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CHART 4

2.3 Secondary Enrolment

2.3.1 Secondary Enrolment by Form and Sex

No great differences are discerned between girls’ and boys’ enrolment (Table 13), until Form 5, in 1995/96 and 1996/97 where boys’ enrolment dropped to 40% for both years. A similar trend was observed at the primary level.

TABLE 13

Secondary Enrolment by Form and Sex

1995 to 1997

 

Form

 

1995

 

1996

 

1997

 

Total

 

Fem

 

Male

 

Total

 

Fem

 

Male

 

Total

 

Fem

 

Male

 

1

 

202

 

100

 

102

 

232

 

121

 

111

 

216

 

122

 

94

 

2

 

168

 

90

 

78

 

201

 

104

 

97

 

230

 

120

 

110

 

3

 

205

 

104

 

101

 

168

 

94

 

74

 

218

 

112

 

106

 

4

 

165

 

86

 

79

 

165

 

86

 

79

 

178

 

93

 

85

 

5

 

157

 

78

 

79

 

101

 

61

 

40

 

194

 

115

 

79

 

Total

 

897

 

458

 

439

 

867

 

466

 

401

 

1036

 

562

 

474

2.4 Compulsory Education

Education is compulsory for the age group 5 to 17 years. As shown in Table 14, compulsory education rates during the years under review are very high, with a 100% coverage for girls.

CHART 5

TABLE 14

Compulsory Education Ratio

1995 & 1996

 

Year

 

Official Age Group Pop.

5 to 17 years

 

School Enrolment

5 - 17 years

 

Compulsory Education Ratio

 

Total

 

Fem.

 

Male

 

Total

 

Fem.

 

Male

 

M/F

 

Fem.

 

Male

 

1995

 

2370

 

1208

 

1162

 

2313

 

1170

 

1143

 

98

 

97

 

98

 

1996

 

2450

 

1242

 

1208

 

2422

 

1241

 

1181

 

99

 

100

 

98

2.5 Curriculum Development Delivery and Evaluation

Review of the curriculum documentation in the three core areas of Language and Reading, Social Studies and Science has been completed. Mathematics is not completed as yet. When this is done, the relationships between Mathematics and the other core subjects particularly Science would be considered and linkages established in the curriculum documentation.

There would be a broadening of the curriculum to include such subjects as Art and Craft Music and Physical Education. Documentation has been initiated but not completed. Other subjects which have been infused into the curriculum are:

. Preventive Education/health and Family Life; and

. Environmental Education.

In considering the special needs in Reading, a Reading Recovery Programme has been introduced.

Secondary

Review of the curriculum documentation at Forms 1 - 3 has been undertaken for Language and Mathematics. There has also been an attempt to infuse Environmental Education into the curricula Home Economics, Geography and other subjects. Proposed for these Forms is the completion of work on the curriculum documentation to reflect the needs of students of all abilities.

There would also be the development of Craft, Design and Technology, and a review of the role of information technology with the aim of formulating a policy as soon as possible.

2.5 Delivery of Curriculum and Teacher Methodology

In order for any subject to be effectively delivered there are a number of essential prerequisites including teachers who are thoroughly prepared and highly motivated, a good teaching environment in the school, an appropriate range of teaching resources and valid and reliable assessment instruments.

Although there is no formal system of monitoring the delivery of the curriculum, it seems likely that, at the primary level at least there is a lack of congruence between the overt requirements of the curriculum documentation and the quality and style of teaching . For example it has been suggested that there is relatively little attempt to provide properly differentiated teaching such that the most able students are challenged and the less able provided with quality support. If students are taught as relatively undifferentiated groups, it is not possible to meet the needs of students of differing abilities. It is recognised that there may be difficulties inherent in a situation in which having primary teachers have to teach for a full 35-period teaching week and with the principal having little or no time to provide professional leadership and guidance. This situation would be corrected through the strengthening of administrative and managerial capability at all levels of the education saytem.

Although over 70% of all primary teachers are trained, there is in place with assistance from DFID and EDF In-Service Teacher Education programmes geared towards :

2.6 Pupil Performance

Tests of Standards were introduced in 1992 for classes 3 5 and 6 in Language and Mathematics, as a diagnosing tool, the outcomes of which, teachers will use to help pupils to enhance their performance. However a perusal of pupils' achievement presented in Table 15, suggests that at the national level pupils' performance has been consistently weak for the years under review.

TABLE 15

Primary Pupil Performance in Language & Mathematics 1992 to 1997

 

 

 

Language

 

Mathematics

 

 

 

% of pupils with 49 & under marks

 

% of pupils with 50 and over marks

 

Class 3

 

Class 5

 

Class 6

 

Class 3

 

Class 5

 

Class 6

 

1992

 

66.17

 

76.3

 

58.5

 

NA

 

NA

 

NA

 

1995

 

60.55

 

69.3

 

35.4

 

NA

 

NA

 

NA

 

1996

 

51.66

 

66.2

 

32.4

 

50

 

73.7

 

57.15

 

1997

 

58.66

 

77.3

 

50

 

53.6

 

74.5

 

84.5

On the whole the impression given is that either minimal attention was given to the corrective aspect of the use of the tests, or that the validity of the tests is questionable, in that pupils were tested in topics which were not taught, or teachers do not know how to teach.

This consistently poor performance in these two core subjects, has grave implications for the country's potential. We are living in an era where people development is paramount to economic and social development, with more and more emphasis being placed on education, a determining factor in the success of a country's productivity and competitiveness. Should this process continue Anguilla will miss those opportunities offered by scientific and technical revolution for accelerating its progress toward cultural social and economical development.

A report giving a detailed analysis of pupil performance is normally sent to schools. There is minimal follow up/through activities for remedial action. Systems are now put in place for more guided supervision in schools, and greater collaboration officers.

The major problems which the pupils face in Language Arts are with composition and creative writing. One explanation which was given for this is the transition from the use of dialect to the use of standard English which is proving to be far from automatic.

We have mentioned earlier our Reading Recovery Programme which is aimed at helping our pupils. We are also considering the mounting of a research project in collaboration with other colleagues in the regions to determine the key causes of the reading problem in the primary schools and the school-based factors which may be manipulated by the policy-makers with a view to improving performance in Reading. Consideration would be given to having the membership of any such research team include persons from the Department of Education, teachers in the primary schools, and experts from the three Campuses of the University of the West Indies. Funding for this project could perhaps be linked to the Education Project which the British Development Division in the Caribbean is to fund for the OECS.

2.7 Gender Education

A review of the Tests of Standards results indicates that the girls are performing better academically even though minimal differences are shown in their participation rates for the period under review. The trend is also observed at the secondary level. In a recent survey done by the Department of Education , it was reported that girls were performing academically better than boys at the CXC examinations across the Caribbean.

The current discussions on Men at Risk and the marginalisation of men echo the observations of teachers on the Development of the Learning Support Unit at ALHCS which carries a high enrolment of boys.

Many studies on this phenomenon have been commissioned. Instead of trying to reinvent the wheel, we would network with agencies to find out what are the outcomes and recommendations posited for amelioration of the situation. In addition awareness raising programmes should be initiated for parents teachers youth leaders partners in education students.

2.8 Adult and Continuing Education

Adult and Continuing Education forms and important plank in the development of the human resources of a nation. It provides opportunities for a wider range of individuals to fulfil their learning needs. Workers who need to upgrade their knowledge and skills or school drop outs who want to continue their general education must find a place. So, too must there be a place for those who have successfully completed the formal Education System, but need to continue to learn, and to adapt to the rapid changes in the workplace and in everyday life which have become features of this information age.

There have been some ongoing activities. For example , a few teachers conduct evening classes at the ALHCS though this does not seem to be organized as an evening institute.

Rather, it seems that individual teachers make their own arrangements with the students. Computer courses seem to be a favourite in these classes and according to one observation.

The Ministry of Education, through the Education Officer, Examinations, is itself facilitating adult learnings by serving as a centre for several overseas examinations. These include many of those set by some of the better known Professional bodies.

These on going programmes, as important as they are, will not by themselves adequately respond to the Government’s vision of education as a life long process.

The Department of Education is cognizant of this fact and has moved to address this problem by appointing a Coordinator for Adult and Continuing Education.

But the coming on board of a new Coordinator will not by itself be sufficient to address all the issues confronting a viable Adult and Continuing Education programme in Anguilla. Firstly, it will be necessary to identify the various groups and their learning needs before suitable programmes can be conceived and developed.

The Government has already noted some groups and the programmes deemed necessary for them. These comprise

The second important issue is that of cost. The question of who pays or how costs are to be apportioned if one is to ensure that the concept of life-long education is made real is being addressed. Well intentioned and indeed necessary programmes will easily flounder without a secure base of funding. All avenues – government, private sector collaboration, students contribution, would be explored.

As reported in the development plan, the services of a Consultant would be obtained to assist the Department of Education in considering all the various issues and formulating a programme for Adult and Continuing Education in Anguilla.

2.9 Use of The Teachers Resource Centre

A survey was conducted among education personnel to determine the extent to which Teachers’ Resource Centre is achieving its objectives. There were 61 respondents consisting of 51 teachers, 4 Principals and 3 Education officers.

An analysis of their responses indicates that they use the Centre frequently (95%), for a variety of reasons:

Borrowing books and other equipment (82%);

Attending workshops (70%);

Photocopying (69%);

Attending meetings (65%).

Some teachers also used the centre to do research and prepare for teaching aids, while a smaller number came there to work in curriculum development groups. There were a few teachers who went for audio and video taping recording. Those using the Centre felt it had assisted them in the delivery of the curriculum by,

making teaching resources more easily available; and

facilitating curriculum related activities.

In fact the Centre provided the facilities to explore and use various parts of the curriculum for effective delivery.

Teachers also found that the Centre provided invaluable information on teaching techniques and classroom management particularly in relation to the techniques of different subjects and a variety of ways in which a lesson can be approached.

The Centre is the driving force for curriculum development as well as for the professional development of teachers in Anguilla. it provides an environment where teachers can truly come to learn more about their profession and in the process their own professional growth.

The outcomes of this survey, suggest that the Centre in a variety of activities helped teachers to enhance their delivery of instruction. It seems however that there is not a spill-over to the classroom situation as noted earlier in pupil performance at achievement tests. One observation is that there is not enough collaboration among the three main Education Officers responsible for testing, supervising primary education and developing curriculum. There is a tendency to work separately consequently the full benefits do not reach the pupil.. A concerted effort is being made to institutionalise collaborative efforts for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating curriculum delivery.

2.10 Library Services

The Government of Anguilla has itself recognized that physical accessibility is no guarantee for participation in the learning process. There is also a need for access to suitable reference materials and texts as well as non print and electronic media which are absent from many homes .

In this regard the Anguillan Library Service which shares a building with the Resource Centre has been viewed as an important aspect of providing appropriate resources to enhance the quality of education. Already it has been perceived to make a great impact on the island..

Registered users in 1996 numbered 3,000 which was well over one third of the population and the number has grown since. Students, particularly from the nearby ALHCS make frequent use of the library’s services. They were quite noticeable on the premises and the librarian indicated that sometimes 100 of them would be in different locations of the library at one time.

The Anguilla Library Service lists the following five (5) areas of operation

The National Library of Anguilla;

Public library service (home reading, children’s services and reference library function);

Information services to Government, business and the professions;

Community outreach services to support the work and leisure activities of the people of

The National Library also has responsibility to develop the nation archives and a national museum service. One of the more popular services offered to the public was the use of the computer with access to the Internet and e-mail services.

There are three computers for use by the public and a small service charge applies for use of these services. It should be mentioned also, that the Internet and E- mail services are possible through a one year special arrangement with the local telephone provider.

2.11 Anguilla School Library Services

Most schools have resource rooms and school libraries are being developed in three primary schools in conjunction with these resource rooms. Each of the primary schools has a range of a/v equipment including TV/VCR, radio, audio cassette player, computers with access to internet services, and photocopiers. These facilities are contributions from partners in education and gifts as a result of participation in competitions. The School Librarian liaises with schools and provides guidance and assistance.

2.12 Expenditure on Education

Expenditure on education is the responsibility of the Government. Subsidies are given to the ten private pre-primary and one primary schools, on the basis of their enrolment. The national budget does not differentiate between primary and secondary costs. Consequently expenditure is presented for education as a whole.

Noteworthy however are the linkages formed with parents and the community wher small projects are financed through the direct intervention of individual schools. Mention has already been made of the enhancing of school resource centres through contributions made by Cable and Wireless.

2.12.1 Expenditure on Education (including Training), as a Percentage of National Expenditure

An analysis of the data in Table 16 will show that whereas overall expenditure on education has decreased by 1.2% from 1994 to 1997, recurrent expenditure has increased by 3 %. The 1999 budgeted expenditure (not shown here ) shows an enormous increase in emoluments as a result of the public service reform.

TABLE 16

Expenditure on Education & Training as a Percentage of National Expenditure

1994 - 1997

 

Year

 

Total Nat. Expenditure

 

Expenditure on Education

+ Training EC $ m

 

Capital Expenditure Local & Extternal

 

Recurrent Expenditure

 

 

Total Expenditure

 

% of Total Expenditure

 

Tot Capital

Expenditure

 

Expenditure on

Education

 

% of Total Expenditure

 

Total Rec.

Expend.

 

Expend. on Education

 

% of Total Expenditure

 

1994

 

41 984

 

7 034

 

16.8

 

2 250

 

Nil

 

Nil

 

41 984

 

7 034

 

16.8

 

1995

 

65 432

 

9 270

 

14.2

 

20 893

 

2 090

 

10.0

 

44 539

 

7 180

 

16.1

 

1996

 

70 228

 

10 778

 

15.3

 

24 785

 

2 650

 

10.7

 

45 435

 

8 128

 

17.9

 

1997

 

77 570

 

12 114

 

15.6

 

27 275

 

2 150

 

7.9

 

50 295

 

9 964

 

19.8

2.12.2 Expenditure on Education as a Percentage of GDP

Presented in Table 17 are the small incremental increases from 1994 to 1996.

TABLE 17

Expenditure on Education as a Percentage of GDP

 

Year

 

Government Expenditure as a Percentage on GDP

 

Gross Domestic Product

EC $ ‘000

 

 

Expenditure on Education

& Training EC $ ‘000

 

Expenditure on Education

as a % of GDP

 

1994

 

200 200

 

7 034

 

3.5

 

1995

 

202.5

 

9 275

 

4.4

 

1996

 

213.7

 

10 778

 

5.1

2.12.3 Government Expenditure on Personnel Emolument and Developmental Programmes

Government has taken cognisance of the fact that the majority of education recurrent expenditure is expended on personnel emoluments as compared to expenditure on developmental programmes and activities, which include school supplies, curriculum resource materials and training, and is working towards gradually reversing the trend as shown in Tables 18 and 19 and Chart 6.

TABLE 18

Government Expenditure on Personnel Emoluments as a Percentage of Education Recurrent (Expenditure on Training is not included)

 

Year*

 

Government Recurrent Expenditure on Education (Training Not Included)

EC $ ‘000

 

Education Personnel Emoluments Inclusive

Wages and Specialist Services

 

Expenditure EC $ ‘000

 

Percentage

 

1994

 

5 884

 

5 268

 

89.5

 

1995

 

6 030

 

5 386

 

89.3

 

1996

 

6 928

 

6 093

 

87.9

 

1997

 

7 865

 

6 904

 

87.8

 

TABLE 19

Expenditure on Developmental Programmes and Activities as a % of Recurrent Expenditure on Education

 

Year*

 

Government Recurrent Expenditure on Education Training Not Included

 

Expenditure on Developmental Activities

- Supplies, Subscriptions/Subventions, Internal Training

 

Expenditure EC$ ‘000

 

Percentage

 

1994

 

5 884

 

450

 

7.6

 

1995

 

6 030

 

450

 

7.5

 

1996

 

6 928

 

564

 

8.1

 

1997

 

7 865

 

645

 

8.2

* Actual Expenditure Source Government Annual Budget

Chart 6

In concluding this section on expenditure, it should be noted that the true costs for training programmes and work shops conducted with teachers during the summer holidays with assistance from funding agencies are not reflected in the Tables. Only Government’s contributions are recorded.

Human development programmes funded by external agencies through grants include:

A perusal of the education development plan described in Part 111 will indicate the extent to which assistance is given/sought for future developmental programmes .


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