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Sub-Saharan Africa

Education for All
A Framework for Action in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Education for African Renaissance in the Twenty-first Century
Adopted by the Regional Conference on Education for All
for Sub-Saharan Africa
Johannesburg, South Africa, 6-10 December 1999
1 Preamble

If the next century is going to be characterized as a truly African century, for social and economic progress of the African people, the century of durable peace and sustained development in Africa, then the success of this project is dependent on the success of our education systems. For nowhere in the world has sustained development been attained without a well-functioning system of education, without universal and sound primary education, without an effective higher education and research sector, without equality of educational opportunity.

President Thabo Mbeki, Opening Speech, Conference on Education for African Renaissance in the Twenty-first Century, Johannesburg, South Africa, 6 December 1999.

At the close of the twentieth century, we, the Ministers of Education, representatives of civil society and international development agencies, assembled in Johannesburg to reflect on the progress made towards achieving the EFA goals adopted in Jomtien in 1990. We seize this opportunity to launch a renewal of education that will enable Africa to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. We hereby adopt a framework of action under the theme of Education for African Renaissance in the Globalized Economy, Communication and Culture.
We recognize the tremendous efforts made by sub-Saharan African countries to achieve these goals, despite many obstacles and exceptionally harsh conditions. This meeting of major stakeholders from across the continent has enabled us for the first time to analyse the situation from many perspectives. During this decade, the greatest achievements have accompanied comprehensive reform and post-war reconstruction. The greatest losses have been in those countries engaged in war and civil conflict that have engulfed nearly one-third of the countries in the region.
Built often on a weak physical and institutional base, education systems in many African countries are vulnerable to natural and human-made disasters that have hindered progress and, in some cases, even rolled back the achievements already won. Many countries have experienced austere economic adjustment programmes, an increased debt burden, a skewed global economic system, poor governance, inadequate and sometimes poorly used resources, as well as drought and floods. These factors, combined with impact of HIV/AIDS and armed conflict, have continued to have devastating effects on education in Africa.
Remarkable efforts have been made to ensure that every child gets access to quality basic education, but we note that only about ten countries have achieved universal primary education. Although enrolment has increased considerably in many countries, it has not been adequate to accommodate rapid popu-lation growth and rural-to-urban migration, thereby giving an impression of being static relative to population size. Early childhood care and education programmes are limited to the few in the urban areas. Based on countries' own estimates, between 1990 and 1998 the net enrolment of boys increased by 9 per cent to 56 per cent, and of girls by 7 per cent to 48 per cent1 in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these figures mask considerable regional variations. In countries of the Indian Ocean, both girls and boys attained over 70 per cent net enrolment. The most outstanding progress in terms of percentage increase of boys' enrolment was in East Africa (excluding Somalia), where the net enrolment of boys increased by 27 per cent (to 60 per cent) and of girls by 18 per cent (to 50 per cent), and for girls in Southern Africa, where the comparable figures for girls were 23 per cent (to 76 per cent) and for boys, 16 per cent (to 58 per cent).2 Progress in the peaceful areas of West and Central Africa was counter-balanced by disastrous reversals in the warring countries. Currently available data indicate that about 40 per cent of girls and 50 per cent of boys are enrolled in West Africa, and 50 per cent of girls and 60 per cent of boys in Central Africa. The real figures may be much lower, however, as several of these countries were unable to collect data in recent years.
Girls represent 56 per cent of the estimated 41 million school-age children who are out of school. Gender parity is highest in Southern Africa, where many countries have attained near universal primary education and high adult literacy. Cases of extreme gender disparity, where girls' enrolment may be only half that of boys, are mostly found along the southern rim of the Sahara, a region characterized by low adult literacy and weak economies. Having entered school, however, girls have a 69 per cent chance of reaching Grade 5, compared with 70 per cent for boys. Here also, regional variations exist: in general, where enrolment and literacy are high, gender equality prevails; where enrolment and adult literacy are low, the survival rate of girls is generally lower than that of boys.
The number of students dropping out of school has increased alarmingly in recent years, mainly due to increased costs or armed conflicts. Participation is particularly low amongst children in remote and rural areas, those with disabilities, refugees and internally displaced people, working children, ethnic minorities, and those affected by HIV/AIDS, conflict and other emergencies that have spawned an increasing number of orphans. The poor from rural areas continue to stream into our cities, where schools are already overcrowded.
Access to education is limited, its quality poor and the curricula often irrelevant to the needs of the learners and of social, cultural and economic development. Emerging new industries need entrepreneurs, managers and skilled labour in order to be competitive; our outdated education systems continue to produce graduates without the requisite knowledge and skills.
The majority of our population still has no access to electricity, clean water and medicine. To solve these shortages, we need the 'know-how' in such basic industrial processes as product development, manufacturing, marketing and distribution. Educational institutions, research centres and industries, working together, could develop indigenous solutions to these problems. The trust needed for this partnership between education and industry, however, is at an all-time low.
Having partaken in the most comprehensive assessment ever conducted in Africa, we recognize the important tasks ahead for education leadership and management. We need to build our capacity for innovation, sensitivity to disparities and flexible responsiveness to changing needs. Education planning and management capacity, however, remains largely underdeveloped. Yet, many African ministry staff have been trained abroad particularly in these areas. We need to effectively implement planned changes as well as respond to crisis and manage adjustment. For this, we need to establish a mechanism for professional partnership and a democratic process for consensus-building with regard to the goals and strategies at various levels, from policy formulation to implementation.
To meet these challenges, it is all the more important to learn from the many examples of good practice and successful policies that have proven to be effective in the African context:
  • accelerated access, with particular reference to policies of equity and female enrolment, including affirmative action;

  • community involvement in school decision-making and administration;

  • employment of teachers in their own community of origin;

  • curriculum reform toward locally relevant subjects;

  • affordable teaching materials and textbooks;

  • use of mother tongue as the language of instruction;

  • the use of schools as community learning centres;

  • evaluation based on an action-research-action paradigm;

  • management/statistical information systems in planning, evaluation, etc.
The resounding success of the EFA 2000 Assessment exercise, in which virtually all the countries of sub-Saharan Africa participated, also demonstrates the potential for partnership between Africa-based organizations, institutions and experts. We shall apply a critical analysis of past successes and failures to the formulation of our future strategies.
We are more convinced than ever that education is the sine qua non for empowering the people of Africa to participate in and benefit more effectively from the opportunities available in the globalized economy of the twenty-first century. Our optimism reflects the recent political progress and increased investment in education in parts of Africa and the opportunities offered by new information and communication technologies. With its nation-wide infrastructure and staff specialized in teaching and the design of teaching-learning materials, the education sector shall also address the urgent social issues as HIV/AIDS and violence that are threatening our progress and prospects.
Reflecting on the ten years since the Jomtien Declaration and the four years since the Amman Mid-Term Review, we realize, however, that a fundamental paradigm shift and an ever greater investment in education are essential for achieving our vision of the African Renaissance.
The above being the case, we, Ministers of Education, representatives of civil society and international development agencies:
  • Reaffirm that education is a basic right and a basic need for all African children, youth and adults, including those with disabilities, as recognized in the international instruments, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the recommendations of the Salamanca Conference;

  • Recognize that investment in quality education is a prerequisite for the empowerment of Africans to fully participate in and benefit from a globalized economy and modern communications technology;

  • Acknowledge that the provision of basic education must be transformed for inclusiveness, relevance and gender responsiveness and that efforts to improve the participation of girls and women in education, including affirmative action, must be intensified;

  • Commit ourselves to removing all barriers (social, cultural, economic, political and legal) that hinder African children, youth and adults from having access to quality education and the attainment of the goals of the Jomtien Declaration on Education for All;

  • Recognize that the HIV/AIDS pandemic, increased poverty, war and civil strife are major hindrances to the achievement of EFA goals, and thus must be taken as priority areas of focus in the region;

  • Recognize the necessity of education systems to provide all African people with the opportunity to acquire the skills and knowledge essential for access and use of information and communication technology;

  • Recognize that African indigenous knowledge systems, languages and values should be the foundation for the development of African education systems; and

  • Recognize the necessity for curriculum transformation to give children, youth and adults the type of quality education that promotes appreciation of diversity, richness and dynamism of our cultures, with a goal to liberate us from psychological, economic and technological dependency.
Having sharpened our vision by this insight, we shall design our policies and programmes, and mobilize partnerships and resources for the realization of African Renaissance in the twenty-first century.
2 The new vision of African Renaissance
We envision the resurgence of a vibrant Africa, rich in its cultural diversity, history, languages and arts, standing united to end its marginalization in world progress and development. A democratic Africa, triumphant over colonialism, apartheid and oppression. A peaceful Africa, having beaten its swords into ploughshares, and respecting the human rights of all, irrespective of colour, gender, ethnicity, religion or abilities. An enlightened Africa, victorious in its struggle for the liberation of the mind. A prosperous Africa, where the knowledge and the skills of its people are its foremost resource. We envision Africa finally integrated in its political, economic and social systems, in pursuit of peace, justice, prosperity and a better life for all.
Our vision seeks, not a nostalgic return to pre-colonialism, but an advance of our cultural heritage. The values that unite us and the knowledge of our own environment, combined with modern management, social and physical sciences and technology, shall be applied to solving the chronic problems of poverty, disease, famine, conflict, misrule and corruption.
Education shall prepare people to take control of their own destiny, liberating them from dependency and endowing them with initiative, creativity, critical thinking, enterprise, democratic values, pride and appreciation of diversity. The new Africa will respect the human rights of each individual and demand good governance and accountability. A new social cohesion will resist the forces of violence and division. Access to education will no longer be affected by gender, colour, tribe, ethnic origin, social status, physical and mental ability, religious persuasion or political belief.
It shall be the collective responsibility of government, civil society and development partners at all levels to create dynamic learning organizations with a clear mission for social, economic and cultural development. The education and training sector shall become an integrated system managing knowledge and human resources development.
Toward the realization of this vision, we are working co-operatively in the area of education. We are cementing African unity and engaging in a continental offensive for African social, economic and cultural development - in short, for African Renaissance.
3. Priority areas of focus
Education systems shall provide lifelong learning opportunities to all, focusing on the learner and the learning process. Safe and inspiring learning environments will enable families and individuals to develop their critical thinking and creativity and realize their full potential. The major areas of focus are access and equity, quality and relevance, capacity building and partnerships:
3.1 Improving access and equity

Review and develop educational and other policies and legislation within the framework of the African renaissance;

Mobilize resources for restructuring and reallocation of government finances with a view to strengthening basic education;

Develop closer co-operation between central and local government, schools, communities and families to facilitate school ownership, sustainability and accessibility;

Pay special attention to street and working children, nomadic communities, children in remote environments and areas of conflict, minority groups, HIV/AIDS orphans, child prisoners and disabled children;

Expand the provision of early childhood education to all children of the appropriate age;

Develop alternative, non-formal strategies to reach disadvantaged children, youth and adults, and others such as refugees and internally displaced people who are excluded from normal educational opportunities;

Ensure the equal participation of girls and women in all education programmes, including science and technology;

Reduce gender, regional, rural/urban and socio-economic disparities in educational participation.

3.2 Improving the quality and relevance of education
Only a small proportion of children are reaching the minimum required competencies and our education systems are not performing to the standards we expect of them. To address this situation, we shall:

Review and redesign curricula and teaching methods accordingly to make them relevant to the cultural environment and to the educational, psychological and socio-economic needs of the children;

Pay special attention to the life skills needed for coping with such problems as the HIV/AIDS pandemic, children with special needs, people in areas of chronic conflicts and the abuse of drugs;

Improve teacher education and training to enhance competence in participatory, inclusive and gender-sensitive approaches and the use of new technologies;

Validate and apply home-based, traditional approaches to child care in parental guidance and teacher training, re-enforcing the principle that learning starts at birth;

Promote the use of the mother tongue in the early childhood education, early years of primary education and adult education; link personal development to the learners' cultural heritage and strengthen their self- confidence;

Improve the development, production and distribution of learning materials that are affordable and more suitable to local conditions;

Undertake research and develop the use of local alternatives to imported manufacturing inputs for the design and production of cost-effective textbook and learning materials;

Define minimum and basic competencies for the different levels of education;

Develop reliable education management/statistical information systems in order to improve analysis and decision- making;

Develop gender- and rights-responsive educational research;

Link formal and non-formal education for mainstreaming the marginalized groups into a lifelong learning system;

Integrate education into the family, community and the workplace;

Introduce democratic values and practices into the conduct of teaching and learning.

3.3 Institutional and professional capacity-building
Institutional and professional capacity for greater efficiency, effectiveness and gender friendliness shall be strengthened at regional, national and local levels. For this purpose, we shall:

Give priority to the social, cultural and economic development of Africa in the design of policies, strategies and programmes;

Assure basic rights to food, shelter, security and health to enable African children to participate fully in education;

Create a supportive policy environment to ensure the inclusion of all in education programmes;

mobilize existing and new financial and human resources for ensuring the provision of basic education for all;

Develop gender responsive programmes and child-friendly learning environments for ensuring the full participation of the girl child in education;

Develop institutional capacity and human resources in the areas of statistical and management information systems and research for informed policy formulation, implementation and evaluation;

Involve teachers' unions and teachers in the development of the teaching profession;

Develop institutional and human capacity and curriculum to prevent and manage the HIV/AIDS pandemic and its impact on education.

3.4 Improving partnership
We recognize that governments have the principal responsibility for ensuring adequate financing of basic education. Included in this responsibility is the leadership that government shall play in facilitating partnership at all levels with civil society, agencies, the private sector, NGOs, religious groups, communities, parents and teachers' associations, teachers' trade unions, families. We seek partnership with stakeholders, not simply in cost-sharing, but for the whole education process, including decision-making, management and teaching. Toward this new form of partnership, we shall:

Develop a policy framework for enhancing collaboration between ministries, NGOs, civil society and others;

Jointly plan, monitor and facilitate aid co-ordination toward country leadership, ownership and implementation;

Share knowledge, information, technical know-how other resources;

Take measures to build mutual confidence, respect and accountability;

Involve the media and other stakeholders in public discourse on education, social and development issues and in reaching out to out-of-school youth and adults;

Apply aid strategies for eliminating the dependency on aid in the long term, putting more emphasis on local capacity-building and reliance on indigenous solutions;

Create a mechanism of management and co-ordination of partnership, by legislation and consultative and awareness-raising meetings;

Involve the stakeholders in building the minimum critical infrastructures for decentralization of implementation and management at various levels;

For countries in conflict, channel assistance to education through operational United Nations Agencies and NGOs;

Collaborate in developing adequate data-collection and information systems to help in assessing the status and trends within the respective education sub-sectors.

4 Strategy
Based on this new form of partnership, we shall forge goal-oriented alliances of stakeholders and focus on building capacity and transforming systems to meet the learning needs of the people and the developmental goals of the community, country and region.
4.1 Strategic objectives
Our strategic objectives are the five themes of the conference:

1. Transforming education for national and regional development goals with specific reference to social, cultural and economic and technological development.

2. Transforming curriculum content and improving relevance, quality and teaching methodologies with the needs of learners in focus.

3. Transforming the role of the state and education system structures and functions for facilitating active participation of stakeholders in the lifelong learning processes.

4. Building capacity in educational leadership, management, research and information systems.

5. Strengthening partnerships with NGOs, civil society and development partners at community, national, regional and international levels.

We shall convene stakeholders and form consultative councils to address these objectives and to develop strategies for achieving them.
4.2 Basic strategies
In order to achieve the goals articulated in the Johannesburg Declaration, we shall review our education systems with reference to the five strategic objectives and to the following EFA target dimensions:

Expansion of quality early childhood education and development

Increasing universal access to, and completion of, primary (basic) education

Improvement in learning achievement

Promoting gender equity and enhancement of the education of girls and women

Reducing adult illiteracy

Expanding basic education and skills training for out-of-school children

Developing HIV/AIDS education programmes and response mechanisms

Improving management and governance.

In formulating country-specific strategies, we shall be guided by the following general strategies that we have adopted:
4.2.1 A review and harmonization of existing policies and legislation
Special attention shall be devoted to the rights of disadvantaged groups, including girls and women, ethnic minorities, the disabled, those affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and those in specially difficult circumstances in other ways.
Formal, non-formal and informal learning opportunities shall be linked in order to create a 'culture of lifelong learning' that promotes social integration.
4.2.2 An increase in the financing and rationalization of investment in education
The principal responsibility for financing education remains with the governments, for which we shall endeavour to devote additional funds, as well as mobilizing endogenous and private sector resources. By improving the quality of education and the efficiency of education systems, we shall also enhance cost effectiveness.
4.2.3 Development of national, sub-regional and regional institutional capacities.
We shall enhance our capacity to achieve the EFA goals by effecting institutional reforms and appropriate training programmes, focussing on leadership, strategic resource planning, information management and policy research. By sharing existing regional institutions, expertise, methodologies and information, we shall ensure feasibility, sustainability and cost-effectiveness.
4.2.4 A review of curricula and validation of African indigenous knowledge systems, values and skills.
The development of appropriate curricula shall incorporate value systems founded on indigenous languages and knowledge systems, as well as new knowledge, information and technology. New ways shall be found to link the formal, non-formal and informal learning opportunities in order to create a 'culture of life-long learning' for all, with the aim to promote social integration.
4.2.5 The improvement of capacities for educational change
Effectiveness in implementing planned changes as well as responding to crisis and managing adjustment require both political consensus and professional competence. In order to enhance capacity for innovation, sensitivity to disparities and flexible responsiveness to changing needs, we shall include the intended implementers and beneficiaries in policy-review and management committees at the respective levels of implementation. To avoid entrenchment of status quo and to broaden the perspectives, the most disadvantaged groups shall be represented, if not directly, then by civil society organizations advocating their cause.
Equally, if not more, important is the capacity to implement the necessary changes. Hence, we shall develop the capacities of the implementing individuals and organizations. The urgent starting point is the level of the teaching-learning process, for example, in the school and the classroom, for this is where most of the intended changes had failed to take place. With this focus, we shall improve professional development of teaching staff, develop school management systems, create a more gender-sensitive and conducive environment for their work, etc.
4.2.6 Improvement of teaching and learning environment
Urgent attention shall be devoted to the development of materials, methodologies and social learning environments that are feasible and sustainable in the local environment and relevant to the African learner, particularly in respect of the girl child and the disabled. We shall develop a learning environment that is safe and intellectually stimulating, and a pedagogy based on learner-centred approach and democratic values and practices in the teaching-learning interaction.
4.2.7 The adoption of appropriate and cost-effective technologies
New, appropriate and cost-effective technologies shall be adopted, to complement the integration of indigenous educational methodologies. Dependence on imported materials and technology, requiring an ever-increasing supply of scarce hard currency, is not viable and shall be reduced as rapidly as possible. To start with, R&D investment shall be intensified for the development of locally available alternatives to imported paper, books, etc., while import duties on paper and other materials required for domestic book publishing are eliminated. The use of the oral tradition, more effective in appropriate contexts, shall be explored and systematized for teacher training and other education and training applications.
4.2.8 The promotion and support of Africa-based educational research
Education policies must be anchored to African reality. We shall, therefore, strengthen research on the priority areas in Africa. Research shall be conducted in the language and the environment of the target groups. It shall identify, analyse and solve problems that provoke, for example, exclusion on whatever basis (gender, physical or other handicaps, language, status, race, etc.) relating to culture, educational policies and structures, curriculum and teaching practices. As lack of relevant data continues to be a major problem, those responsible for education research and statistics shall jointly elaborate strategies for research and statistics based on the recommendations of the Johannesburg Conference and submit their report to the national EFA consultative council.
4.2.9 The development of genuine and sustainable partnerships
Partnerships between all stakeholders shall be built on the principles of trust, accountability and transparency. Governments, however, shall take full responsibility for providing primary education and leadership in facilitating participation of the stakeholders in education as partners. Common goals, consensus on strategies, co-ordination and working relationships shall be established through the national EFA consultative councils and the technical working groups.
5 Target setting
Based on this framework, each country team shall set goals, strategies and action plans in accordance with the national assessment, using the following guidelines.
5.1 Expansion of quality early childhood education and development
Ensure that early childhood development (ECD) programmes are expanded two-fold by the year 2006, and that they offer safe, secure and stimulating environments. Countries should work towards providing access to ECD programmes to all children from ages 3 to 6 by the year 2015.
5.2 Increasing universal access and completion of primary (basic) education
Ensure that all school-age children have access to quality primary education by the year 2015. At least 80 per cent of those who enrol should complete primary education and at least 90 per cent of these should proceed to secondary level.
5.3 Improvement in learning achievement
Ensure that by the year 2015, all teachers have received initial training, and that in-service training programmes are operational. Training should emphasize child-centred approaches and rights and gender-based teaching. Mechanisms should be put into place for carrying out national assessments of learning achievement. All children should master the minimum competencies in language, mathematics and science.
5.4 Enhancement of education of girls and women
Increase the admission, completion and transition rates of girls to equal those of boys. Remove legislative hindrances to the participation of girls and women in education. Create safe learning environments for girls and women, inside and outside school, and institutionalize affirmative action to enhance their access to education, especially in Maths and Sciences. Conduct gender awareness campaigns and training for parents, teachers and education managers.
5.5 Reduction of adult illiteracy
Reduce illiteracy rates by at least 50 per cent, by consolidating adult literacy and continuing education as part of lifelong learning. Develop high-quality curricula, teaching methodologies and instructional materials.
5.6 Expansion of basic education and skill training for out-of-school learners
Conduct studies within the next two years into the situation of out-of-school children and assess their learning needs in relation to gender, age and community context. Based on the findings of these studies, design and introduce innovative and sustainable non-formal education programmes. Ensure co-operation between education providers and ministries of education in harmonizing programmes and bridging the gap between formal and non-formal education.
5.7 Putting in place HIV/AIDS education programmes and response mechanisms
AIDS is no longer simply a public health problem. In many African countries, it constitutes a rapidly growing obstacle to development. Teacher training and recruitment must be accelerated to balance personnel losses. Systems must be developed for keeping the increasing number of orphans in school, and solutions found for their long-term care and development.
Life skills and HIV/AIDS education shall be strengthened or introduced in all education programmes. Working partnerships shall be forged with the media, religious organizations, civil society and communities, to build consensus on implementing HIV/AIDS curriculum and develop effective and viable strategies to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
In collaboration with other ministries and stakeholders, the education sector shall take a leading role in AIDS campaigns, and urge men, including those in the teaching profession, to respect women's dignity and the right to protect themselves.
5.8 Improving management and governance
The development of quality education must be supported by effective management at all levels. Current practices shall be evaluated and transformed to reflect the new vision of education. Make effective use of new communication and information technologies. Decentralize education management and governance, by building the necessary capacity at the level of implementation, for facilitating the participation of other education providers, parents, communities and learners, so as to guarantee responsiveness to changing needs. Produce a strategic plan on management and governance of the new structure and functions at various levels in accordance with the new principles of partnership.
5.9 Increasing budgetary allocation to education
The implementation of the Framework for Action will depend on the mobilization of additional resources and the rationalization of budgetary allocations to education. Governments should ensure that at least 7 per cent of GDP is allocated to education within five years and 9 per cent within ten years. International agencies should aim to double their financial support, especially for capacity building and management development.
5.10 Institutionalizing the assessment and monitoring functions of the EFA team
Existing co-ordination teams and consultative structures shall be strengthened in order to monitor progress in implementing the goals of the new vision. Regional Technical Advisory Groups will be transformed into a Regional EFA Consultative Council, consisting of regional-level partners in education, which will integrate the thematic commissions and technical working groups as sub-structures. These are composed of specialists in the areas of research, statistics, administration, finance, inspection, etc. from various departments, institutions and agencies. As a target and a benchmark, the first task is to produce, by the end of year 2000, a consensus-based work plan for regular assessment and monitoring of the implementation of the EFA Framework of Action.
6 Agenda of the Alliance for African Renaissance
Having adopted a common vision, we propose an Alliance for African Renaissance, for we are convinced that united we constitute a powerful force capable of achieving the paradigm shift and the investment in education that are required for the envisioned transformation. To this end, we shall jointly plan and co-ordinate our strategies, activities, sharing our competence and resources.
We are keenly aware that, for the Alliance to be effective, members must adhere to the principles of membership and assume collective responsibility. As partners in this alliance, we shall strive to meet the responsibilities in our respective domains:
6.1 African Governments shall:

End armed conflicts, ensure security, nurture a culture of peace and re-direct military budget, demobilized soldiers, arms, equipment and other assets to constructive use, such as occupational training, adult literacy programmes, school repair and construction, public transport, water management and irrigation, etc.;

Promote enlightened, participatory, transparent and accountable governance, and prosecute corruption in all its forms, at every level of government and civil society;

Concentrate resources on teaching-learning processes and delivery systems that enhance efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and resource- and cost-sharing;

Invest more resources on basic education by an amount necessary for making a significant impact on quantity and quality;

Ensure that savings from debt reduction are invested in education and the social sector for the betterment of heretofore marginalized and excluded children, youth and adults;

Take the leading role in mobilizing resources, setting standards and facilitating participation of stakeholders in education, including communities, civil society, the private sector and development partners;

Ensure that policies and the legislation are inclusive and supportive of quality education for all;

Create an enabling environment, including affirmative action, for full participation of women in educational leadership;

Develop institutional capacity for strategic resource planning, monitoring and implementation of the Framework for Action; and

Remove legal, administrative and tax constraints hindering the publishing industry and promote indigenous publishers by eliminating custom duties on paper and other required materials.

6.2 Regional and sub-regional institutions shall:

Establish a Regional EFA Consultative Council, supported by thematic commissions and technical working groups, assimilating the monitoring and evaluation functions of the Regional Technical Advisory Groups;

Give education top priority for the next decade in terms of policy, programmes and activities;

Provide effective leadership in the implementation of regional educational programmes as well as strengthening sub-regional and regional co-operation;

Promote synergies and facilitate the emergence of sub-regional and regional learning institutions, with integrated educational programmes, information and resource sharing in such areas as development textbooks in indigenous languages, science and technology;

Facilitate regional co-operation of institutions and networks of experts in joint programmes to build capacity in education leadership, management, strategic resource planning, policy research, and statistical information systems;

Promote good governance and prosecute corruption within our own institutions as well as in the wider society;

Take measures to prevent and reduce arms trade and illegal trade in strategic minerals, gold and diamonds which the warring parties are using to finance wars.

6.3 Civil society, including NGOs, the private sector and religious bodies shall:

Re-focus on community empowerment to alleviate poverty and strengthen community participation in education;

Participate in and contribute to education in various ways, such as defining and monitoring relevance and quality, and providing volunteer services;

Advocate the inclusion of the marginalized groups, especially those who are poor and powerless, such as orphans, the disabled and incarcerated, refugees and internally displaced people;

Promote good governance and condemn corruption;

Promote genuine partnerships with other stakeholders in a mutually acceptable manner for the benefit of African children and adult learners through improved management capacities to meet new challenges and responsibilities;

Support government and community efforts in promoting sustainable development through fostering quality education for all;

Increase involvement in campaigns for public awareness, such as HIV/AIDS, as well as for public pressure, such as the reduction of armed conflict.

6.4 African and international media shall:

Popularize and publicize the new vision of African education by developing quality basic education that is holistic, humanizing and transformative, and embedded in African values and indigenous knowledge systems;

Participate in discussions, research, monitoring and mobilization of resources for the development of quality basic education for all;

Develop strategies to inform and educate Africans on issues affecting the development of the continent in general and education in particular, including HIV/AIDS education, girls' education, ethnic and social conflicts, and the validation of the African value system and indigenous knowledge;

Provide a forum for public discourse and exchange of views for all stakeholders in education - students, parents, communities, civil society as well as government;

Provide alternative delivery systems for education materials and methods.

6.5 International and bilateral agencies shall:

Work in partnership with African governments and civil society to enhance the achievement of EFA, through the development of policies and strategies aimed at abolishing, rather than simply reducing, national debt;

Ensure that savings from debt reduction are invested in education and the social sector, and that the highly indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative is used for the betterment of African children, youth, and adult illiterates, especially targeting the hitherto marginalized or excluded;

Work with African Governments and other partners to assess the side effects of SAPs, and other development programmes, on education;

Promote better co-ordination between agencies to improve the coherence of programmes and to avoid duplication, cross-purposes and inefficiency in resource allocation and utilization;

Support the building of Africa's capacity to find its own solutions and political responses, by according priority to locally and regionally based experts, institutions, organizations and education-related initiatives;

Intensify investment in R&D capacity in Africa for developing affordable alternatives to imported paper and books; the pharmaceutical industry for producing affordable medicine to treat HIV/AIDS and tropical diseases; renewable energy for providing electricity; access to Internet for communication and information; and water control, management and purification;

Support and participate in the national and regional EFA consultative councils and support regional partnerships such as the ADEA and the education programmes of such African regional organizations as OAU, ECOWAS, SADC, etc;

Increase financial and technical support to education in Africa so that it is at least double the current level by 2015; and

Promote the reduction of arms trading, and the illegal trade in strategic minerals as a means of financing wars by the warring parties.

7 Follow-up timetable
Each country shall draw its own plan of action for achieving EFA goals. The country teams shall review the problems, priorities and mandates of partners and establish a timetable of activities. The following schedule suggests a methodology for starting the process of implementation of this Framework of Action:
7.1 National dissemination and review of the Johannesburg and Dakar Declarations and Frameworks of Action as a starting point of consensus building and strategic planning.

7.2 National government and other partners disseminate and review their National EFA 2000 Assessment Report after the Dakar meeting and in partnership set specific country goals, targets and strategies.

7.3 National governments and partners complete and update their plans of action to meet defined EFA goals and develop modalities of implementation and monitoring of the activities identified.

7.4 United Nations and other international agencies review their policies and plans of action to harmonise them with Johannesburg and Dakar Declarations and Frameworks of Action. Make commitment to supporting country initiatives in EFA and put in place implementation programme.

7.5 Put country co-ordination and implementing teams into place. Refine short- and long-term implementation plans and set specific benchmarks and indicators for monitoring and evaluation. Start implementation (first three months after Dakar).
8 Conclusion
Guided and supported by our joint commitment, courage, hope and creativity, education in the new African millennium will never be the same again. Education shall be the strategic medium for attaining African Renaissance in the globalized economy, culture and communication in the twenty-first Century.