Information on GATS - Links to basic information on
the GATS and GATS commitments by country.
and Higher Education - Links to higher education
associations discussions on key controversies surrounding
the inclusion of higher education in the GATS negotiations.
GATS and Education
- Links to discussions on the inclusion of education in
the GATS negotiations.
note that these links aim to provide an overview of the key
existing materials on this subject, and are not exhaustive.
Information on GATS
Trade Organization (WTO)
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization
dealing with the rules of trade between nations. The GATS
is being negotiated under the auspices of the WTO. The WTO
website provides links to basic documents concerning the GATS
It also provides some background to discussions on GATS.
European Union 'GATS Info-Point'
The GATS Info - Point' is developed by the European Commission
Directorate General for Trade. This site has clear basic information
on GATS and an user-friendly Market Access Database on GATS
and Higher Education
Declaration on Higher Education and the General Agreement
on Trade in Services
This Joint Declaration, signed in September 2001, calls
for the respective countries of the associations not make
commitments in Higher Education Services or in the related
categories of adult education and other education services
in the context of the GATS The Joint Declaration was signed
by AUCC, CHEA
has also endorsed the Joint Declaration.
Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC)
AUCC represents 93 Canadian public and private not-for-profit
universities and university colleges. AUCC is one of the signatories
of the Joint
Declaration on Higher Education and the GATS.
Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA)
The Council for Higher Education Accreditation is a private,
non-profit national organization that coordinates accreditation
activity in the United States. CHEA represents more than 3000
colleges and universities and 60 national, regional and specialized
accreditors. CHEA is one of the signatories of the Joint
Declaration on Higher Education and the GATS.
University Association (EUA)
The EUA, as the representative organization of the European
universities and the national rectors' conferences, is a main
voice of the higher education community in Europe. EUA was
one of the signatories of the Joint Declaration
on Higher Education and the GATS.
Activities Related to GATS
EUA background to the Joint Declaration on Higher Education
and the GATS signed by the Association of Universities
and Colleges of Canada (AUCC), the American Council on
Education (ACE), the European University Association (EUA),
and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).
Bologna Process and GATS Negotiations
EUA memo on the Bologna Process and the GATS negotiations,
10 June 2002, sent to all national Rectors' Conferences.
'Students and universities: An academic community on the
Shared vision of EUA and the National Unions of Students
in Europe (ESIB) for the future of higher education in
Europe. This declaration includes a section on Europe
and the Globalisation process.
Association of Universities (IAU)
IAU brings together institutions and organizations from some
150 countries for reflection and action on common concerns
and collaborates with various international, regional and
national bodies active in higher education. IAU's Administrative
Board endorsed the Joint Declaration on Higher
Education and the GATS in November 2001, at its 64th Meeting.
Observatory on Borderless Education
The Observatory was established by the member institutions
of the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) and
Universities UK to keep abreast on developments in borderless
education. Borderless education refers to developments outside
the traditional borders of higher education (e.g. elearning,
and developing markets). The Observatory provides reports
on major issues such as GATS and Higher Education. From July
2002, Observatory services will be subject to subscription
in Higher Education Services : the Implications of GATS
This report by Dr Jane Knight provides a concise overview
of GATS and how it effects trade in higher education.
This report is provided here, courtesy of the Observatory
on Borderless Higher Education. Further resources and
information relating to developments in borderless higher
education are available on the Observatory's website.
Public Good in the Higher Education Market
This report by Frank Newman and Lara K. Couturier discusses
the effect of market forces in the field of higher education.
COLUMBUS was created in 1987 as a co-operation programme
between European and Latin American higher education institutions.
Its main goals are to promote institutional development and
multilateral co-operation in order to help universities to
better respond to the challenges posed by scarce resources,
demands for diversification, and internationalisation.
National Union of students in Europe (ESIB)
ESIB is the umbrella organization of 47 national unions
of students from 35 countries and through these members represent
over 10 million students. The aim of ESIB is to represent
and promote the educational, social, economic and cultural
interests of students at a European level towards all relevant
bodies and in particular the European Union, Council of Europe
Very thorough section containing the ESIB statement on
commodification, links to official WTO documents, as well
as ESIB documents and links to views from other organizations
The European Student Convention (Brussels 16-18 November
2001) brought together 150 European student representatives
from 37 countries. The Convention discussed the social dimension
of the European Higher Education Area. A workshop on the Commodification
of Education was held during this Convention.
of Education - Are Students Customers?
Section 6 of the 'Reader' prepared for participants of
this Convention examines the social problems and rights
of students in a market-oriented view of education. Abode
Acrobat is necessary to downloaded this file.
Conference on the Global Education Market
This website provides links to the proceedings of the
Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in
Higher Education (NUFFIC) 50th anniversary conference on 'Global
Education Market: Shifting Roles, Changing Rules' held in
The paper examines the impact of globalization on the
content, quality, accessibility and affordability of higher
to background articles for the NUFFIC issues paper.
Links to papers such as :'The GATS Need not be a Disaster'
(Ansink); 'The Global Higher Education Market. Not as
Simple as a Tiled Roof' (van Dalen); GATS undermining
public services worldwide' (Corporate Europe Observer)
'Trade in Education Services Emerging Issues. OECD Working
Education International is a world-wide trade union organization
of education personnel, whose 25 million members represent
all sectors of education from pre-school to university. It
is made up of 311 national trade unions and associations in
159 countries and territories.
EI is concerned that proposals for a significant increase
in the scope of, and degree of, liberalization of trade,
might cover education services. EI's central objective
is to have education excluded from the scope of the General
Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). EI information
and support material from EI.
WTO and the Millennium Round: What is at stake for Public
This EI/Public Services International (PSI) publication
voices common concerns for workers in education and the
Policies - Trade on Education Services
Key points on Education International policies concerning
trade in educational services.
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
The OECD groups 30 member countries sharing a commitment to
democratic government and the market economy. It also has
an active relationships with some 70 other countries, NGOs
and civil society. Best known for its publications and its
statistics, its work covers economic and social issues from
macroeconomics, to trade, education, development and science
Forum on Trade in Educational Services
Proceedings of the OECD Forum on Trade in Educational
Services of 23-24 May 2002. This page includes links to
conference documents on this topic. This page also has
links to related OECD documents including the OECD Working
Paper - Trade in Educational Services: Trends and Emerging
National Committee for International Trade in Education (NCITE)
NCITE advises the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
(USTR) on the upcoming round of World Trade Organization (WTO)
negotiations related to the General Agreement on Trade in
Services (GATS), as mandated by the Uruguay Round.
Report outlining the barriers to education experienced
by US providers. The Centre for Quality Assurance in International
Education submitted this report to the Office of the US
Trade Representative (USTR) in response to the 14 April
1999 Federal Register notice requesting public comment
on negotiations on Market Access and Other Issues in the
The World Bank Group is one of the world's largest sources
of development assistance. In Fiscal Year 2001, the institution
provided more than US$17 billion in loans to its client countries.
It works in more than 100 developing economies with the primary
focus of helping the poorest people and the poorest countries.
Development Finance 2002
This publication highlights recent trends and prospects
for the global economy, capital flows, and improvements
in policies surrounding aid flows. Discussion includes
the role of education in the flow of capital.
Education Strategy Note
Introduction to the World Bank Tertiary Education Strategy
Note to guide World Bank Investments in Tertiary education.
International Labour Organization (ILO)
The ILO is the UN specialized agency which seeks the
promotion of social justice and internationally recognized
human and labour rights. The ILO formulates international
labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations
setting minimum standards of basic labour rights: freedom
of association, the right to organize, collective bargaining,
abolition of forced labour, equality of opportunity and treatment,
and other standards regulating conditions across the entire
spectrum of work related issues.
Economic Cooperation (APEC)
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established
in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence among Asia-Pacific
economies. Begun as an informal dialogue group, APEC has since
become the primary regional vehicle for promoting open trade
and practical economic cooperation. Its goal is to advance
Asia-Pacific economic dynamism and sense of community.
Education Research Information System(CERIS)
CERIS provides information about Canadian education
and Canadian research on education.
section is prepared in the framework of the Global
Forum on the International Dimensions of Quality Assurance,
Accreditation and the Recognition of Diplomas. It will be
regularly updated. Please send
us your suggestions.
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