Education Policies

Themes Education levels - Primary education

 Education levels

 Primary education


"The Ministry of Education has made significant effort to respond to the educational needs: 1)Between 2001‐2013 a large number of schools have been established and made functional. (...) 2)  teachers have been recruited from 2001 to 2013 and (...) teach at the primary level; 3) new textbooks and teachers’ guides have been developed and distributed; 4) facilities and equipment have been provided to school including toilets and sanitation facilities, and 5) a policy and guidelines for Community Based Education (CBE) have been developed to facilitate the provision of education in early grades in remote rural areas."[1]

Last database update: 10/09/18


“Primary education is compulsory and children enter primary school when they reach the age of 6. […] In 2004, the government decided to introduce the nine-year primary (basic) education programme, comprising primary (grades 1 to 5) and lower secondary education (grades 6 to 9). The implementation of the nine-year basic education programme started in 2008/09.”[1]

[1] IBE, World Data on Education, 7th ed., 2010-2011, Albania, p. 7,


« L’enseignement fondamental représente l’étape de scolarité obligatoire dont la durée est de neuf ans. L’admission des enfants en première année s’effectue à l’âge de 6 ans révolus ; cependant il est fait dérogation d’âge exceptionnelle aux enfants de 5 ans lorsque les conditions d’accueil le permettent. L’enseignement fondamental était organisé en trois cycles de trois ans chacun : le cycle de base, le cycle d’éveil et le cycle d’orientation. Depuis 2003-04 l’enseignement fondamental regroupe l’enseignement primaire et l’enseignement moyen. L’enseignement primaire, d’une durée de cinq ans, est dispensé dans les écoles primaires ; l’enseignement moyen, d’une durée de quatre ans, est dispensé dans les collèges d’enseignement moyen. (précédemment, le brevet de l’enseignement fondamental).»[1]


[1] Données mondiales de l’éducation, BIE, 7e édition, 2010/2011, p. 13, consultable à :


“Progress is measured through coverage rates and primary school completion indices, which show that pupil retention has increased. […]

Access to education is also guaranteed owing to resources available from an educational fund established under the Socio-Educational Policy Directorate’s National Programme for Educational Inclusion (PNIE) for the award of scholarships and encouragement of mobility.

As to school fees, the National Education Act provides that the State, the provinces and the autonomous city of Buenos Aires hold primary non-delegable responsibility for providing comprehensive, lifelong, quality education to all of the nation’s inhabitants, who are guaranteed the right to equal, fair access to education, free of charge, in which social organizations and families participate (Article 4).” [1]

“The national and provincial governments pay particular attention to guaranteeing universal access to free primary education. Difficulties arise in a small number of cases, such as in situations of child labour or in sparsely populated rural areas. These cases have very little statistical value. Nevertheless, the National Government gives priority to solving these particular problems.” [2]

“The title II "National Educational System" of the National Law on Education, articles 26 to 28 regulate the different objectives that the National State proposes for the primary level. In general, it is proposed to guarantee that all children from the age of 6, the theoretical age of admission to the primary level, have access to a set of common knowledge that allow them to participate fully and according to their age to family, school and community life (…).

Regarding basic education, the PNEOYFD proposes three key objectives at the level of which, in turn, a set of lines of action emerge: (1) Expand and improve the conditions and forms of access permanence and egress, (2) Strengthen school trajectories generating better conditions for teaching and learning, (3) Strengthen institutional management by expanding educational strategies for school-based and non-school-based children”[3]

[1] Argentina Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, pp. 4-5

[2] Argentina Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, p. 5

[3] EFA National Report 2015, pp.19-20, unofficial translation.

Last database update: 10/01/18


“In Austria, general compulsory schooling starts on 1 September following a child’s sixth birthday (§ 2 Compulsory Schooling 1985 - as amended (Schulpflichtgesetz 1985, SchPflG)). Compulsory schooling is generally accomplished by attending Primary School during the first four years. Primary School is to provide a common elementary education for all pupils, giving due consideration to the social integration of children with disabilities (§ 9 Abs. 2 School Organisation Act - as amended (Schulorganisationsgesetz, SchOG)).”[1]

“Access to Public sector Primary Schools is guaranteed in all regions of Austria. By law, school providers are to ensure that there are sufficient primary schools that can be attended locally or within a reasonable travel distance.

The provinces are in charge of providing teaching staff for publicly maintained primary schools, however, the Federation refunds the total staff costs for all teachers according to the agreed plan of established positions. The school providers are mainly local authorities which are responsible for the construction and the maintenance of school buildings and the provision of non-educational staff (e.g. caretakers, cleaning personnel, supervision staff, medical care, etc.). The provinces support the expenditures of school providers, mainly by contributing to investments in school buildings (construction, adaptation, renovation).”[2]

[1] Eurypedia, Austrian Primary Education, Accessed on 01/04/2015

[2] Austria Update on country profile submitted to UNESCO in March 2015, p. 12


“[…] in 2006 a Department was established in the Ministry of Education to review the implementation of compulsory education. This Department is responsible for ensuring that those who are of school age (6-15 years) are registered in school with the relevant agencies within the Ministry of Education and with external agencies such as the Central Information Agency and the Ministry of Health. It is also responsible for those within the same age group who interrupt their schooling and works to re-admit them into the education system.[...]

The Department inaugurated an information programme in order to spread the culture of compulsory education. This is put into effect at the beginning of every academic year and is directed at primary and preparatory schools with the aim of informing them of the system, its mechanisms and procedures.”[1]

[1] Bahrain Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, pp. 7-8


“There are different categories of primary level educational institutions in the country. Some are entirely run by the Government, and some are privately managed, but the government provides 100% salary subvention to the teaching staff of these institutions. At the primary level both boys and girls are studying in the same school and same classroom. All children are entitled to get them admitted into any type of institution. Parents have the choice to admit their children in any school and in any place of the country. For the foreign nationals, some of the High Commissions/Embassies run English medium schools of international standard.” [1]

The “National Plan of Action (NPA) on Education for All (EFA) […] makes the following broad proposals to ensure full and equitable access and equality of primary education:

Improvement in Access:

  • Enhancing classroom space to an average of 50 square meter,
  • Especially designed class room for early child education and handicapped children,
  • Reliable data base and adequate coordination between stakeholders
  • Encourage community to establish schools. Strong social mobilization campaign.

Improved Attendance, Retention and Completion of Cycle

  • Elimination of shift system by phases,
  • Reducing the class size to 45 by 2008 and 40 by 2015 and teacher student ratio to 1:45/40,
  • Individual attention to children and flexible class structure,
  • Ensuring time on task and eliminating wasteful time in the class,
  • Improving school environment,
  • Classroom transaction by using child friendly and participatory approach,
  • Ensuring gender equity,
  • Improving the School Management system.” [2]

Third Primary Education Development Program (PEDP-III, July 2011-June 2016)

Overall objectives of the PEDP-III are to ensure quality primary education for all primary school age children of the country. The main objective of the programmme is to establish ‘an efficient, inclusive and equitable primary education system delivering effective and relevant child-friendly learning to all Bangladesh’s children from pre-primary to grade V.

PEDP-III activities are implemented under 4 major components and 29 sub-components. Four major components are: 

  • Learning and Teaching
  • Participation and Disparities
  • Decentralization and Effectiveness
  • Planning and Management.

Besides, thirteen different projects (run by the government) are on going to implement their activities for primary education in Bangladesh. Government, Development Partners and Non-government Organizations work for better education in the society.” [3]

“The monitoring framework of the Third Primary Education Development Programme proposed monitoring enrolment ratios across wealth quintiles, using household survey data. The monitoring framework also included an index that would allow planners to assess the relative performance of the approximately 500 subdistricts. A target is set of narrowing the gap in the value of this index between the 10 top performing and 10 lowest performing subdistricts by one-third over five years. The index includes subdistrict performance in the end of primary school examination. ”[4]

“Initiatives to improve quality and capacity: Various Quality improvement measures in primary education have been taken. Competency based curriculum and textbooks have been revised and creative question paper has been introduced in the grade 5 terminal examination. School based sub-cluster training and subject based (major five and others) in-service training for teachers have been provided to the teachers at Upazila resources Centre (URC). Diploma in Education (Dip-Ed) training for the primary school teachers have been introduced in PTIs. Leadership and School Management training for Head Teachers and ICT training for teachers have been introduced. Upazila and District primary education staff are being provided management training while AUEOs are given academic supervision training.“[5]

Management training for Head Teachers and ICT training for teachers have been introduced. Upazila and District primary education staff are being provided management training while AUEOs are given academic supervision training.

[1] Bangladesh Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, p. 9

[2]  Bangladesh Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, pp. 16-17

[3] Bangladesh Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, pp. 18-19

[4] EFA GMR 2013-2014, p 107,

[5] General Economic Division, Planning Commission, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Seventh Five Year Plan FY 2016-FY2020, Accelerating Growth, Empowering Citizens, p. 586.

Last database update: 08/02/19


“Government has in place a comprehensive Primary Education Plan, and this has been extended to Nursery Education during the past years. [...] Parents who choose private institutions pay for their student’s education, whereas education at public schools is free.”[1]

[1] Barbados Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, p. 8


« L’enseignement primaire est en principe obligatoire et gratuit. » [1]

« Cet ordre d’enseignement couvre six années d’étude (CI, CP, CE1, CE2, CM1, CM2). (…) La loi d’Orientation prévoit que l’enseignement primaire soit dispensé en français, en anglais et en une langue nationale majoritaire dans la localité où est implantée l’école. Mais la réalité aujourd’hui est que l’enseignement primaire est dispensé exclusivement en français. La fin des études de l’enseignement primaire est sanctionnée par l’examen du Certificat d’Etudes Primaires (CEP). La présence des opérateurs privés est plus remarquable dans cet ordre d’enseignement que dans les autres, particulièrement dans les centres urbains où la demande d’éducation se développe rapidement. La réforme des programmes d’enseignement, après une phase d’expérimentation, a progressivement connu une généralisation année par année. Depuis la rentrée d’octobre 2004-2005, toutes les classes de l’enseignement primaire fonctionnent sur la base des nouveaux programmes d’études et les élèves ont passé le "CEP Nouveau" en Juin 2005. »[2]

« Pour l’accès, la rétention et l’équité [au niveau primaire, stratégies clés sont les suivantes :]

Ciblage sur les communes à faibles taux :

Le plan [2013/2015] prévoit un ciblage systématique de ses activités concernant principalement l’accès et la rétention en priorisant 25 communes à faibles taux de scolarisation et d’achèvement notamment pour les filles. Les constructions, dotations, ou mise en place de cantines scolaires feront l’objet d’une analyse préalable et d’une évaluation de l’impact souhaité sur les bénéficiaires visés, tant en termes de fréquentation scolaire, de la qualité des apprentissages que de la rétention. Dans les 25 communes, l’accent sera mis sur (i) le renforcement de l’encadrement pédagogique à travers une formation différenciée des enseignants (ii) l’appui matériel aux apprenants qui seront dotés de kits scolaires ; (iii) la mise en place de contrats d’objectifs au niveau des établissements scolaires impliquant les APE et les communes pour que les ressources soient traduites en résultats liés aux besoins spécifiques de chaque école avec l’imputabilité des chefs d’établissement ; (iv) l’évaluation et la qualité de l’encadrement pédagogique de la circonscription scolaire. Une commission départementale capitalisera les informations et les rapports en provenance des circonscriptions scolaires pour évaluer l’impact des mesures prises.

La réduction des redoublements :

La politique des sous-cycles, actuellement limitée au CI-CP, doit être étendue aux autres cycles CE1-CE2 et CM1-CM2. Le passage est automatique à l’intérieur de chaque sous-cycle. Le relèvement de la qualité de l’encadrement pédagogique permettra de contenir le taux de redoublement entre les sous-cycles dans la limite de 10% des effectifs. Les textes règlementaires seront adoptés et vulgarisés. Un plan de communication fonctionnel devra permettre aux acteurs du système de comprendre les risques inhérents à des taux de redoublement élevés, ce qui sera largement documenté. Pour accompagner ce dispositif, des mesures d’accompagnement des enfants en difficulté seront définies dans un plan d’action et mises en place. Ces mesures pourront se traduire par une amélioration des mécanismes de remédiation dans les classes, la mise en place d’un système de tutorat ou d’aide en dehors du temps scolaire. » [3]


[1] Données mondiales de l’éducation, UNESCO / IBE, VII Ed., 2010/2011, Bénin, p. 7, , Page consultée le 24/09/2013

[2] République du Bénin, Ministère en charge de l’éducation, Plan décennal de développement du secteur de l’éducation actualisé phase 3, 2012/2015, p.14.

[3] République du Bénin, Ministère en charge de l’éducation, Plan décennal de développement du secteur de l’éducation actualisé phase 3, 2012/2015, p.90.

Last database update: 24/09/13

 Bosnia and Herzegovina

“According to the Strategic Directions for the Development of Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008 - 2015, one of the general objectives […] determines "Ensuring the conditions that all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina are included in the education system, and the implementation of the documents approved for the educational needs of children – returnees, Roma and other ethnic minorities".” [1]

“[T]he cooperation between schools and local communities is encouraged in this regard in order to discover any cases of non-inclusion of children in education and take timely action. It is worth emphasizing that the legal preconditions are created, which in extreme cases include criminal liability of parents who do not allow their children access to education.” [2]

[1] Bosnia and Herzegovina Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, p.13

[2] Ibid, p. 13

Last database update: 06/12/18


‘The first milestone of the political decision of achieving this goal [“ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls and children in difficult circumstances, have access to and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality”] was the Ten-Year Education for All Plan (1993), which was continued for the two following decades.’[1]

“In the period since the Dakar Framework for Action, an important achievement for this step of basic education was its extension from 8 to 9 years (Law 11,274/96). There were two major challenges for primary education, beginning in the 1990s and peaking by the end of the last decade. The first concerned universal offer: in 2000, enrolment was 16.8% higher than the population in this age group (35,717,948 students x 30,518,929 population). The demand for infrastructure and human resources over a very short period required a great management capacity and the focusing of initiatives from the public powers

The second challenge faced in attempting to provide universal access to primary education was the significant age-grade distortion found. Specific policies to decrease it were implemented, resulting in a drop from 35.3% in 2001 to 23.6% in 2010. During the same period, the population in this age group suffered a 4.7% reduction (corresponding to 1,439,688 individuals) while the decrease in enrolment was 3.5 fold greater, demonstrating both the decrease of the distortion and the increase of the net schooling rate.”[2]

[1] EFA National Report 2015, p.14, available at:

[2] EFA National Review 2015, p. 14, accessible at:

Last database update: 29/01/19


Bulgaria is not far from achieving universal primary education, with a primary adjusted net enrolment ratio of 95%. [1]

[1] UNESCO. Global Education Monitoring Report 2017/8 (GEM 2017/8) Accountability in education: meeting our commitments, p. 314.

Last database update: 14/01/19


Le Ministère de l’Education de Base est chargé de l’alphabétisation fonctionnelle au niveau maternel et primaire. Ce ministère fut créé en vue de répondre à la volonté politique de « traduire en actes concrets [l]es dispositions constitutionnelles et législatives, et faciliter l’accès de tous les enfants à l’école ».[1] Il y a deux sous-systèmes : un sous-système francophone et un sous-système anglophone. Le Cameroun distribue aux écoles primaires publiques du matériel didactique afin d’accompagner la mise en œuvre de la suppression des frais de scolarité. [2]

[1] Rapport du Cameroun soumis lors de la 7e Consultation sur la mise en œuvre de la Convention et de la Recommandation concernant la lutte contre la discrimination dans le domaine de l’enseignement (2000-2005), 2006, p. 3

[2] Rapport national du Cameroun sur le développement de l’éducation pour la 48e conférence internationale sur l’éducation, 2008, p. 18,  (Consultée le 30/09/2013)

Last database update: 30/09/13


Les taux bruts de scolarisation dans le premier cycle de l’enseignement secondaire ont ainsi évolué d’environ 40% à 75% entre 1999 et 2012, et d’environ 20% à 70% dans le deuxième cycle [1]. Cependant, si les inscriptions semblent progresser, le nombre d’enfants achevant leurs études demeure faible. Entre 2010 et 2015, les taux d’achèvement aux niveaux primaire, premier cycle et deuxième cycle du secondaire étaient ainsi respectivement d’environ 70%, 40% et 25% [2].  

[1] UNESCO, Rapport mondial de suivi sur l’EPT, 2015, p.114

[2] UNESCO, Rapport mondial de suivi sur l’éducation, 2017/2018, p.130

Last database update: 26/12/18


« L’enseignement primaire est obligatoire et accueille les enfants âgés de 6 à 11 ans ; il est organisé en un cycle d’éveil (cours préparatoire 1 et 2 – CP1, CP2 – et cours élémentaire 1 – CE1) et un cycle de fixation (cours élémentaire 2 – CE2– et cours moyen 1 et 2 – CM1, CM2). La fin de formation est sanctionnée par le certificat d’études primaires élémentaires (CEPE). Un concours d’entrée autorise le passage au secondaire[1] ».

[1] Données mondiales de l’éducation, BIE, 7e édition, 2010/2011, p. 6, consultable sur :

Last database update: 09/10/18

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the

« L’enseignement primaire est organisé en un cycle de six années d’études réparties en trois degrés de deux ans chacun (degré élémentaire, moyen et terminal). L’âge d’admission est de 6 ans révolus. Par ailleurs, sauf dispense motivée, aucun enfant ayant atteint l’âge de 9 ans révolus au moment de la rentrée scolaire ne peut être admis en première année primaire. Le cycle primaire est sanctionné par un examen appelé test de fin d’études primaires (TENAFEP)[1]. »

[1] Données mondiales de l’éducation, Bureau international de l’éducation, Septième édition, 2010-2011, p. 6, consultable sur :

Last database update: 09/10/18

 Cook Islands

"Primary education is available free of charge from the age of 5 (Early Childhood Education is available free of charge from age 3 years). There are costs to parents such as school uniform and a voluntary school fee (payable to the parent based School Committee, not Crown funds).  The current net enrolment rate for primary education (Y1-6) is 98.1% (2015). This rate had been relatively stable over a 5 year timeframe.  In terms of a statistical outcome the high mobility of the Cook Islands population (as holders of New Zealand passports there is free movement between the Cook Islands and New Zealand/Australia) does make it difficult to identify the “missing” 1.9% which on current enrolment is approximately 34 students." [1] 

"At primary school level, the Ministry encourages all students to be taught in the Cook Islands Maori language from early childhood education (ECE) through to grade 3. Consideration is also given to the eight dialects of the Cook Islands language [...] In practice however, there is still an underlying belief of many parents/communities in the Cook Islands that English is the best language for success in education.  There is a lack of awareness of the value of first language learning with respect to later learning success. This is a challenge that the Cook Islands education system is currently trying to address." [2] 

[1] Cook Islands Report submitted for the Ninth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012 - 2015), 2016, p. 8

[2] Ibid, p. 9

Last database update: 05/02/19


"Primary education in the Republic of Croatia lasts eight years and is free and compulsory for all children aged six to fifteen, with the exception of primary education for students with extensive developmental disabilities, which can last until the age of twenty-one." [1] 

[1]  Croatia Report submitted for the Ninth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2015), 2016, p. 7

Last database update: 05/02/19


"Primary education is compulsory and universal, benefiting all children. It is one of the essential stages in the acquisition and development of potential in both the intellectual and emotional and motivational areas. It covers the six-to-11 age group [...]

[...] It should be noted that gender parity exists in education; girls show just as high educational levels as boys."[1]

[1]  Cuba Report submitted for the Ninth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2015), 2016, p. 8, unofficial translation

Last database update: 07/02/19

 Czech Republic

"Pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary professional education in the Czech Republic follows Act No. 561/2004 Coll. (the Education Act), as amended.

Pursuant to the introductory provisions of the Education Act (Section 2), education shall be based on the principles of:

“a) equal access of all citizens of the Czech Republic or nationals of any other European Union Member State to education without any discrimination based on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, belief or religion, nationality, ethnic or social origin, property, kith or kin, or the health condition or any other status of a citizen" [1]

"In recent years the curriculum reform of primary education has been completed, which has besides other indisputable benefits also brought the need for potential effective and predictable reviews of the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE)." [2] 

[1] Czech Republic Report submitted for the Ninth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2015), 2016, p. 11

[2] Ibid, p. 12

Last database update: 11/02/19


In August 2014, the Danish Ministry of Education reformed the standards in the public school (primary and lower secondary education). The main aspects of the reform are the following:

  1. “A longer and more varied school day. Students are given more time and support in a school day, where teachers and pedagogues collaborate on learning, motivation and well-being. […].
  2. Assister learning. The longer and more varied school day will give schools more time to teach by means of more subject-divided lessons and additional time for assisted learning. […].
  3. More PE and physical exercise and activity. […].
  4. Homework assistance. […].
  5. Better teaching. The academic standards of all children must be improved, and a focused effort will thus be made to improve the quality of the lessons and ensure measurable improvements. […].
  6. More lessons in Danish and maths. […].
  7. Strengthening of foreign languages. […].
  8. New subjects: Crafts and design and Nutrition knowledge. […].
  9. The open school. Schools are encouraged to work more closely with local sports clubs, cultural centres and other associations. […].
  10. Improved transition to higher education. […].
  11. Few and clear objectives for the Folkeskole […]:
    1. The Folkeskole must challenge all pupils to reach their fullest potential.
    2. The Folkeskole must reduce the significance of pupils’ social background for academic results.
    3. The trust in the Folkeskole and pupil well-being must be enhanced by showing respect for professional knowledge and practice. […].
  12. Competency development. The government will allocate DKK one billion between 2014-2020 to strengthen continued development of competencies among teachers and pedagogues in the Folkeskole. […].
  13. Better learning environment and quietness in class. […].
  14. Learning consultants. A national corps of approximately 40 learning consultants will be established to offer municipalities and schools advice on quality development. […].
  15. Stronger parental influence and increased pupil participation. […].
  16. Simplification of rules. […].”[1]

[1] The Danish Ministry of Education, Improving the Public School – overview of reform of standards in the Danish public school (primary and lower secondary education), 2014,

Last database update: 16/01/19

 Dominican Republic

“In the Ministry of Education Ten-Year Plan, the aim of the first policy is to “Mobilize public and private wills in order to ensure that five-year-olds receive one year of initial education and five years of basic quality education”.

To achieve the proposed objectives the following strategies were designed to guarantee free and universal access to primary education and ensure that by 2015 all children have access to it. These strategies include:

  • Formulation of the initial level and one obligatory year of initial education for all five-year-olds.
  • Development of strategic partnerships with other governmental and non-governmental institutions, with local governments, business and labour groups, parents, the community and international cooperation organizations so as to develop the educational supply for the under-fives.
  • The Act organizes the basic level in two four-year cycles. The organization of basic education in these two cycles raises new possibilities for structuring the curriculum, organizing infrastructure and training teachers.
  • There is a proposal to revise the curriculum of the first cycle to focus efforts on literacy and mathematics, introducing other knowledge as cross-cutting axes; strategically reinforce automatic promotion of the first and second grades appointing teachers with the right profile for work in these grades. Resuming national tests for the fourth and eighth grades; requiring of the student for promotion, qualification equal to or greater than 65%.
  • The extension of the model of the Resource Centres for Attention to Diversity is an opportunity to keep children in school and strengthen the school-community link, supporting teachers and families.”[1]

“To ensure the results of these strategies, the Ministry of Education has taken short- and medium-term measures and actions:

Short term

  • Awareness-raising strategy for families to send their children to school.
  • Distribution of 100% of the texts and teacher support materials for the initial level with effective mechanisms to ensure that they are received before the start of the school year.
  • Use of ICTs by students in the final year of the initial level.
  • Support for low-income students with school breakfast, backpack and economic support to the family.
  • Support with substantive actions to the early education of the under-fives in strategic partnership with State agencies, Dominican civil society organizations and international cooperation organizations.
  • Effective implementation of the strategy of early-care classes in 50% of the 10 State special education centres.

Medium term

  • Extension of educational attention to the under-fives.
  • Extension of the strategy of early-care classes to all 10 State special education centres.
  • Students attending the final year of the initial level five hours a day, 50% by 2012.

Long term

  • Reduce the number of shifts at initial-level centres to one a day.
  • Limit the average size of the section of the last year of the initial level to no more than 22 students in 2018.
  • Students attending the final year of the initial level five hours a day, 100% by 2018.
  • Consolidation of educational attention to under-fives.
  • Maintain support by means of substantive actions to early education of under-fives in partnership with State bodies and international cooperation organizations.”[2]

[1] Dominican Republic Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, p. 5, unofficial translation

[2] Ibid, p. 6, unofficial translation

Last database update: 19/09/18


Increases in at primary level and preparatory stage indicate expanding access to education. [1]

  • Primary education

As for primary education, the Strategic Plan of Pre-University Education 2014 -2030 sets the following strategic objectives:

  • “Providing quality primary education service for all children at the age of primary education
  • Providing quality and equitable education service for primary stage students and to maintain the children at school until they finalize this stage
  • Eliminating all gaps among schools in relation to performance and accommodation levels.
  • Raising the efficiency of the primary stage management setup.

Executive Objectives by the end of 2016/2017

The Availability Policy

  1. Raising the net accommodation levels to 100% starting from the deprived areas
  2. Raising the net enrolment rate to 98%
  3. Expanding in the number of schools prepared for integration to reach 10%
  4. Launching awareness programs to increase the contribution of the private sector, civil society and NGOs in providing educational services particularly in less-advantaged areas.
  5. Supporting poor families in relation to direct and indirect education expenses.

Quality Policy:

  1. Introducing curricula that run consistent with international content standards
  2. Developing and update the Arabic language, religion and social studies subjects in a manner that entrenches concepts of citizenship and identity
  3. Designing and implement an credible assessment system for all primary stage grades that monitors learning outcomes, runs consistent with the class densities and is compatible with ratios of students to teachers
  4. Fulfilling the needs of all primary stage schools inclusive of trained teachers who have received pre-job training and in-job trainings according to different specializations
  5. Arranging treatment programs for slow-learning students and to cut down absence rates, interruption periods, flunking rates and dropouts.
  6. Instilling safety and security factors in schools, to remedy reasons for school violence in all primary schools
  7. Putting forth a number of alternatives and incentives that provide packages of pedagogical activities at all primary schools that are compatible with the school conditions and caters for the individual difference among students
  8. Cutting down class densities in classes that exceed 60 students in number

Designing an Institutional Set-up Support Policy and Building Decentralization Capacity

  1. Expanding in the school mandate to turn into an independent unit that runs its own educational processes bearing in mind applying a good governance system and providing effective leadership and distinguished management supported by a competent setup. Such a setup would improve resource management, enhance planning and provide for training programs in the field of educational management
  2. Revisiting the rules governing students severance periods, periods of discontinuation and spontaneous transfer bearing in mind the rules of centralized information
  3. Linking databases of the Ministry of Education with the databases of the Civil Registry for Planning to come up with the total accommodation rates and to estimate the number of children not included in the education system
  4. Putting forth a number of alternatives and incentives that provide packages of pedagogical activities, that support comprehensive development of students and unfold their talents at all primary schools; provided that such activities be compatible with the school conditions and caters for the individual differences among students.” [2]


  • Preparatory education

As for preparatory education, the Strategic Plan of Pre-University Education 2014 -2030 sets the following strategic objectives:

  • “Providing quality education opportunities for all students who have joined the preparatory stage via a learner-supportive educational environment, low-dense classes and equitable learning domain that considers the different social, environmental and economic backgrounds of learners.
  • Providing a sufficient numbers of professional teachers who are capable of imparting advanced curricula and school activities in a manner that guarantees comprehensive development for students over the preparatory stage.
  • Focusing on school-based reform; to improve student accommodation powers and enhance their learning levels; and to maintain students at school till the end of the stage
  • Promoting student accommodation powers up to the levels of perfection, particularly in Arabic language, mathematics, science and technology and to attain proficiency in one of the world languages
  • Developing school leaderships supportive and capable of change; adept at guiding staff to achieve education goals; and well-versed in utilizing available resources in accordance with real and firm selection standards

Executive Objectives by the end of 2016/2017

Availability Policy

  1. Assimilating all students graduating from the primary stage
  2. Putting an end to areas deprived of preparatory schools

Policy for Quality Improvement:

  1. Getting ready to participate in international science and mathematics contests held nationwide for preparatory schools
  2. Cutting down the class density to become 42 students/class maximum at all preparatory schools
  3. Decreasing the number of schools working more than one school period per day to the minimum
  4. Providing a minimum level of basic school facilities for teaching and learning processes at all preparatory school stages and to allocate a proportionate amount of funds for maintenance.
  5. Eliminating the cheating phenomenon and to reduce flunking, discontinuation and dropout rates
  6. Introducing new school models that support excellence in mathematics, science and technology via science and mathematics clubs and innovation and language laboratories
  7. Eliminating the accommodation gap among schools by applying special treatment programs for students suffering from lack of concentration in areas with poor accommodation rates
  8. Putting forth a number of alternatives and incentives that provide packages of pedagogical activities, that support comprehensive development of students and unfold their talents at all primary schools; provided that such activities be compatible with the school conditions and caters for the individual differences among students

Designing an Institutional Set-up Support Policy and Building Decentralization Capacity

  1. Realizing equitable distribution of the educational service, according to the needs of beneficiaries based on different funding formulas and to give priority to less-advantaged areas followed by overcrowded classes.
  2. Effectuating the role of trustee boards in fine tuning the performance of school administration at all preparatory schools
  3. Appointing school leaderships according to competence not longevity” [3]

[1] Report submitted by Egypt for the ninth consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2016), unofficial translation.

[2] Strategic Pre-University education Plan 2014-2030, p 60-61, accessible at:

[3] Ibid.

 El Salvador

According to the PQD, “in the period between 1991 and 2013, the percentage of students who started and began the first and sixth grades of basic education also increased from 52.6% to 84%; the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education was over 100 per cent; average schooling increased by two and a half years, and dropout and repetition rates in basic education were halved.” [1]

Repetition rates remain high, as are dropout rates with 60% of students completing the sixth grade in the time stipulated (without having repeated a grade). [2]

Moreover, "a quarter of the sixteen-year-old population no longer attends school“ [3].

[1] Government of El Salvador, Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo, 2015, unofficial translation from Spanish, p. 61, accessible at :  

[2] Ibid, p. 68.

[3] Ibid, p.69.

Last database update: 14/01/19


“[…] To expand access to primary education, low cost-schools and class rooms are constructed […]”.[1]

“Different strategies are in place to attract children to schools which include such methods as a smooth registration of students without any conditionality such as school registration fees; allowing late registration for those who were unable to meet the dead line; sensitizing parents on the imperative of sending their children to schools; making efforts to do away with drop outs through school feeding programs, provision of clean water, separate latrine and sanitary pads for girls; setting committees that look after students who discontinue their study for various reason including early marriage and abduction and negotiate with families and the local elders as well as establishing court cases to get them back to schools; making the schools veritable learning institutions and child friendly within the limit of the available resources; above all, as mentioned above, conducting door to door search of students who failed to be registered according to the time table.”[2]

The fact that a large majority of the Ethiopian population lives in rural areas and in dispersed communities poses specific problems for the education sector. Nonetheless, with a strong commitment to universalizing education, Ethiopia made great progress over the years and managed to achieve substantial, albeit uneven, progress on several indicators of primary schooling such as reducing gender and income disparities in school access, net enrolment ratios and primary attainment rates. [3]

[1] National Report submitted to the 48th session of the International Conference of Education, p. 6.

[2] Ethiopia Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, p. 17

[3] EFA Global Monitoring Report, Education for all 2000-2015 – Achievements and Challenges, p. 78,  

Last database update: 08/01/19


"L’enseignement élémentaire (CITE 1) est dispensé, en France, dans les écoles élémentaires, des structures qui accueillent les élèves de 6 à 11 ans. Il correspond au début de la scolarisation obligatoire. Il est laïc et gratuit lorsqu’il est public. Ses missions ont été également rappelées par la loi d'orientation et de programme pour l'avenir de l'École du 23 avril 2005 :

  • garantir une maîtrise satisfaisante des apprentissages fondamentaux ;
  • offrir à tous des chances égales et une intégration réussie dans la société française ;
  • accompagner chaque élève en l'aidant à surmonter ses éventuelles difficultés ;
  • permettre à chacun d'exprimer son excellence. »[1]

« Les Fondamentaux à l’école primaire : une série de plusieurs centaines de films d’animation de trois minutes (en libre accès sur internet) pour comprendre, de façon ludique, les notions fondamentales liées à l’apprentissage du français, des mathématiques, des sciences, etc. » [2]

[1] Eurypedia, enseignement primaire  (Consulté le 26/09/14)

[2] Ministère de l’éducation, l’ère du numérique à l’école, accesible sur : (Consulté le 26/09/14)


“The primary objective Project (G-PriEd) is to provide comprehensive assistance to the primary education system to improve reading and math competencies of Georgian and ethnic minority students. This will be achieved through supporting instructional improvements, testing and improving standards, use of technology, and development of subject experts in reading and math in schools.” [1]

[1] National Review on EFA 2015, Georgia, 2014, p 13, accessible at: (accessed on 2014-10-28)


“The objective of the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative Project for Guyana is to support the Ministry of Education in attaining the goal of universal primary school completion for boys and girls by 2015 with an emphasis on improving the quality of education and an increase in literacy and numeracy. EFA-FTI Guyana is a programme which focuses on the filling of gaps in the primary education system in the quest to meet the MDG which targets the access to a good quality education service by the year 2015.”[1]


Twelfth Plan Strategy for Elementary Education:

 1. Shift from a project-based approach of SSA to a unified RTE-based governance system for UEE;

 2. Address residual access and equity gaps in elementary education by adopting special measures to ensure regular attendance of children in schools and devising special strategy to tackle the problem of dropping out before completing the full cycle of elementary schooling;

 3. Integrate pre-school education with primary schooling in order to lay a strong foundation for learning during primary school;

 4. Prioritise education quality with a system-wide focus on learning outcomes that are assessed through classroom- based CCE independently measured, monitored and reported at the block/district/State levels;

 5. Focus on early grade supplemental instruction to ensure that all children achieve the defined age-/class-specific learning levels by the end of class 2;

 6. Articulate clear learning goals that have to be achieved by the end of each class or set of classes. These goals should be understood by parents and teachers;

 7. Improve teacher training with an emphasis on effective pedagogy given the realities of Indian classrooms such as multi- age, multi-grade and multi-level contexts. Also, make teachers’ professional development a needs-driven process as opposed to top-down decision wherein curriculum design and delivery is centrally driven;

 8. Invest in both top-down administrative oversight and bottom-up community-driven monitoring of schools;

 9. Focus on strengthening practices of good governance in all schools and related institutions that ensure performance- based internal and external accountability for teachers and administrators at all levels and also ensure holistic assessment- driven development of schools;

 10. Invest in strengthening ongoing and continuous field-based systems of academic support to schools and teachers and in strengthening district and block-level capacity for better management and leadership;

 11. Support States to set learning goals and invest in independent monitoring of outcomes, but provide States with substantial autonomy in how to achieve these goals, and provide additional results-based financing to States who show the most improvement in educational outcomes;

 12. Provide a supportive environment for evaluation of innovative practices, and sharing of best practices across States and districts;

 13. Support States towards motivation, capacity development and accountability of community and parents for ensuring regular attendance and quality education; and

 14. Ensure convergence with panchayats, Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) and other sectors at school level.” [1]


Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), the State Governments and UT Administrations are supported on several interventions to improve teaching standards, including regular in-service teachers’ training, induction training for newly recruited teachers, training of all untrained teachers to acquire professional qualifications through Open Distance Learning (ODL) mode, recruitment of additional teachers for better pupil-teacher ratios, academic support for teachers through block and cluster resource centres, continuous and comprehensive evaluation system to equip the teacher to measure pupil performance and provide remedial action wherever required, and teacher and school grants for development of appropriate teaching-learning materials, etc.[2]

A World Bank Report on “Student Learning in South Asia – Challenges, Opportunities and Policy Priorities” (2014), points out that both Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 have led to impressive increases in enrolment, school infrastructure, provision of trained teachers, free textbooks and ensuring access to elementary schools even in rural areas. The Report points out that overall student achievement is low and the policies to promote equity in education need to focus on reducing the large and growing learning gaps between poor and better-off children.[3]


[1] XII FYP (Volume III on Social sectors), p 56, accessible at: (accessed on 2014-09-18)

[2] Government of India, Standard on primary education, March 2016, accessible at: (accessed on 13/06/2016).

[3] Government of India, Standard on primary education, March 2016, accessible at: (accessed on 13/06/2016).


“A number of policies and initiatives, not least the school operational assistance (bantuan operasional sekolah, or BOS) grant introduced in 2005, “One Roof” primary and junior secondary schools housed in the same building in remote areas, and local school grants (bantuan operasional sekolah daerah, or BOSDA), have contributed to improving the access, availability and affordability of basic education. Indonesia is now close to achieving universal primary education. Good progress has been made towards targets for achieving qualified teachers and the provision of classrooms and teaching materials.” [1]

“MOEC’s strategic objective for basic education for 2010-14 is to ‘guarantee to obtain basic education services of high quality, relevant and equal in every province district and city‘ (Ministry of National Education, 2012). Given the decentralised management of state schools, the successful implementation of this plan requires regional and local capability.”[2]

“The per capita formula for BOS and BOSDA allocations has failed to account for the fixed costs of small schools although from 2014, a base enrolment of 120 students has been assumed for all schools. Nevertheless, per-student allocations do not adequately reflect differences in school net operating costs.”[3]

[1] OECD and ADB, Education in Indonesia: Rising challenge, March 2015, p 28, accessible at:

[2] OECD and ADB, Education in Indonesia: Rising challenge, March 2015, p. 103.

[3] OECD and ADB, Education in Indonesia: Rising challenge, March 2015, pp. 28-29.

 Iran, Islamic Republic of

“In the policies of MoE concerning the 4th Economic, Social and Cultural Development Plan, besides the issue of developing education for all school-age children, Para 11 of these policies pays special attention to promoting physical education and sports and improving the physical and mental health of students (with girl students being attached priority to).”[1]

To fulfill the Dakar commitment, “a special credit line was opened on the national budget law and […] a national working group (National Council) of the EFA program was established under the responsibility of the Minister of Education, which was composed of representatives of relevant ministries and organizations. Regarding the goals of the program, the importance of the program has been addressed and emphasized by national authorities and planners such that it has obtained a special position in the planning system of the country and has been mentioned in Article 52 of the 4th National Development Plan”.[2]

“Adoption of the single article entitled "Creating More Flexible Programs to Increase the Enrolment Ratio" by the High Council of Education in 2006. By virtue of this article, the Ministry of Education is entitled to introduce the most flexible curricula and syllabi in order to increase the enrolled student population.”[3]

The Keramat (dignity) project “has been initiated to add to the quality of […] [education] in primary education, to build up religious, ethical and social concepts, to pave the way for more active involvement of students in developing curricula, to grow creative and critical thinking among students.”[4]

Overall, enrolment rates of children in primary and secondary education are high. [5]

Measures were taken to ensure greater access to education, like prohibiting primary schools to expel students and providing distance education. [6]

Concerns were expressed over: [7]

  • High dropout rates of girls in rural schools, and of indigenous Arab children
  • Lack of availability of education in the native languages of ethnic minorities
  • Intimidation and harassment of Baha’i children in schools
  • Harassment, bullying and expulsion of LGBTI children from schools
  • Lack of female teachers in rural areas
  • Disparities between urban and rural areas

[1] Islamic Republic of Iran Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, p. 2

[2] Ibid, pp. 4-5

[3] Ibid, p. 17

[4] Ibid, p. 18

[5] Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Committee on the Rights of the Child, 14 March 2016, CRC/C/IRN/CO/3-4, para. 77.

[6] Report submitted by the Islamic Republic of Iran for the ninth consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2016), unofficial translation.

[7] Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of the Islamic Republic of Iran, op cit, para. 77.

Last database update: 11/12/18


Reported measures include:

  • “Overture the General Directorates of Education in order to survey the children covered by the compulsory education for the school year 2012-2013 through formed commissions for this purpose.
  • Overture the State Ministry of Governorates Affairs to order the municipal councils in the Governorates to take an active role in the implementation of the Compulsory Education Law through formation of commissions in the administration units as mentioned in our outspread letter number (5351 in 9/4/2012).
  • Overture the Ministry of Working and Social Affairs to work toward implementing a compulsory education law and to cooperate with our Ministry not to employ children under 15 of age, and follow-up workshops to limit this phenomenon as mentioned in our outspread letter number (5007 in 3/4/2012).
  • Overture Mayoralty of Baghdad for cooperation in implementation of the compulsory education law through follow up the service contractors not to run juvenile under 15 years especially during the school year, and to be the primary certificate the minimum requirement for employment, and obligate them to join nearby evening schools, as mentioned in our outspread letter number (5006 in 3/4/2012).”[1]

Concerns were expressed over the decrease in school enrolment and attendance and the increase in school dropout and illiteracy rates, especially among girls. The limited availability of schools, their poor physical conditions and lack of essential facilities further hinder access and quality of education. [2]

[1] Iraq Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, pp. 7-8

[2] Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Iraq, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 27 October 2015, E/C.12/IRQ/CO/4, para. 55.

Last database update: 10/01/19


Primary schools operate an eight-year programme, consisting of two kindergarten years (Junior and Senior Infants), followed by classes 1-6. The current official primary curriculum documents of the Department of Education and Skills were developed by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment and published in 1999.

The three general aims of primary education as outlined in the Primary Curriculum (1999) are to:
• enable the child to live a full life as a child and to realise his or her potential as a unique individual;

• enable the child to develop as a social being through living and cooperating with others and so contribute to the good of society;

• prepare the child for further education and lifelong learning.” [1]

"A new, integrated languages curriculum at primary level will further support students whose parental language may not be English. The central rationale for integration across languages is that learning efficiencies can be achieved when teachers explicitly draw children’s attention to similarities and differences between their languages and reinforce effective learning strategies in a coordinated way across languages. There is extensive research highlighting the potential of bilingualism to enhance children’s metalinguistic awareness. There is also consensus among researchers that transfer of knowledge and skills takes place across languages. An explicit instructional focus on integration across languages will enable children to make cross-lingual connections and develop their awareness of how language works more effectively than if the process remains implicit and haphazard."

[1] Ireland: Primary Education, Eurydice, European Commission, accessible at:

[2] Ireland Report submitted for the ninth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2015), 2016, p. 6


“In 2012 the National Guidelines for the curriculum (Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo) have been published and applied to all pre-primary, primary and lower secondary schools starting from school year 2012-2013. […] Such guidelines replace the National guidelines for the personalized study plans and the educational activities of 2004 as well as the Guidelines for the curriculum of 2007. According to new Guidelines, the general aims of the school is the harmonic and comprehensive development of the individual, according to the principles of the Italian Constitution and the European cultural tradition, to be achieved through promotion of knowledge, respect of individual diversities and active involvement of students and their families. […] Teachers are free to choose teaching methods. However, the National guidelines for the curriculum establish some general criteria for the organisation of the learning environment:

  • balanced integration of the time dedicated to care, relationship and learning, where routines (reception, meal, body care, rest/sleep, etc.) regulate the rhythms of the day and represent a ‘safe basis’ for new experiences and solicitations;
  • promotion of learning through action, exploration, contact with objects, nature, art, territory, in a playful dimension, as a typical form of relationship and knowledge;
  • provision of cosy, warm, tidy rooms with an attention to the aesthetic sense;
  • unstrained management of the time, to let children spend the day serenely, play, explore, speak, understand, feel self-confident and confident in the activities they experiment;
  • teachers’ educational approach oriented towards listening, accompanying, interaction, communication mediation, continuous observation of the child, making themselves responsible for the child’s ‘world’, interpreting the child’s discoveries, offering support and encouragement to his/her learning developments.” [1]

[1] Eurypedia (European Commission’s Encyclopaedia on National education systems), accessible at :


“With concerns being raised about students’ readiness to access secondary level education, a new policy is being developed to ensure that students are certified as being literate at the Grade 4 level before they transition to the secondary level. […] The National Assessment Programme which is established at the primary level includes the Grade 1 Individual Learning Programme, the Grade 3 Diagnostic test, the Grade Four Literacy Test and the Grade Six achievement Test.”[1]

“The Primary Education Support Project (PESP) began in January 2001 and aims to contribute to the improved performance, efficiency and equity of the primary education system. PESP is designed as a package of improvements for the development of the qualitative, civil works and institutional strengthening aspects of primary education.”[2]

[1] National Report of Jamaica by the Planning and Development Division, submitted within the framework of the 48th International Conference on Education, 2008, p. 6,, Accessed on 06/03/2014

[2] Jamaica Report submitted for the Seventh Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2000-2005), 2006, p. 8


Elementary Schools (Shogakko): “All the children who have attained the age of 6 are required to attend elementary school for six years. Elementary schools aim at giving children between the ages of 6 and 12 primary general education suited to the stage of their mental and physical development.”[1]


[1]Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Education, No. 1 and 2, (accessed on 2016-04-05)

Last database update: 11/05/16


Access to both primary and secondary education in Kazakhstan is almost universal. The proportion of school-age children not enrolled in secondary education is estimated at less than 1 per cent. [1]

[1] Fifth periodic report submitted by Kazakhstan under article 18 of the Convention, due in 2018, Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, 11 July 2018, Doc. CEDAW/C/KAZ/5, para. 98.

Last database update: 15/01/19

 Lao People's Democratic Republic

“The objective (…) the Education Development Project Phase II [EDP II] is to achieve universal completion of primary education for all in the long term. The short-term objective is to increase primary school enrollment and completion. The project covers the nineteen poorest districts of the six poorest provinces of the country. The project’s implementation period is five years starting form 2005 and completing in 2010. The main activities of the project are construction of new complete primary schools by applying a community-based contracting approach, providing school grants assistance to ensure children in poor families can graduate on completion of primary education; strengthening capacities for policy analysis and management; strengthening information systems on data collection, analysis, reporting, filing, storing and maintenance; strengthening capacity building on education management to all levels of the target areas; supporting key policy and institutional reforms; improving the education quality in evaluating, revising, publishing and distributing new primary textbooks and teacher guides; research on teaching Lao language to ethnic children in early grades; training of trainers on applying multi-grade teaching in classrooms and the use of a newly developed curriculum; recruitment of teachers for remote areas, etc.”[1]

[1] The Development of Education, National Report submitted by Lao People’s Democratic Republic for the 48th International Conference on Education, 2008, p. 12, accessible at: (Accessed on 4 November 2013)


Latvia has a 9-year single structure basic education (including primary and lower secondary levels - ISCED 1 and 2) and is compulsory for all children from the age of 7. The curriculum is determined by the national basic edcuation standar (framework curriculum). Pupils who have receive evaluation in all subjects of the compulsory education curriculum, national tests and examinations, receive a Certificate of Basic Education and a statement of records that qualify them and serve as a screening criterion for admission to further education and training in upper secondary level educational programmes.

In August 2014, the Cabinet of Ministers accepted the Regulations on the Framework Curriculum for Basic Education, which is a step towards the implementation of competence-based curriculum in general education. [1]

[1]  Latvia Report submitted for the Ninth consultation of Member States on the application of the Convention and the Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2012-2015), 2016, pp. 12 - 13



« Au niveau du fondamental, et en conformité avec les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD), l'objectif principal est de garantir à tous les enfants mauritaniens une éducation primaire complète et de qualité. L'atteinte de cet objectif global sera recherchée à travers la poursuite des objectifs spécifiques suivants : (i) améliorer l'offre éducative par la mise en place d'une nouvelle organisation de l'offre scolaire (publique et privée) plus adaptée à la demande, pour accroître la rétention au fondamental (79 % en 2015) ; (ii) éliminer les disparités entre genre dans toutes les wilayas et entre milieux socio-économiques et de résidence ; ( iii) renforcer la qualité de l'enseignement au niveau du fondamental ; et (iv) améliorer la gestion du pilotage du système par l'instauration de l'approche de la gestion axée sur les résultats. Les actions prioritaires à mettre en oeuvre pour l'atteinte de ces objectifs sont les suivantes : (i) l’appui à l'éducation de base ; (ii) l’amélioration de l'accès à l'enseignement fondamental ; (iii) l’éducation des filles et l’appui à la généralisation de l'EMP/EVF ; (iv) l’appui au programme national de développement du système éducatif ; (v) l’équipement des établissements primaires ; (vi) la mise en place d'une offre scolaire pour les groupes défavorisés ; (vii) la production des manuels scolaires et outils didactiques ; (viii) la restructuration de la formation initiale des enseignants ; et (ix) la mise à niveau des enseignants du fondamental. » [1]

« […] La réalisation de cet objectif se fera à travers les deux axes d’interventions suivants :

  • L’amélioration de la qualité des apprentissages ;
  • Le renforcement et la réorganisation de l’offre éducative pour une meilleure adaptation à la demande.

Au niveau du premier axe, la stratégie proposée consiste […] à introduire de nouvelles approches novatrices focalisées sur le renforcement du rôle de l’enseignant dans l’action éducative, sur la mise à niveau de l’école et l’amélioration des conditions d’apprentissage. Dans ce cadre, l’accent sera mis sur :

  • Le renforcement, la restructuration et l’adaptation de la formation initiale des enseignants aux exigences de la réforme, par : (i) la création d’une nouvelle ENI, (ii) la rénovation des programmes, (iii) une meilleure qualification des formateurs, (iv) l’amélioration de l’encadrement au niveau des écoles d’application et (i) la mise en place d’un dispositif de certification et de suivi des enseignants ;
  • L’élaboration et la mise en oeuvre d’une nouvelle stratégie de formation continue des enseignants et des inspecteurs capitalisant l’expérience de la première phase du PNDSE et adoptant de nouvelles approches plus adaptées (formation-action, formation en alternance, formation à distance, etc.) ;
  • L’exécution d’un programme intense de reconversion linguistique visant à couvrir 25% des enseignants sur la période 2011-2015 ;
  • La mise en place d'un dispositif d'encadrement de proximité, sous forme de cellules d’inspection et de formation, au niveau de toutes les communes ;
  • Le renforcement de la motivation des enseignants, à travers l’augmentation des primes d’incitation liées au rendement (primes de craie, de zones difficiles et de bilinguisme) ;
  • L’amélioration de la qualité et la de la disponibilité des outils et supports pédagogiques (manuels, guides, etc.) ;
  • La mise à niveau des écoles et l’amélioration de leur cadre de vie, par la mise en oeuvre d’un vaste programme de réhabilitation, la systématisation de l’accès à l’eau potable et à des latrines décentes et la promotion de la santé scolaire ;
  • La mise en place d’un dispositif d’animations pédagogiques, culturelles et sportives par la généralisation des bibliothèques scolaires, la création de clubs, l’organisation de cours de soutien ;
  • La mise en place d’une stratégie efficace garantissant le respect du temps scolaire et d’un système de suivi de l’absentéisme des élèves et des enseignants.

Au niveau du second axe, l’accent sera mis sur :

  • L’extension et la restructuration de l’offre éducative dans la perspective de l’adapter au mieux à la demande ;
  • L’adaptation de la carte scolaire et la mise en oeuvre d’un programme ambitieux pour le regroupement des écoles hors normes ;
  • L’atténuation des disparités liées au milieu et aux conditions socioéconomiques, à travers la mise en place de programmes ciblés au profit des wilayas et zones défavorisées en termes de scolarisation ;
  • La stimulation de la demande par l’augmentation du nombre de bénéficiaires des cantines scolaires (45% de rationnaires en 2020) et l’amélioration de la qualité de leurs services ;
  • La mise en place d’une offre d’éducation primaire non formelle, inclusive et adaptée, donnant une nouvelle chance aux enfants non-scolarisés ou déscolarisés (âgés de 9 à 14 ans) pour intégrer ou réintégrer l’école formelle ;
  • Le maintien de l’implication du secteur privé dans l’offre scolaire (11%). » [2]

[1] Cadre Stratégique de lutte contre la pauvreté 2011-2015, p 46-47, accessible sur : (consulté le 29/10/14)

[2] PNDSE II (2011-2020), Plan d’action triennal (2012-2014), p 50, accessible sur: (consulté le 29/10/14)


The net enrolment ratio in primary school in Mauritius stood at 98% in 2016 for both sexes, 97% for males and 99% for females [1].

[1] Mauritius, National report submitted to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13 September 2017, Doc. E/C.12/MUS/5, para.149.

Last database update: 15/01/19


“Primary Education is compulsory from 6 to 11 years old. […] It is divided into three terms: general, indigenous and common classes. It is possible for adults to follow classes of primary education.”[1]

[1] IBE, World Data on Education, VII Ed. 2010/11, Mexico, p. 15,, Accessed on 15/01/2014, unofficial translation


“The Primary Education Development Strategy (2011-2017) among its goals has the following: to increase the level of children covered by education, to enhance conditions and services for all children; to improve professional knowledge and competences of teachers and continuously promote role of the teachers in the development of the society of the future; to ensure permanent monitoring and improvement of the quality of upbringing and educational processes in schools; to improve pupils’ achievements according to key competences based on the applicable and practical knowledge.” [1]


[1] 2015-2017 Sectoral operational programme for Montenegro on Employment, Education and Social policies, October 2015, pp.16-17.


Section 73(2) of the Education Act provides that ‘Education for school-age children in government schools is free and no fees may be charged for it.’

“Under section 8 of the Act the parents of a school-age child must ensure the child is enrolled at a school until the child completes the school year during which the child attains the age of 18 years. Additionally, each parent of a school-age child must ensure, subject to some exceptions such as sickness, that the child attends the school at which he or she is enrolled on each school day. These provisions, in addition to the prohibition on the charging of fees for government schools, implement the requirements of Article 4(a) of the [1960 UNESCO] Convention [against Discrimination in Education] to make primary education free and compulsory, and go beyond the requirements of the Convention by also making secondary education free and compulsory”[1].

[1] Nauru Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2013, p. 6



“The government and the primary education sector have reached an agreement. Annually there will be € 444 million available for better education. Schools in primary education will use the coming years more digital learning tools in class. The government and the primary education council made agreements about improving the quality of education and the way there are planning to do this. € 286 million of the € 444 million is added by the government. With the help of this agreement schools can better response to the differences between pupils.

Digital learning tools are important to better connect to the needs of the individual pupils. This applies for all kind of pupils. The objective of this agreement is that in 2020 nine out of ten schools use digital learning tools in their lessons. The primary education council,  the ministry of Education and the ministry of Economic affairs together will improve the supply of digital learning tools.”[1]

“In July 2013 the government presented an action plan for English in the primary school curriculum. It is considered vital for pupils to get an early introduction to English in order to acquire a good foundation in the subject. Under the action plan, primary schools will offer other foreign languages (German and French) at an earlier stage in the primary school curriculum, besides English, which is compulsory. It is intended that early foreign language teaching (VVTO) will be offered by about 1,000 primary schools. Before taking this step, a primary school and the teacher in question must establish that the teacher has sufficient competence to teach English at the required level. The government is continuing to invest in start-up grants for early foreign language learning. Schools can apply for these grants, for instance for in-service courses for teachers.”[2] “From 1 August 2015, primary schools are in fact permitted to set aside 15% of their classroom time to using one of these languages as a medium of instruction. Not only pupils then learn English, for instance, as a subject on the curriculum; they also take other subjects, such as history, biology or PE, through the medium of English.” [3]


[2] Eurydice, Netherlands: National Reforms in School Education, 2013, accessible at:  [accessed on 01/08/16]

[3] Eurydice, Netherlands: National Reforms in School Education, June 2014, accessible at: [accessed on 01/08/16]


Nicaragua has made significant progress in reducing the number of poor children who have never been to school[1]. The country has increased its net enrolment ratios by over 10 percentage points [2]. The primary attainment rate among children in the poorest households also increased from 16% to 66%. [3]

[1] EFA Global Monitoring Report, Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and Challenges, p. 79,

[2] Ibid, p. 80.

[3] Ibid, p. 83.

Last database update: 08/01/19


“The institutional initiative that guides the progress is the General Education Act (2004). Other highlights are the following programmes: 2007 Learning Achievement (PELA in Spanish), which aims to raise the low level of learning achievements of students in regular primary education; the Solidarity Routes, which provides bicycles to transport students to their educational institutions; and the Equalization of Educational Lag, which seeks to contribute to reducing school lag of children three years old or more. The state has also enacted a few rules to ensure free public education and to prevent discrimination on socioeconomic grounds.”[1]


[1] EFA Regional Report 2015, Latin America and the Carribean,  p.334. 


In order to enhance access to education, the government established the “K to 12 Program which covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.”[1] The government followed the following steps of the K to 12 Program:

  • “SY 2011-2012: Universal Kindergarten implementation begins
  • SY 2012-2013: Enhanced curriculum for Grades 1-7 implemented
  • 2013: K to 12 enacted into Law
  • 2014: Curriculum for Grades 11-12 finished”.[2]

“With the universalization of the preschool program in SY 2011-2012, a big increase in gross (25 percentage points) and net (19 percentage points) enrolment rates was recorded in that school year.”[3]

“The [Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP)] is a DepEd intervention to ensure that all children from Grades 1 to 3 are reading at their own level. In line with the K to 12 program, ECARP aims for all children to be able to read in mother tongue by the end of Grade 1, in Filipino by the end of Grade 2 and in English by the end of Grade 3. One of its components is Reading Recovery, an intervention program for children who lag behind their peers in terms of reading and writing. Part of Reading Recovery was the distribution of 3,637 books to 274 schools.Part of the program is capacitating teachers to become literacy problem solvers. Apprenticeship training on teaching early literacy and reading was given to 367 teachers.”[4]

[1] Accessible at: (accessed on 02/08/16)

[2] Accessible at: (accessed on 02/08/16)

[3] EFA 2015 National Review: Philippines, p. 18.

[4] EFA 2015 National Review: Philippines, p. 27.


“In the first half of 2015 the curriculum reform implementation period in primary school (since 2009) and general upper secondary school (since 2012) has been completed. Accordingly, the 6th-grader test (taken at the end of primary school) and the matriculation examination which are organized, respectively, in April and May 2015 were implemented according to the new rules. The 6th-grader test covers knowledge and skills within three key areas: the Polish language, maths and a foreign language (to be selected from the following list: English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, or Italian).

The matriculation examination is now focused even more on testing skills required from every HE student and every employee, such as processing multi-source information, including content analysis and juxtaposition, reasoning, generating and testing hypotheses and recognition and explanation of cause and effect. These universal, cross-subject skills are tested within tasks requiring substantial knowledge in particular subjects defined in the core curriculum.       

Changes in the tests and exams are included in a wider reform referred to in the section on adjusting external exams to the reformed core curriculum.”[1]


“The primary education benefitted during the last year of a series of programmes meant to offer more chances to the child’s personal development and to facilitate the passage to secondary education.

  • The Law of National Education 1/2011 introduced foundation class in compulsory education to ensure real equal chances (Article 23 (3)(b));
  • The revised National Curriculum in what concerns the focus on child and forming key- competences.
  • Creating Centres of Resources for Parents’ Education (with the support of UNICEF Representative in Romania, during 1992-2002); as part of this effort, educational programmes for parents were also developed and implemented by MECT, NGOs and local authorities.”[1]

The program, “A second chance” (2005-2006) is organised “in order to promote primary education for persons that exceed by 4 years the age corresponding to the class and who from various reasons have not graduated this level of education till the age of 14 (Law of National Education Article 29(4)).”[2]

 “Come to school! campaign (2011-2012) – the campaign has as its general objective to increase school participation and reduce school drop-out by promoting community educational interventions based on adapting the Priority Areas of Education (ZEP) model in the disadvantaged communities with the highest rates of school drop-out. The implementation of this campaign has been done in 2011-2012 school year, by MECT, UNICEF, The Institute of Education Sciences (Institutul de Ştiinţe ale Educaţiei- ISE), Centrul de Resurse şi Informaţii pentru Profesiuni Sociale (CRIPS), Holt Romania and Agenţia de Dezvoltare Comunitară „Împreună”.”[3]

All in kindergarten, all in grade 1 strategic project (2007-2013) – This project aims to increase access to education and the educational level of children from disadvantaged communities, mainly Roma. The project general objective is to prevent and correct early school drop-out for children aged 5-8, from 420 disadvantaged communities around the country, with a high weight of Roma. Starting with 2012, children aged 6 will benefit of this measure introduction.”[4]


[1] Romania Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination (2006-2011), 2012, p. 22

[2] Romania Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination (2006-2011), 2012, p. 8

[3] Romania Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination (2006-2011), 2012, p. 25

[4] Romania Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination (2006-2011), 2012, p. 24


Le « catch up programme » a  aussi été mis en place pour permettre aux élèves ayant abandonné l’école primaire de la réintégrer. « Ce programme de rattrapage comprime le programme de primaire » (six ans) en un temps plus court.  Pour le niveau de l’enseignement secondaire, « ceux qui ont interrompu ce cycle avant de l’avoir terminé […], sont admis à passer un examen de fin d’études secondaire » en tant que candidats libres.[1]

[1] Rapport National du Rwanda rédigé par le Ministère de l’Education soumis dans le cadre de la 48e Conférence internationale de l’éducation, 2008,  p. 23,, Consultée le 28/01/2014


« L’accroissement de la scolarisation depuis 1999 est allé de pair avec une augmentation du recrutement des enseignants du primaire. […] Au Sénégal, cette augmentation du nombre des enseignants est due à la création d’un plus grand nombre d’écoles, à la création de classes dans les écoles où le cycle d’enseignement primaire était incomplet et à la mise en place de doubles horaires d’enseignement. »[1]

[1] Rapport Mondial de Suivi sur l’EPT, 2010, p. 126,, Consultée le 30/01/2014


“Strategies of the Government of RS that are being implemented in order to ensure availability and quality of compulsory and free primary education are:

·         National Strategy for Prevention and Protection of Children against Violence

·         Strategy for Improvement  of the Status of Roma in the Republic of Serbia

·         Sports  Development Strategy  of the Republic  of Serbia  for the period  from 2009 to 2013 

·         National Sustainable  Development  Strategy 

·         Strategy for Combating  Drugs in the Republic of Serbia  for the period  from 2009 to 2013

·         Strategy on Personal Data Protection

·         Strategy for Information  Society Development  in the Republic of Serbia by 2020

·         Strategy for Improvement  of the Status of Persons with Disabilities in the Republic of Serbia  

·         National  Strategy  Improvement of the Status of Women and Improvement  of Gender Equality 

·         Strategy for Social Protection  Development

Along with strategic measures, the following programs are also implemented with the same goal:

·         Delivery of improved local services (OILS)

·         Integrated educational  information system (JISP)

·         Supporting   quality   assurance   - the  system   of  tests   on  primary   and   secondary education

·         Developing  standards    and   instruments    for   external    evaluation    of   educational institution performance

·         Professional  development of education employees

·         Framework  action  plan for prevention of violence at educational institutions

·         Common  action plan for the advancement  of education  of Roma in Serbia  within the Strategy for improvement of the status of Roma

·         Education  for all - improving  availability  and quality of education  for children  from marginalized groups

·         Support for education  of minorities and Roma

·         Functional  primary education of adult Rom a Second  chance - development of a system for functional  primary  education  of adults in Serbia INPRESS[1]

[1] Serbia Report submitted for the Eighth Consultation on the implementation of the Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2006-2011), 2012, pp .14-15


Gross enrolment ratio stands at 100% for primary education.[1]

[1] UNESCO/Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM) 2017/8, Accountability in Education: Meeting our Commitments p. 314.

Last database update: 15/01/19

 South Africa

"Education in South Africa is mandatory between the ages of 7 and 15. This includes Grades 1 to 9 and the government aims to ensure that no child is denied this right by socio-economic factors (Republic of South Africa, 1996). Provision of primary education is the responsibility of the nine Provincial Education Departments (PEDS) as well as the national Department of Basic Education (DBE). In recent years government has also made more effort to include Grade R (pre-primary) as part of the formal education system.[1]

In 2013, approximately 5% of children aged 7 to 18 were not attending an educational institution, numbering over 500 000 children out of school." [2]

[1] Education for All 2015 National Review Report: South Africa, p. 15, available at:

[2] Education for All 2015 National Review Report: South Africa, p. 16, available at:

 Tanzania, United Republic of

Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP) 2002 – 2006: “It had four priorities: expansion of enrollment, improving quality, capacity building and strengthening institutional arrangement.” [1]

Primary Education Development Plan II (PEDP II) 2007 – 2011: It ensures “full identification and admission of all eligible children and their regular attendance.”[2]

[1] National report of the United Republic of Tanzania submitted for the 48th International Conference on Education, 2008, p. 3,, Accessed on 07/02/2014

[2] Ibid, p. 3


In Ukraine, the net enrolment ratio for primary education is of 97%. [1]

[1] Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in education: meeting our commitments, p. 316,

Last database update: 18/01/19

 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

“The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, mathematics and other subjects. Children in England and Northern Ireland are assessed at the end of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. In Wales, all learners in their final year of Foundation Phase and Key Stage 2 must be assessed through teacher assessments.”[1]


"According to the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Law “On Education” the primary education in Uzbekistan is free of charge and compulsory for all."[1]

[1] National report submitted by Uzbekistan for the 9th Consultation in 2016.


“The government has endorsed the National Basic Education Development Strategy [2003] which aims at reforming and developing basic education system to be able to provide equal basic education opportunities with high quality for each Yemeni student on the age of [6-14].[1]

[1] National report submitted by Yemen for the 48th International Conference on Education, 2008, p. 5,

Last database update: 20/09/18


"The Zambian education system has since 2011 reverted to the old 7-5-4 structure, that is, a learner has to spend 7 years at primary school, 5 years at secondary school and 4 years (minimum) at university level. Before 2011, the country was following a 9-3-4 education system that required one to have 9 years of basic education before pursing 3 years of high school education and 4 years at university. However, the basic and high school system has not been completely transformed into the conventional primary and secondary school system as there still exist schools that continue to have grade 1 to 9 classes. ...

Part IV, Section 15 of the 2011 Education Act states that “A child has the right to free basic education” while Section 17 sub-section 1 explains that “Except as provided for in this Act or any other written law, a parent shall enroll a child who has attained the school-going age at an educational institution and shall ensure the child’s attendance at the educational institutional. ...

To achieve this, the Government is undertaking the following;

a)    Construction of new schools and additional classrooms in existing schools in order to increase school places and facilitate provision of compulsory primary education.

b)   Provision of primary school grants to all public, grant-aided and community schools to cover operation costs. In the 2016 budget, total allocation to this budget line is USD 10, 052, 631.6. The budget also has USD 2, 368, 421.1 for free primary education pupil requisites. Furthermore, a special additional funding of USD 315, 789.5 has been allocated to community schools as a grant. The school grant and free pupil requisites are to actualise free primary education provision.” [1]

[1] National Report submitted for the 9th consultation in 2016.