UNESCO
Selected UNESCO Documents in Education


Title: Sixth conference of ministers of education and those responsible for economic planning in African Member States
Year: 1991
Language(s): Arabic, English, French
Abstract: Overview of the Conference including the Recommendations and the text of the Dakar Declaration adopted by the Conference on its central theme "Educational strategies for the 1990s in Africa: promotion of literacy teaching and basic education for development".
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Title: Education for all: high expectations or false hopes?
Author(s): Jacques Hallak
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Obstacles to providing education for all within a short time span: political, economic and financial factors. Lack of adequate demand for education. Weak capacity in managerial terms for implementing the broad concept of Education for All. Heavy inertia within the existing education systems.
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Title: Sixth regional conference of ministers of education and those responsible for economic planning in Asia and the Pacific
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: General survey on the situation of education in the Asia and Pacific region. Development of educational systems and policies reviewed in relation to the basic learning needs identified at the World Conference on Education for All, (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990). Statistics related to preschool, primary, secondary and higher education in the Asia and Pacific region, given in annex.
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Title: Fifth meeting of the intergovernmental regional committee for the major project in the field of education in Latin America and the Caribbean
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, Spanish
Abstract: Analysis of the progress of the Major Project and the limitations and obstacles confronted. Orientations and priorities of subregional, regional, interregional and international co-operation and the components required to elaborate educational strategies and offer quality education. Recommendation related to the execution of the project.
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Title: Major project of education in Latin America and the Caribbean. (The)
Year: 1991
Language(s): English, Spanish
Abstract: The situation of education reviewed in relation to the main objectives of the Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean and to the basic learning needs identified at the World Conference on Education for All. Progress, obstacles and issues arising from recent experience acquired by the countries concerned.
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Title: Fifth conference of ministers of education and those responsible for economic planning in the Arab States
Year: 1994
Language(s): Arabic, English, French
Abstract: The Cairo conference (1994) discussed challenges of the twenty-first century: eradication of illiteracy, education of girls and women, enhancement of education, provision of the resources needed for education, use of distance education and strengthening of regional and international co-operation. Arab States attach an utmost importance to the education of the Palestinian people.
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Title: Participation for educational change: a synthesis of experience
Author(s): Sheldon Shaeffer
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Launched in 1990, the research and training programme "Collaborating for educational change" focuses on participatory approaches to educational development. Various definitions of 'participation' at the levels of the individual, the community and society at large. Difficulties and risks of participation. Potential partners in education. Case studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America.
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Title: Science education in developing countries: issues and perspectives for planners
Author(s): Keith M. Lewin
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: How to broaden the science curriculum to include more concern for social, technological and environmental aspects? Factors affecting achievement in science. Relationships with other subjects. The balance between the sciences in the curriculum. Implementation of educational innovations.
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Title: Education policy-planning process: an applied framework
Author(s): Wadi D. Haddad and Terri Demsky
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Guide on the policy-making and planning process for education. Cases studies in Peru, Jordan, Thailand, Burkina Faso. Definition, analysis, process, evaluation, decision making and planning in the context of educational policies. Summary of implications for planners.
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Title: Problèmes liés à l'articulation ou à l'intégration des plans d'éducation et de formation
Author(s): Robert Médard
Year: 1987
Language(s): French
Abstract: Relationship between education and training in general. Methodological steps of integrated planning. Different levels of analysis needed to integrate the planning of education and of training. Translation of objectives into financial terms. Implementation of the plan and its evaluation. Three practical instruments intended for educational planners and administrators.
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Title: Fourth conference of ministers of education of Member States of the Europe region
Year: 1989
Language(s): English, Russian (Microfiche in French, Spanish)
Abstract: Prospects and tasks of educational development in Europe at the dawn of a new millenium in respect to the humanistic, cultural and international dimension of education.
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Title: Meeting basic learning needs: a vision for the 1990s. Background document
Year: 1990
Language(s): French (Microfiche in English)
Abstract: Background information on the ideas contained in the World Declaration on Education for All and the Framework for Action to meet basic learning needs adopted by the World Conference on Education for All, Jomtien, Thailand, 1990. These documents represent a worlwide consensus on an expanded vision of basic education.
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Title: World conference on education for all: meeting basic learning needs
Year: 1990
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Summary of the main proceedings of the conference, integral texts of the World Declaration on the Education for All, and framework for action to meet basic learning needs. Guidelines for the future.
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Title: Planning and management of educational development
Year: 1990
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Purpose of this congress: to take stock of development in the planning and management of education and to identify new approaches and trends in the light of the decisions adopted during the conference on Education for all, Jomtien, Thailand, 1990. What type of educational planning and of educational management in a time of crisis?
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Title: New scenario for educational planning and management in Latin America (A)
Author(s): Fernando Reimers
Year: 1990
Language(s): English
Abstract: Latin America is the most indebted region of the world. Two levels of the impact of the debt crisis on education: one is direct by reducing availability of foreign currency for the educational system, the other is indirect through the adjustment process which results in reduced real educational budgets.
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Title: Financement et régulation de la formation professionnelle : une analyse comparée
Author(s): David Atchoarena
Year: 1994
Language(s): French
Abstract: Systems and cases of financing of technical and vocational training in developing and industrialized countries, respectively. Main trends, sharing of responsabilities, partnership between various actors of technical and vocational training, in particular, State, companies and wage earners. Relationship between financing and quality of training.
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Title: Mobilization and management of financial resources for education
Author(s): Paul Perrot
Year: 1988
Language(s): English (Microfiche in French)
Abstract: An inventory of a wide-ranging series of innovative experiences in the financing of education carried out by Member States (1985-1986). Systematic approach for analyzing the impact of certain innovative strategies for mobilizing finances.
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Title: Cooperation for reinforcing the development of education in Europe
Year: 1991
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Cooperation for development and evaluation of education in Europe, with special attention to the needs of Central and Eastern European States. Functional literacy and adult education in industrialized countries. Learning of foreign languages and democratic practices, environmental, peace, civic and multi-cultural education. Revision of school textbooks, especially in History and Geography.
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Title: Recent trends in education aid: towards a classification of policies
Author(s): Lene Buchert
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: An attempt to identify convergence and divergence in the basic assumptions about education and development, which are underlying different donor policies. Empirical research on aid practices will therefore be required in order to make international co-operation more transparent, and more efficient.
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Title: Education and endogenous development in Africa: trends, problems, prospects
Year: 1982
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Debates at the Conference of Ministers of Education and Those Responsible for Economic Planning in African Member States (1982): development of and current trends in education, challenges of educational development, teachers training, and new dimensions and priorities for co-operation in education.
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Title: Education for the twenty-first century: Asia-Pacific perspectives
Author(s): Raja Roy Singh
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Education is one of the most multi-dimensional organized human activities. The future-oriented education approach compels a continuous scrutiny and appraisal of the existing educating systems and institutions and calls for the development of new kinds of educational institutions as well as new ways of educating.
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Title: Report on the state of education in Africa 1995
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: General survey on the situation of education in Africa. Reform of the educational system, educational policies and teaching objectives. Education of women and girls. Teaching of science and technology, population and environmental education. Teachers training, higher education and educational research. Educational statistics on Africa given in annex.
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Title: International commission on education for the twenty-first century. Report of the comission. Preliminary synthesis
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: This report reflects on the challenges facing education in the coming years and formulates recommendations for policy makers. Seeks to identify the main trends influencing education, emphasizes the importance of quality education throughout the world, and suggests that the learning process be designed around the theme "learning throughout life".
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Title: Learning to be. The world of education today and tomorrow
Author(s): Edgar Faure et al.
Year: 1972
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Education can not be entrenched within any particular social classes or age groups, or be divided up into independent levels or streams, nor can it be reduced to a mere matter of State grants and family traditions. It must ensure a constant exchange of ideas between man and his social environment, and offer to everyone the opportunities of the learning society.
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Title: Learning: the treasure within
Author(s): Jacques Delors
Year: 1996
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Education has a fundamental role to play in personal and social development. It is not a miracle cure or a magic formula opening the door to a world in which all ideals will be attained. It is one of the principal means available to foster a deeper and more harmonious form of human development and thereby to reduce poverty, exclusion, ignorance, oppression and war. The coming century, dominated by globalization, will bring with it enduring tensions to overcome, tensions between the global and the local, the universal and the individual, tradition and modernity, long-term and short-term considerations, competition and equality of opportunity, the unlimited expansion of knowledge and the limited capacity of human beings to assimilate it, and the spiritual and the material. Whatever the diversity of cultures, and systems of social organization, there is a universal challenge of reinventing the democratic ideal to create, or maintain, social cohesion. In this context, learning throughout life will be one of the keys to meeting the challenges of the twenty-first century. The International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, chaired by former European Commission President Jacques Delors, proposes in this report that, building on the four pillars that are the foundations of education - learning to be, learning to know, learning to do, and learning to live together - all societies aim to move towards a necessary Utopia in which none of the talents hidden like buried treasure in every person are left untapped. A fresh approach is proposed to the stages and bridges of learning, whereby the paths through education systems become more varied and the value of each is enhanced. While universal basic education is an absolute priority, secondary education has a pivotal role to play in the individual learning paths of young people and in the development of societies. And, higher education institutions should be diversified so as to take into account their functions and duties as centres of knowledge, as places of professional training, as the crossroads for learning throughout life and as partners in international co-operation. The central role of teachers, and the need to improve their training, status and conditions of work, are stressed. And, in a world increasingly dominated by technology, emphasis must be placed on ways both to use technology in the service of education and to prepare people to master it for living and working. Getting the reform strategies right, by a broad-based dialogue, and by increasing responsibility and involvement of stakeholders at every level, will be a crucial element of educational renewal. The report to UNESCO of this independent Commission is the result of a worldwide process of consultation and analysis over a period of three years. It closes with an emphatic plea for more resources to be devoted to education, nationally and internationally, and for invigorating international co-operation in education, with UNESCO as a key player.
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Title: Education and work
Author(s): Olivier Bertrand
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Work experience, and especially alternating periods of work and study, and partnership arrangements between educational institutions and business firms could make a useful contribution to the educational process, subject to a number of conditions which are not always met and which are linked to the particular socio-cultural context and historical heritage in each country.
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Title: Toward a fair start for children
Author(s): Robert G. Myers
Year: 1991
Language(s): Chinese, English, French, Portuguese (Microfiche in Spanish)
Abstract: Child care and the social, intellectual and physical development of infants and young children, especially in the developing world. Early childhood is better investment than roads or bombers. Programmes should be flexible, financially feasible and adjusted to different sociocultural contexts. Latin American and Asian countries have made much greater progress than African countries in terms of organized programmes.
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Title: Directory of early childhood care and education organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa
Year: 1992
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: 241 organizations based in 40 Sub-Saharan African countries. Analytical and descriptive sections. Overview of the situation of children and their families. Early childhood care, education activities and strategies of organizations. Data on agencies, various information sources on child.
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Title: Educare in Europe
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Presentations to the European Childcare conference "Educare in Europe" (1992). Reflects the improving of young children's life conditions and educational standards. How to care for young children away from homes in Europe. Children needs and early childhood education and care in the modern world.
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Title: Emergent literacy in early childhood education
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Based on current research findings eleven studies about the acquisition of language and literacy skills of a young child. Taking into account the child's developmental process, the family or pre-school environment and the role of the adult as mediator, the authors discuss various approaches to encourage and develop this interest. Reading and writing programmes and methods for bilingual education.
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Title: Directory of early childhood care and education organizations in the Arab States
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Early childhood programmes are provided in a variety of institutions and organizational settings, such as preschools, kindergartens, nurseries, day care centres, or play groups. These programmes are organized by various Ministries and agencies concerned with the education, development, care and welfare of young children, by non governmental institutions and by parents and community groups.
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Title: Directory of early childhood care and education organizations in Asia and the Pacific
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Early childhood programmes are provided in a variety of institutions and organizational settings, such as preschools, kindergartens, nurseries, day care centres, or play groups. These programmes are organized by various Ministries and agencies concerned with the education, development, care and welfare of young children, by non governmental institutions and by parents and community groups.
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Title: Directory of European research and documentation institutions on children's rights
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: The Directory aims to provide those working with and for children with a useful information source, and to encourage and facilitate communication and information sharing between institutions and individuals active in improving the situation of children's rights.
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Title: Succeeding at school
Year: 1992
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Strategies which can contribute to the improvement of educational achievement. Based on the need for a multidimensional education which takes into account all aspects of the individual in relation to his environment. Transforming the goals of education systems giving privilege to competition and selection.
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Title: Informatics for secondary education. A curriculum for schools
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Secondary school curriculum in the field of informatics. Guidelines, objectives of computer literacy and its applications to other disciplines. Intended for secondary and vocational level.
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Title: Revised recommendation concerning technical and vocational education
Year: 1983
Language(s): Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: Text of an international instrument concerning technical and vocational education to improve: contents, objectives, policies, planning and administration, methods and materials, personnel and international cooperation.
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Title: International workshop on curriculum development in technical and vocational education
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Review and analysis of existing practices in the design, implementation and evaluation of the curriculum in the field of technical and vocational education. Common trends and successfully practices in different countries. Examples of case studies.
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Title: International project on technical and vocational education (UNEVOC)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Main objectives and guidelines as well as priorities for the biennium 1994-1995 concerning the UNEVOC Project. Discussion of the UNEVOC programme, operating strategies and mobilization of resources. Cooperation with Member states, the International Labour Organisation and other institutions on the implementation of the UNEVOC project.
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Title: International project on technical and vocational education (UNEVOC)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Programme of the UNEVOC project (International Project on technical and Vocational Education): activities for 1994-1995, cooperation with Member States and organizations. Reflections on future UNEVOC priorities. Publications and studies on technical and vocational education. Technical co-operation and regional UNEVOC activities.
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Title: Policies and guidelines for educational and vocational guidance
Author(s): D. Stuart Conger
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Ideas and recommendations for educational and vocational guidance policies and programmes within vocational and technical education. How to implement policies through content of services, program planning, modes of delivery, external relations and evaluations. Addressed to educational administrators and planners, teachers educators and curriculum developers.
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Title: New training technologies
Author(s): A. Herremans
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: New training technologies are not the panaces, but they may contribute to a large extent to the development of necessary attitudes for lifelong learning. They may help to provide students with the necessary knowledge and skills to access the labour market or to retrain people so that they can be adapted to the evolution of the teaching professions.
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Title: Training policies for the end of the century
Author(s): Claudio de Moura Castro
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Discusses training policies for the end of the century. Emphasizes that one of the most important effects of training is the long-term creation of competent and adaptable work forces, capable of dealing wigh changing technologies and displaying proper attitudes. Quality cannot be measured by wage differential alone, rather one must understand the training process, its workings and consequences.
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Title: Role of higher education in society (The): quality and pertinence
Year: 1991
Language(s): English (Microfiche in French)
Abstract: NGOs' consultation about national and institutional policy making and reform, content of higher education, teacher training and research as well as about the UNESCO project UNITWIN (University Twinning). The social function of the university and its impact at the national, regional and international levels.
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Title: Bibliography on academic recognition and mobility: Europe region. UNESCO convention on the recognition of studies, diplomas and degrees concerning higher education in the states belonging to the Europe region
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Updated version of the Bibliography of Available Literature relating to the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees and to International Mobility in Higher Education, published by CEPES in 1987. Includes only new entries, some 600, illustrating the present state of recognition and mobility.
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Title: Women in higher education management
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Women managers working in diverse socio-cultural and geographical contexts analyse the obstacles which they have faced and overcame during their careers. Four principal themes: the general participation of women in education, the extent of their involvement in higher education management, including impediments to their advancement, the development of strategies to surmount these career limitations and the particular contribution of women to the management of higher education.
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Title: Higher education staff development: directions for the twenty-first century
Author(s): Jennifer Barnes et al.
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Twelve case studies drawn from UNITWIN/UNESCO Chairs Programme. Major trends, issues and perspectives of academic staff development, higher education teaching development, managerial and human resources development. Holistic vision of the higher education institution and its staff.
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Title: Policy paper for change and development in higher education
Year: 1995
Language(s): Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: The gap between the developing and the developed countries with regard to higher education and research is becoming wider. Relevance, quality and internationalisation of higher education are its three watchwords. The guidelines for its future work: broadening access and participation, searching for a wider resource basis and expanding international co-operation.
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Title: World directory of national information centres for academic recognition and mobility, 1994
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Information on national structures established in some 131 countries to serve the academic recognition purposes and to guide all those concerned by these matters (government and educational authorities, students, teachers, researchers, and public at large). How to promote academic mobility and facilitate the international comparison of studies and qualifications obtained at the higher education level.
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Title: Diversity of structures for higher education
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Diversification of higher education. Possibilities of being adapted to the process of political and economic transformation that is affecting the whole of Europe. Differentiation of types of institutions of higher education as a supplement and not as an alternative to an unified academic tradition.
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Title: Doctorate in the Europe region (The)
Author(s): Oleg Kouptsov (Compiled by)
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Up-to-date information on the requirements and conditions for awarding doctoral degrees. Present state of the doctorate in 31 countries of the region: general information, organization of studies, institutional networks, programmes, equivalence between diplomas, recognition.
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Title: Fourth international conference on adult education
Year: 1985
Language(s): Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian, Spanish (Microfiche in English)
Abstract: Development of adult education: aspects and trends. Role and objectives, methods, resources and forms of organization. Priority groups, programmes, training of personnel, planning, financing, consultation and coordination. Research and documentation on adult education.
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Title: Third international conference on adult education
Year: 1972
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Adult education trends during the last decade and their role in the framework of life-long education. Strategies of educational development appropriate to adult education. Summary, main conclusions and recommendations.
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Title: Educación de adultos en América Latina ante el próximo siglo
Year: 1994
Language(s): Spanish
Abstract: New adult education strategies in order to cope with the numerous challenges to be encountered and to respond efficiently to the needs of today's adult. Diagnosis and main needs of the adult education in Latin America and information on its importance for the fringe and the poverty-stricken. Adult education and world of work.
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Title: Becoming enterprising. Technical guidelines
Author(s): Asia-Pacific Centre of Educational Innovation for Development (Compiled by)
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Initiative, creativity and flexibility are qualities that have to be nurtured early in educational life. Enterprise education needs to take place in as many diverse situations and subject areas as feasible. Not confined to any particular age or time of learning. It can act as a major organising principle for education and perform a valuable corrective function to "academic" learning.
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Title: Non-formal education: information and planning issues
Author(s): Gabriel Carron and Roy A. Carr-Hill
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Summary of several studies on planning and policy making of non-formal education. Forms and dynamics of the diversified education fields. Kinds of non-formal education and implications on planning. Basic information on non-formal education.
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Title: Education for all: status and trends
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Graphical overview of the situation and current trends in basic education using the latest available data. Aimed to policy-makers, development practicioners, educators and other teaching professionals.
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Title: Three years after Jomtien: EFA in the Eastern and Southern Africa region
Author(s): Cream Wright and Rangachar Govinda (Edited by)
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Progress, problems and prospects concerning the Education for All in seven countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. Integration of secular education into traditional muslim schools in Kenya and Zanzibar. Measures being taken to tackle the problem of gender inequality in basic education.
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Title: Jomtien, trois ans après : l'éducation pour tous dans les pays du Sahel
Author(s): Isabelle Deblé et Gabriel Carron
Year: 1993
Language(s): French
Abstract: Evolution of the education situation after 1990 in six Sahelian countries (Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Chad). Reflection on the pertinence of the Declaration of Jomtien in regard to the situation in each country. Analysis of national experiences and problems posed for the continuation of educational experiences.
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Title: Education for all teacher-training package (The)
Author(s): Sheila M. Haggis (Edited by)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Designed as a complement to teacher training curricula. Addressed to teachers, teacher trainers and personnel engaged in educational management and administration, working individually or in groups. Substantive topics cover different aspects of Education for All, ranging from access and equity to the environment for learning, and from cultural identity to scientific and technological literacy and the world of work.
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Title: Education for all teacher-training package (The)
Author(s): Sheila M. Haggis (Edited by)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Designed as a complement to teacher training curricula. Addressed to teachers, teacher trainers and personnel engaged in educational management and administration, working individually or in groups. Substantive topics cover different aspects of Education for All, ranging from access and equity to the environment for learning, and from cultural identity to scientific and technological literacy and the world of work.
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Title: Basic education and literacy. World statistical indicators
Year: 1990
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: World statistical indicators for the school years 1970/71, 1975/76, and later. Selected educational indicators by country.
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Title: ILY: year of opportunity
Year: 1990
Language(s): Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: The booklet consists of two parts. The first "Identifying the Issues", poses the problem of illiteracy in the world - what it is, whom it affects, and what International Literacy Year aims to do about it. The second, "Towards a Solution" describes some of the things that can be done to promote literacy at home, school and community, as well as through organizations and governments.
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Title: Researching literacy in industrialized countries: trends and prospects
Author(s): D. Barton and M. Hamilton
Year: 1990
Language(s): English (Summary in French)
Abstract: Trends in literacy research over the past twenty years. Needs and demands of the future. International and national agendas for literacy. Examples of literacy surveys.
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Title: Educating children and young people with disabilities. Principles and the review of practice
Author(s): Seamus Hegarty
Year: 1993
Language(s): Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: Estimates of the global shortfall in educational provision for those with disabilities. Basic principles underlying key strategies for policy makers in developing the educational provision. Major elements of legislation, administration, early childhood education, school provision, transition from school to adult life, professional development and support services.
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Title: Children and young people with specific learning disabilities
Author(s): Carol Crealock and Doreen Kronick
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Special education for disabled children. Their physical, family and social environment and their educational needs. Curriculum evaluation and development.
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Title: Making it happen. Examples of good practice in special needs education & community-based programmes
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Compiled stories about successful integration models experiences. Children and young people with special education needs within regular education. Background to the formation of "Initiatives for Deaf Education in the Third World" (INITIATIVES); its activity and growth over the past nine years.
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Title: Review of the present situation in special education
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Analysis of data related to policy, legislation, administration and organization, educational services offered, training, funding and research in special education; emphasizing the main current trends. Study based on the responses of 63 countries to a questionnaire prepared by UNESCO. Intended for administrators, educational specialists and policy makers.
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Title: Women, education and empowerment: pathways towards autonomy
Author(s): Carolyn Medel-Añonuevo (Edited by)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Decision makers, most of whom are men, have distanced themselves from even considering the concept of empowerment of women. Training to prepare educational programmes for women's empowerment needs to integrate the four components: gender issues, work oriented activities, literacy and numeracy skills and principles of curriculum design.
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Title: Education of girls and women (The)
Author(s): edited by John Allen
Year: 1995
Language(s): Chinese, English, French, Spanish
Abstract: The various projects described in this document illustrate how governments, aid agencies, non-governmental organizations, voluntary services and families can contribute to the provision of learning opportunities for girls and women. Those best qualified to promote the development of educational services for girls and women are the women themselves.
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Title: Women and the democratization process in Africa
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Social, cultural and economic factors limiting women's participation as informed and active citizen in nation-building. Proposals on strategies and measures to promote more balances in gender relations and increase women's involvement in political and educational life and the democratization process at grass roots, national, regional and international levels.
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Title: Education of girls (The). The Ouagadougou declaration and framework for action
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Declaration and framework of action adopted during the pan-african conference on the education of girls, (Ouagadougou in March 1993). It calls upon governments to establish the education of girls as a priority to set targets, to provide appropriate resources, to monitor the progress on a biennial basis and to report to the International Forum of Education for All.
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Title: In our own hands
Author(s): Cynthia Guttman
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Saptagram, a women's self-reliance and education movement in Bangladesh, helps deprived and landless women. They take charge of their lives and work on income-generating projects. The movement is active in one fifth of the country, extending to 900 villages and reaching 22,000 target members.
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Title: Interdisciplinarity in general education
Year: 1986
Language(s): English, Spanish (Microfiche in French)
Abstract: The interdisciplinarity as a form of co-operation between various disciplines contributing to the achievement of a common goal. Through their association, interdisciplinarity fosters emergence and acquisition of a new knowledge.
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Title: Relevance, balance and integration of the content of general education: achievements, trends and issues, a synthesis
Author(s): A.M. Ranaweera
Year: 1990
Language(s): English
Abstract: Global analysis of issues and trends relating to the concepts of integration, balance and relevance of content of general education. Synthesis of UNESCO activities conducted during the last ten years. Information on the distribution and balance of the different aspects and types of content in general education programmes around the world.
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Title: International conference on education, 43rd session
Year: 1993
Language(s): Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: Summaries of the discussions of the plenary meeting on "The contribution of education to cultural development" and of the Commission on "Education, culture and development: new prospects for interaction for the benefit of the individual and society". Text of the adopted Recommendation n 78 to ministries responsible for education and culture concerning the Contribution to cultural development, as well as opening and closing addresses, the list of documents distributed and the list of participants.
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Title: Impact of examination systems on curriculum development (The): an international study
Author(s): Christine De Luca
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Information which might help decision-makers in curriculum development. Each report describes the educational background, the curriculum, the administrative structure, and the relationship between the examination system and curriculum development.
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Title: Leisure, values and biology teaching
Author(s): Alan J. Pritchard and Dean J. Buckland
Year: 1986
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Contribution to an international exchange of ideas and information on science and technology education. Developing awareness and understanding of the nature of science and technology and their role. Different approaches of biology teaching to children.
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Title: Microbiological techniques in school
Author(s): Ronald Westphal
Year: 1988
Language(s): English
Abstract: Standard techniques of microbiology within the scope of the secondary school curriculum. Sufficient theoretical background is included for easy understanding of the experimental procedures. "Microbiological Techniques in School" may help to incorporate the treatment of a modern technology within school biology.
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Title: Systems thinking in biology education
Author(s): Gerhard Schaefer
Year: 1989
Language(s): English
Abstract: Teaching biological principles based on the systems thinking. Examples and systems description in biology teaching. System thinking is a necessary tool for scientific progress. It implies both a synthetical and analytical process, called "holistic approach".
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Title: Mathematics for all
Author(s): Peter Damerow et al.
Year: 1986
Language(s): English, Spanish
Abstract: Traditionally, mathematics curricula were developed for an elite group of students who were expected to specialize in the subject. How to design mathematics curricula adequate to the needs of the majority in developing, as well as in industrialized countries.
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Title: Significant influences on children's learning of mathematics
Author(s): Alan J. Bishop et al.
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Significant factors influencing the learning of mathematics: social requirements and socio-cultural context related to mathematical concepts. Classroom teaching materials and aids, as well as teacher role.
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Title: Games and toys in the teaching of science and technology
Author(s): Norman K. Lowe
Year: 1988
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Low cost educational activities for children in primary and early secondary levels of education. Toys and games, curriculum development trends and out-of-school activities. Examples of games and toys which can be used in the teaching of science and technology and in many other disciplines.
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Title: Popularization of science and technology. What informal and nonformal education can do?
Author(s): Cheng Kai Ming and Leung Kam Fong
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Selection of papers presented at the Conference on the "Popularization of Science and Technology". The growing importance and impact of science and technology in our everyday lives has the potential to create a new range of problems which will arise for those who are unable to understand and use modern technology. How non-formal and informal education can contribute to help people achieve a level of scientific and technological literacy?
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Title: Scientific and technological literacy. Meanings and rationales. An annotated bibliography
Author(s): David Layton et al.
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Updated and enlarged version of a previous document prepared for the Project 2000+ (Jomtien, 1990) initiated to promote scientific and technological literacy for all. Contains 271 references.
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Title: Aspects qualitatifs de l'enseignement des sciences dans les pays francophones (Les)
Author(s): André Giordan et Yves Girault
Year: 1994
Language(s): French
Abstract: Modernisation and advancement of economic systems require mastering and application of sciences and technology. The shortage of personnel with scientific training either at university or secondary level continues to hamper this process in many countries. Major research in science teaching in French-speaking countries during the last ten years.
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Title: Strategies and methods for teaching values in the context of science and technology
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Science and technology influence all aspects of human activity including the interdependence of man and nature. Achievement of the universalization of the basic education could result in greater awareness and appreciation of the changes taking place under the impact of scientific and technological developments. It could contribute towards removal of ignorance, superstition, obscurantism and irrational practices.
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Title: Values and ethics and the science and technology curriculum
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Working group meeting (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 1989) of national experts on values and ethics related to science and technology education focused upon crucial, ethical and value parameters intrinsic to science, moral and ethical responsibilities of scientists for the products of science, objectives and contents of values and ethics to be incorporated in science and technology education. Strategies for learning/teaching of such values and methods of evaluation.
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Title: Facts for life. A communication challenge
Year: 1993
Language(s): Arabic, English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Handbook on health education. Improving communication efforts of many health services is part of the school curriculum and adult literacy programmes in many countries.
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Title: Latin America and Caribbean compendium of higher education programmes in family & home economics, nutrition, food science and technology & health science
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Assistance to students in the search for higher education and provision of institutions with facts and information on similar training programmes elsewhere in the region.
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Title: Compendium of African higher education programmes in family & home economics, nutrition, food science and technology & health sciences
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Assistance to students in the search for higher education, and provision of institutions with facts and information on similar training programmes elsewhere in Africa.Assistance to students in the search for higher education, and provision of institutions with facts and information on similar training programmes elsewhere in Africa.
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Title: Arab States compendium of higher education programmes in family & home economics, nutrition, food science and technology & health sciences
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Assistance to students in the search for higher education and provision of institutions with facts and information on similar training programmes elsewhere in the region.
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Title: Asia and Pacific compendium of higher education programmes in family & home economics, nutrition, food science and technology & health sciences
Year: 1992
Language(s): English
Abstract: Assistance to students in the search for higher education and provision of institutions with facts and information on similar training programmes elsewhere in the region.
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Title: Prevention of drug abuse through education and information: an interdisciplinary responsability within the context of human development
Author(s): Lia Cavalcanti
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: A variety of theoretical and technical measures, target audiences (young people, children, women) and criteria for selecting partners in preventive education programmes. Different networks and levels of socialization, i.e. family, school, community and society as a whole, must be integrated within active and participatory pedagogy.
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Title: Drug education: programmes and methodology. An overview of opportunities for drug prevention
Author(s): W.R. Buisman
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Preventive education programmes against drug abuse. Methodology carrying it out in a planned and systematic way. Addressed to drug prevention officers, health educators and policy makers. Its aim is to give an overview of strategies, processes, methodologies, guidelines in drug prevention and drug education, along with examples of programmes.
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Title: Ghana education service. A teacher's guide on the prevention of drug abuse in schools
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Guide designed to help teachers to integrate into the curricula the topics related to drug education. Overview of the drug situation in Ghana. Social and psychological factors affecting drug use by young people. Annex I deals with drug education, life skills and positive prevention. Annex II contains some short stories about the effects of drug abuse.
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Title: Environmental education: module for pre-service training of social science teachers and supervisors for secondary schools
Year: 1985
Language(s): Arabic, English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Main objectives: to foster the acquisition and transfer of knowledge, skills and affective attributes concerning the environment and its problems. To develop competence in the teaching and supervision of the environmental dimension of science in secondary schools.
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Title: Balance of "lifekind" (The): an introduction to the human environment
Year: 1986
Language(s): Arabic, English
Abstract: This modular unit provides a global perspective to which the secondary teachers may relate all other environmental studies. It deals with principal concepts such as: human environment, global environment systems, (biosphere), ecosystems, human systems, energy, food, agriculture, evolution (adaptation), culture, population, community, interactions, and values.
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Title: Problem-solving approach to environmental education (A)
Year: 1985
Language(s): Arabic, English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Information and conceptual tools to foster the development of an interdisciplinary pedagogy geared to the solution of environmental problems. Environmental education and information, simulation games, project design and management.
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Title: Strategies for the training of teachers in environmental education
Year: 1987
Language(s): English
Abstract: Aimed at persons and institutions interested in developing strategies for incorporating both environmental education and teaching methods into programmes of pre-service and in-service teacher training.
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Title: Prototype environmental education curriculum for the middle school (A). A discussion guide for UNESCO training seminars on environmental education
Year: 1989
Language(s): Arabic, English
Abstract: Presentation of subjects related to the development and evaluation of the environmental education curriculum. Characteristics of student behaviour, methods and resources appropriate for each learning level. Role of educational planners in incorporating environmental curriculum in schools
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Title: Environmental education approach to the training of middle level teachers (An): a prototype programme
Year: 1990
Language(s): English
Abstract: Guidelines and design for the development of a middle school level teachers specialisation in the content and methods of environmental education. Examples of activities and models for courses.
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Title: Educational module on conservation and management of natural resources
Year: 1983
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Offers primary and secondary teachers some vital concepts on the management of natural resources. Educational activities and guides in teaching of these environmental issues.
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Title: School health education to prevent AIDS and STD
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: This resource package has been compiled to assist curriculum planners to design HIV/AIDS/STD education programme for their own school systems, for students aged between 12 and 16. The programme presented in this package is based on participatory methods.
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Title: Impact of HIV/AIDS on education (The). A review of literature and experience
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: AIDS is more than merely a health problem. In the absence of vaccines, treatments and cures, education is the only way to inhibit transmission of HIV. How the education system responds to HIV. Implications of its impact on training, research and donor programming.
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Title: UNESCO Asian regional planning seminar on AIDS and education within the school system
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: The first of a series of regional planning seminars intended for high-level representatives of Ministries of Education and Ministries of Health as well as representatives of non-governmental organizations (New Delhi, January 1994). This report focuses on the role of school-based education in preventing HIV infection among young people.
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Title: Innovative methods in the associated schools project
Author(s): Lise Tourtet
Year: 1988
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: UNESCO launched the Associated Schools Project in 1953: innovations, experimental and practical activities in order to achieve with pupils aged between 11 and 18 the development of individual moral values, love of peace, social awareness, creativity and respect for the environment. 2,200 associated schools in almost 100 Member States of UNESCO.
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Title: World of learning (A). Practical manual
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Overview of how to set goals for ensuring an impact of ASP activities in national educational systems. Proven strategies for increasing the multiplier effect starting at the school and moving to the regional, national and international levels.
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Title: Tolerance: the threshold of peace
Year: 1994
Language(s): English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: Study manual to educate for tolerance. Examples of various programmes of education for tolerance from all world regions. Can be used by classroom teachers, teacher educators, community leaders, parents, youth and social workers.
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Title: Sense of belonging (A)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French, Russian, Spanish
Abstract: Guidelines and principles for the development of formal and non-formal education that promote the importance of values as a means of fostering humanistic and international understanding. For curriculum developers and syllabus writers, national commissions and agencies concerned with educational development, school administrators, teachers, authors and publishers of educational resources.
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Title: International practical guide on the implementation of the recommendation concerning education for international understanding, co-operation and peace and education relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms
Author(s): Brigitte Reich and Valeri Pivovarov (Edited by)
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Guide based on five national guides and six regional studies conducted in 1987 and 1988 (Algeria, Brazil, Colombia, France, Germany, Germany DR, India, Japan, Kuwait, Niger, and Soviet Union). Covers the whole content of the 1974 Recommendation and aims at providing support to teachers and educational administrators with regard to various aspects of international education.
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Title: International conference on education, 44th session
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Summary of the plenary discussions: towards a culture of peace, human rights and democracy through Education for All. Educating for mutual understanding and tolerance. Education for the Twenty-First century. Declaration, Draft Integrated-Framework of Action and Resolution.
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Title: Guidelines for curriculum and textbook development in international education
Year: 1995
Language(s): Trilingual: English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Most important elements of international education and the criteria for their evaluation for inclusion in curricula and textbooks on all subjects at all levels and forms of education. The Guidelines will be widely distributed to the textbook authors, publishers and teachers.
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Title: Convention on the rights of the child (The)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: UNESCO's contribution in favour of the Convention on the Rights of the Child consists in promotion of the Convention in schools and universities, in implementation of the standard-setting instruments relative to the rights of the child, in co-operation with the Committee on the Rights of the Child, in publications and researches.
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Title: Educación en derechos humanos. Texto autoformativo
Year: 1994
Language(s): Spanish
Abstract: Useful and innovative teaching instrument for the development of education on human rights in the classroom. Human rights in primary and secondary education, methodological guidances and related principles to the teaching of human rights.
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Title: Convention against discrimination in education
Year: 1981
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Formulation, development and application of national policies to promote equal education treatment. UNESCO setting instrument.
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Title: Recommendation against discrimination in education
Year: 1981
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: In order to eliminate and prevent discrimination within the meaning of this Recommendation, UNESCO Member States should: formulate, develop and apply a national policy which will tend to promote equality of opportunities and of treatment in the matter of education and in particular to provide training for the teaching profession without discrimination.
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Title: Seeds for peace: the role of pre-school education in international understanding and education for peace
Year: 1985
Language(s): English, French (Microfiche in Spanish)
Abstract: Education for peace cannot take the form of "lessons", it cannot be equated with putting across ideas or knowledge. It has to take place in the formation of the child's character and his outlook. From earliest childhood, young people's creativity must be encouraged in a context of social activity. Children thereby find ways of solving conflicts by means other than submission or rebellion.
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Title: Standardization of national languages
Author(s): U. von Gleich and E. Wolff
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Exchange of experiences in the standardization of national languages in different socio-cultural contexts. Examples of strategies and results of such experiences in Africa, Latin America and Europe.
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Title: Apprentissage de la langue maternelle écrite : étude sur des populations "les moins favorisées dans une approche interdisciplinaire"
Author(s): Christian Meyer
Year: 1985
Language(s): French
Abstract: Interdisciplinary study aimed to readers belonging to various fields and backgrounds. The least developed endogenous populations acquire reading skills not in their language but in some others. Any written language represents for them a foreign language. It is therefore necessary to adapt the literacy teaching methods to the visual and traditional systems of the targeted populations.
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Title: International understanding through foreign language teaching
Author(s): Ingrid Classen-Bauer
Year: 1989
Language(s): English
Abstract: Guidance for foreign language teachers and their role in the education for the international understanding. A wide variety of topics and activities which may assist teachers. The teaching of foreign languages improves the student knowledge, oral communication among individuals and groups belonging to different cultures.
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Title: Work of justice and progress (A). The story of the UNESCO/ILO 1966 recommendation concerning the status of teachers
Year: 1991
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Review of the 1966 Recommendation about the situation of the teaching profession. Definitions, guiding principles concerning teaching objectives and educational policy, the training of teachers, employment and careers, rights and duties.
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Title: Innovations and initiatives in teacher education in Asia and the Pacific region
Year: 1990
Language(s): English
Abstract: New initiatives and innovations in teacher education. Broad educational context within which innovations and reforms in teacher education need to be assessed. Short summaries of the detailed case studies. A detailed bibliography of research and related literature published since 1980.
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Title: Innovations and initiatives in teacher education in Asia and the Pacific region
Year: 1990
Language(s): English
Abstract: Detailed studies concerning teachers training in fifteen countries in Asia and the Pacific. History of the teachers training, recent evolutions and current projects for the development of study programmes.
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Title: Developing a database for teacher management
Author(s): Ian Halliday and Joe Hogan
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Relevant policies, strategies and instruments for addressing the major problems of teacher deployment and utilization. Management systems used in the posting, transfer, promotion and utilization of teachers. Appropriate procedures for establishing and maintaining a database for teacher management.
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Title: Information technologies in teacher education. Issues and experiences for countries in transition
Author(s): Betty Collins et al. (Edited by)
Year: 1995
Language(s): English
Abstract: Discover and develop bases for further partnerships between Western, Eastern and Central European specialists in teacher education. Help and advise policy-makers at the national level at reorganizing or developing new programmes for teacher education on communication and information technologies. Prepare for the second UNESCO International Congress on Education and Informatics to be held in Moscow in July 1996.
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Title: APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: This first volume gives a general overview of continuing education and describes the scope and development of Training Materials for Literacy Personnel. This volume also comments on the types of continuing education activities appropriate for the present stage of development of the Asia and the Pacific Region and provides some broad guidelines for their design and implementation.
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Title: APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: The second volume deals with post-literacy programmes within the context of continuing education. Guidelines are provided for the production of learning materials, for establishing an infrastructure for implementation and delivery, for training, monitoring and evaluating post-literacy programmes.
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Title: APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Guidelines for the production of learning materials, training personnel and evaluating equivalency programmes. Discussion of the special problems associated with equivalency, accreditation and certification. Contribution of equivalency programmes to promoting lifelong education.
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Title: APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: The meaning of the term "quality of life": level of well-being of the society and the degree of satisfaction of human needs. Indicators of quality of life are identified and discussed. Guidelines are provided for the production of learning materials, the training of personnel and the evaluation of quality of life improvement programmes.
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Title: APPEAL training materials for continuing education personnel (ATLP-CE)
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Description of the Income-Generating Programme and its application at different levels of socio-economic communities. Components of IGPs include occupational and entrepreneurial skills in general education.
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Title: Experts meeting on teacher training and new contents in teacher training curricula
Year: 1991
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: The follow-up to the inter-regional seminar organized by UNESCO in Brasilia (November 1987) on implications for teacher education of incorporating new contents into curricula. Innovative experiments undertaken in the European region.
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Title: Linking formal and non-formal education. Implications for teacher training
Author(s): Ali Hamadache
Year: 1993
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Integrated approach, devised and successfully experimented by UNESCO in the 1980s. It represents one of UNESCO's most significant contributions, in terms of theory and practice, to the field of teacher education. Intended to educational policy-makers at national level, to educational planners and heads of national institutions for initial and/or in-service teacher education.
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Title: Seminar on distance education
Year: 1990
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Development of distance education in Africa depends on three factors: information and research, the training of specialists, and the production or acquisition of didactic materials.
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Title: Educación a distancia y la función tutorial (La)
Year: 1993
Language(s): Spanish
Abstract: Self-instruction manual on distance education. Its historical development, principles, characteristics, objectives, components, possibilities and limits. Intended for tutors, advisers and coordinators to improve their training and to enable them to provide a better quality of education.
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Title: Distance education in Asia and the Pacific: country papers
Author(s): National Institute of Multimedia Education, Japan
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Information on distance education in higher educational institutions. Resources, design of innovative programmes and experimentation in the uses of advanced technologies. The first part contains case studies outlining the growth and environment of distance education. The second part presents a compilation of the distance education institutions in the region.
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Title: Distance education in Asia and the Pacific: country papers
Author(s): National Institute of Multimedia Education, Japan
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Information on distance education in higher educational institutions. Resources, design of innovative programmes and experimentation in the uses of advanced technologies. The first part contains case studies outlining the growth and environment of distance education. The second part presents a compilation of the distance education institutions in the region.
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Title: Distance education in Asia and the Pacific: country papers
Author(s): National Institute of Multimedia Education, Japan
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Information on distance education in higher educational institutions. Resources, design of innovative programmes and experimentation in the uses of advanced technologies. The first part contains case studies outlining the growth and environment of distance education. The second part presents a compilation of the distance education institutions in the region.
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Title: Modular curriculum in computer science (A)
Year: 1994
Language(s): English
Abstract: Revised version of a guide on computer science, edited in 1984. Overall structure and presentation of computer science including the latest developments that can be used to build curricula.
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Title: EFA monitoring and follow-up information systems
Year: 1993
Language(s): English
Abstract: Problems and difficulties of assessing EFA (Education for All) policies and strategies. Case studies of the EFA planning and monitoring. Some countries have reached a fair level of assessment of their EFA policies. Other countries have increasing needs in technical assistance in this regard.
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Title: Guide to planning and administering government school textbook projects with special emphasis on cost reduction factors (A)
Author(s): Douglas Pearce
Year: 1988
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: Guide on the present problems of government textbook schemes. Needs, difficulties and solutions to attain better quality production and cost reduction.
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Title: Elaboration of school textbooks (The). Methodological guide
Author(s): Roger Seguin
Year: 1989
Language(s): English, French
Abstract: General methodological approach which could guide authors and teachers who wish to take on the work of textbook elaboration, and the educational authorities who are responsible for the promotion and the quality of books used in the teaching and learning process.
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Title: Protection of educational buildings against earthquakes
Author(s): A.S. Arya
Year: 1987
Language(s): English
Abstract: A guide to the construction of earthquake resistant educational buildings. Construction techniques used for school buildings, student hostels and teachers' houses built of traditional materials - brick, stone masonry, wood and adobe. Stress on how materials normally classified as "unsuitable" or "slightly suitable" can be made "moderately suitable".
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Title: UNESCO's educational buildings and furniture programme
Year: 1989
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: First issue of a biannual newsletter devoted to UNESCO's educational buildings and furniture programme. Its presentation and main activities with a recent example from each region.
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Title: Building basic education
Year: 1992
Language(s): English, French, Spanish
Abstract: Village basic educational centres (VBEC) established in the light of Education for All in various regions. Educational buildings for primary and secondary education and educational furniture design. An overview of activities in the field of educational architecture.
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Title: Strengthening educational research in developing countries
Author(s): Gary Miron and Karen Sorensen (Edited by)
Year: 1991
Language(s): English
Abstract: Report of the seminar on the ways and means of strengthening research capacity in developing countries (Stockholm, 1991). Update of educational research in Sub-Saharan Africa, China and Latin America and Caribbean.
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