMMENTS: The evaluation covers the education and health sectors. This summary deals with the report on the education sector only.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Three tables and one figure on: enrolment compared to other African countries; percentage of females at tertiary level; and a sub-sectoral breakdown of aid approved for education in the 4th and 5th European Development Fund.

 

13. Analysis of pre-service primary teacher education in Ethiopia

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Ethiopia

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: USAID

CONTACT/ADDRESS: USAID, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: February 1994

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 42 + 38 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: USAID, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Abebe Bekele and Tassew Zewdie

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: November 1993 - January 1994

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Primary teacher education.

6. KEY WORDS: Pre-service primary teacher education.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Field study using individual and group interviews and observation guides.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Issues surrounding physical facilities, staff training, selection of trainees, budgets, the practice teaching programme, relationships and the impact of the new language policy on primary teacher education.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Primary teacher training institutes.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical facilities are inadequate. Most training staff do not have pedagogical training. The recruitment of trainees has problems. There are acute budget constraints. The curriculum needs revision. Practice teaching is not professionally handled.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Introduce refresher programmes for the instructors in the TTIs. Provide adequate professional training. Employ rural-based teaching practice. Offer staff housing in the institute's premises. Improve the conditions of student accommodation. Define the management and accountability of the institutes. Provide training for local staff to resolve the problems related to the new language policy.

13. COMMENTS: There is some qualitative data from focused group discussions and observations.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Twenty-two tables on instructors' backgrounds, enrolments, drop-outs, graduates, course offerings and internal revenues and expenditures.

 

14. Assessment of literacy and post-literacy programs in region 3

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Amhara Region

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: Amhara Regional Education Bureau

CONTACT/ADDRESS: Amhara Regional Education Bureau, Bahir Dar

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: January 1995

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 100

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: Amhara REB, Bahir Dar and Institute of Educational Research, AAU

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Agedew Redie, Daniel Desta, Tirussew Teferra and Tassew Zewdie (IER).

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: July-September 1994

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Non-formal education

6. KEY WORDS: Assessment, literacy, post-literacy, strategic planning, non-formal education.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Survey with interviews, skills tests, focused group discussions and community profile data form.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Discontinuity of the literacy and post-literacy programmes.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: The possibility of re-activating the literacy and post-literacy as well as CSTC activities.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Only 26 per cent of literacy participants completed formal primary schooling. Special skills and basic knowledge that can be used in the locality of the learners were not integrated in the programmes. Literacy teachers did not have professional training. Insufficient budgetary allocations, weak co-ordination and supervision, lack of systematic record-keeping and follow-up were also problems.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Develop a comprehensive and built-in system of evaluation including appraisal of the environmental setting and assessment of needs and priorities. Better organizational structure, logistical support, community sensitization and strengthening of village level co-operation are required.

13. COMMENTS: This is a study based on qualitative data gathered from focused group discussions.

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Twenty-eight tables on learners' socio-cultural characteristics, attitudes, acquired skills and knowledge, teachers' qualifications and training, and the availability of books and reading materials.

 

15. Assessment of three technical and vocational training schools

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA(S) STUDIED: Amhara Region

SPONSORING AGENCY/AGENCIES: FINNIDA

CONTACT/ADDRESS: Finnish Embassy, Addis Ababa

PLACE PUBLISHED: Addis Ababa

PUBLICATION DATE: February 1995

LANGUAGE: English

PAGES: 48 + 42 annex pages

LOCATION(S) OF DOCUMENT: Amhara REB, and FTP International, Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa

1. INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED IN STUDY/REPORT: Wanna Leka and Beyene Bekele (FTP International/PAT Project).

2. DATES STUDY CONDUCTED: 1994-1995

3. PERIOD COVERED:

4. TYPE OF DOCUMENT: Study

5. LEVEL OF EDUCATION SYSTEM OR SUB-SECTOR: Technical and vocational education and training.

6. KEY WORDS: Assessment, technical and vocational education and training.

7. TYPE AND METHODOLOGY: Study of Ministry of Education documents and school records, and field study using questionnaires, discussions and observation of school facilities.

8. EDUCATION PROBLEMS: Status of teacher qualifications, instructional materials, supplies, facilities, recurrent costs, school management and cost-effectiveness.

9. MAJOR FOCUS: Assessment of technical and vocational education and training.

10. OTHER CONCERNS:

11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There are problems with the supply of spare parts, consumable materials, textbooks and reference materials. Rooms are over-utilized for different functions and student accommodation is over-crowded. There is limited opportunity for staff development. Income-generation opportunities are not exploited. Links with employers are weak and there is no follow-up of graduates.

12. PRINCIPAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Divide curriculum development activities into macro and micro levels. Re-equip the accounting, secretarial and other departments with typewriters and teaching aids, machines, tools and instruments. Set up a maintenance unit in the Ministry of Education which will undertake regular maintenance and repairs; vocational teachers should also be trained for this. Guidelines for utilization, care and maintenance of educational materials and equipment have to be developed with concerned authorities, qualified and experienced staff. Junior staff should be offered training opportunities. Senior teachers should be given refresher and in-service courses. Schools should be supplied with the necessary text and reference books. Establish links with employing agencies and explore possibilities for students to work in government and other enterprises in the area of each school. Schools should design mechanisms to run existing production units to generate income. A concerted effort has to be made by officials, the community and other organizations to build student hostels in order to solve the problems of accommodation. An effort should be made to involve NGOs and government to upgrade the quality of education. Follow-up and evaluate graduates on their effectiveness.

13. COMMENTS:

14. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Fourteen tables on responses from directors and teachers, and student enrolment and graduation.

Summaries 16 to 30

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