In preparation for the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 1999) and at UNESCO's request, a number of reference papers have been prepared by UNESCO's sister agencies, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, as well as national institutions. These papers deal with a selection of important issues in technical and vocational education which can serve as a valuable reference to all participants attending the Congress.

UNESCO wishes to express its appreciation to all those who contributed their work to this document.

The views expressed in these reference papers are those of their authors and do not necessarily reflect those of UNESCO. The designations employed and the presentation of the materials do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the UNESCO Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.