UNESCO's action in the field of inclusive
education has been set explicitly within the 'inclusive education'
framework adopted at the Salamanca Conference
"... Schools should accommodate all
children regardless of their physical, intellectual, emotional,
social, linguistic or other conditions."
(Article 3, Salamanca Framework for Action)
with this inclusive orientation are the most effective means
of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming
communities, building and inclusive society and achieving
education for all; moreover, they provide an effective education
to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and
ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education
system." (Article 2, Salamanca
This framework stems from the messages of
the Jomtien World Declaration on Education for All (1990)
and was reaffirmed in the Dakar Framework for Action (2000):
In order to attract and retain children from marginalized
and excluded groups, education systems should respond flexibly…
Education systems must be inclusive, actively seeking out
children who are not enrolled, and responding flexibly to
the circumstances and needs of all learners…” (Education for All: Meeting our Collective Commitments.
Expanded Commentary on the Dakar Framework for
Action, Para 33)
Concurrently 'inclusive education' is a transverse
issue which cuts across all education initiatives - from early childhood education to
vocational education, adult education, teacher education
and curriculum development - as well as in spheres related
culture and social development.
Main Lines of Action