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Methodology followed in drawing up tthe national report

  1. A committee was nominated in the Ministry of Education to draw up the national report on "Education for All ": Assessment for the year 2000 . In this perspective , the committee held many meetings with the concerned departments in the Ministry : the primary education department, the preparatory and secondary education department, adult education department, private education department, curricula department, training department , educational research and development center, information and documentation center (Education statistics section )
  2. A sub- task force emerged from the committee was formed. It designed to draw up the preliminary plan, in order to elaborate the report and define its content. The objective was to draw up the sub-plans, with the view to establish reports on each of the six target dimensions of "Education for All", by adopting the technical guidelines and defining the parties involved in preparing the report, each according to its competence field.
  3. Competent departments in the Ministry were changed to draw up the report , each according to its specialization field. Notes were addressed to the government competent parties, in order to structure this report , as follows :
The six target dimensions Parties who contributed to the report by dimension
1- Taking care of and developing early Childhood
  1. Ministry of Education
  2. Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
  3. Ministry of Health
  4. Public institution for Youth and Sports
2- Primary Education
  1. Ministry of Education
3- Schooling and deliverables
  1. Ministry of Education
4- Adult literacy training
  1. Ministry of Education
5- Basic skills training
  1. Ministry of Education
  2. Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
  3. Ministry of Health
6- Education for a better life
  1. Ministry of Education
  2. Ministry of the Council of Ministers Affairs and Information
  1. Review the documents, reports and studies issued in the period ranging from 1990 to 1999 A.D. on the present report’s object, in order to draw up the national report and assess "Education for All " in the State of Bahrain according to the proposed scheme.

In the State of Bahrain, education is not obligatory, but all school age children attend, willingly, either public or private schools; and those with severe handicaps attend special institutions. Education at public schools, on all its levels, is given separately to females and males; therefore there are schools for boys and others for girls, at which pupils, administrative and teaching staff are of same gender. Moreover there is a number of primary schools for boys, where administrative and educational tasks are performed by women. . Concerning the private schools, most of them are mixed.

The following is a brief description of different levels and stages of education in the country.

Pre- school education

This stage precedes primary education and is attended by children who have not attained yet the official primary school age. It is divided to two periods as follows:

  1. nursery: for children who are less than 3 years old
  2. kindergarten: for children whose age-grade ranges between 3 and 5 years.

Education, at this stage doesn’t adopt the formal educational scale, since the private sector is entrusted with its management. However, the Ministry of Education supervises kindergartens which follow the Ministry’s systems and instructions. The Ministry of Labour and social Affairs supervises nurseries

Basic education

Basic education is divided into two stages as follows:

  1. Primary education:

Primary education represents the first steps of the formal educational scale in the country.

It is attended by pupils whose age-grade rages between 6 and 11 years and stretches out on six years. This stage is divided into two modules:

  1. First module:: it includes the first three grades of primary education and adopts the class teacher system by which a single teacher teaches all subjects, except music and spots.
  2. Second module: it includes the higher three classes and adopts the subject system teacher by which each subject is taught by a specialized teacher.

The curriculum of both stages of basic education include compulsory common subjects such as: Islamic education, Arabic language, English language, Sciences and Technology, mathematics, social topics, sports, family education, artistic education, carols and music.

  1. Preparatory education

Preparatory education is considered as the third and last stage of basic education. It is attended by pupils, whose age-grade ranges between 12 and 14 years, and stretches out on three years. To enroll in this stage, passing grade 6 of primary schooling is a must. This stage follows the subject teacher system, by which each subject is taught by a specialized teacher with academic qualifications,

The curricula in this stage include compulsory common subjects such as: Islamic education, Arabic language, English language, sciences and technology, mathematics, social topics, practical fields and sports.

Secondary education

This stage is considered as being complementary to basic education as well as a new level for the pupil since it prepares him to enter universities and high institutes or to, directly, enter the labour market. Secondary education is attended by pupils whose age-grade ranges between 15 and 17 years and stretches out on three years divided into six terms ( three levels). To enroll into the first term of secondary schooling. Obtaining a preparatory education certificate or an equivalent one is a must.

This Stage follows a system of hours which provides a wide variety of educational options, which allows students to make choices that meet their future goals

According to this system, students enjoy the freedom to choose one of the following educational branches: scientific, literature, commercial or industrial (for boys only) or written advertising or textile and clothes (for girls only)

Religions education

Religions education is ensured to boys only by a specialized institute, affiliated to the Ministry of Education. It goes in the same direction of basic and secondary education as part of Public education as to education years number and official entrance age, but it stresses upon the various disciplines of religions and Islamic studies..

Religious education, in the first three grades of primary education, adopts the term teacher system.

Private education

Private schools differ according to educational systems they adopt and parties that govern the educational advisory bodies. Those bodies play a prominent role in defining the private educational track followed by each institution. Private schools in the State of Bahrain are divided into three types as follows:

  1. National private schools: established and financed by physical or legal personalities, from Bahrain or with the cooperation of foreign physical or legal personalities, in order to achieve cultural and educational goals they mainly serve according to national curriculum or to curricula agreed upon with the Ministry of Education. They, mainly serve, the Bahrain pupils. These schools cover different educational levels ranging from kindergarten, primary, preparatory to secondary education. These schools adopt a bilingual system, therefor educational subjects are taught in both Arabic and English languages.
  1. Foreign Private Schools: established and financed by foreign institutions located in the State of Bahrain or with the cooperation of physical or legal personalities from the state of Bahrain in order to achieve educational and cultural goals according to foreign educational curricula and under foreign supervision. These institutions deliver foreign certificates and serve mainly foreign students. These schools include also the different educational levels ranging from kindergartens, primary, preparatory to secondary education.
  2. Special Schools for foreign communities: established and financed by foreign colonies in the State of Bahrain in order to educate their children only.
  3. Informal education

    The Ministry of Education prepares informal educational programs designed for two of the society groups: the illiterates and those who have successively passed the literacy and follow up stage and desire to continue their studies.

    Education, under literacy and adult education program, stretches out on six years divided into three levels; each lasts two years: literacy level, follow up level and capacity building level.

    The Ministry organizes, as well, many programs which fall under life-long, adult education programs; the duration varies from a program to another.

    1.1 "Education for All ": goals and objectives

    In its global concept, Education for all policy, in the state of Bahrain, relies on the constitution of the country. This latter accords a close attention to the development of the Bahrainee society, since its second chapter concerns the society main values.

    It has in fact laid the foundations of justice, freedom, equality, education, security, safety, social solidarity and equal opportunities in all sectors and considers these principles as the social pillars to be guaranteed by the state.

    The right to education, provided for in the Constitution, is one of the most important features of ensuring education for all.

    Article 7 states that " the state shall be responsible for patronizing sciences, literature and arts; encouraging scientific research; providing educational and cultural services to its citizens. Education is compulsory and free of charge on the first stages, as defined and determined by law. The law also draws up the appropriate plan to eradicate illiteracy.

    Constitution also provides for, other forms of childhood youth and adult protection and care. According to article 5, family is the basis of society, its values are religion, ethics and love of the country. Law shall protect its legal entity and strengthen its bonds and principles. It protects in this perspective motherhood, childhood and youth from exploitation and ethical physical and spiritual neglect. The state shall take special care of the youth physical, ethical and moral growth "

    Moreover the State shall guarantee each citizen’s right to health care and work towards protecting on citizens from ignorance, fear and poverty.

    In order to fulfill the constitutional provisions, the different Ministries have strived towards making all educational levels, types and stages available for all. The educational system conduct in Bahrain adopts a policy and goals that reflect the universal declaration of principles on education for all in its six targeted dimensions as follows!

    1.1.1 Early childhood protection and development.

    Many governmental bodies are responsible for offering social and health care services and education to children of different group; This, along with the private sector which takes care of nurseries ( children aged less than 3 years ) and kindergartens ( children aged 3-6-years ). According to the goals and objectives stipulated for in the universal declaration on education for all, the concerned state bodies has taken into consideration as part of the relevant plans and goals broadening the scope of activities related to early childhood protection and development, including family and social measures, especially the measures that are taken to serve the best interest of children with special needs. The State sought, as part of its orientations to achieve this goal, to double by year 200 the number of establishments that offer services to early childhood through establishing centers for children with special needs and urging the private sector to open kindergartens in the different regions of the country in order to enroll the highest percentage possible of children in pre- school to contribute to better prepare them for primary school.

    1.1.2 Basic education.

    The educational policy adopted by the Ministry of Education relies upon two main pillars derived from the country’s constitution’s provisions and spirit: First, the spreading of education in a way that it would be available to all children who are in age to receive it all over the country Second, improving education quality and levels in order to better meet the educated population needs and the country social and economic development requirements.

    The national plan of the state of Bahrain adopted a more comprehensive concept of primary education; it is the basic education (which includes both primary and preparatory education), in order to extend the accessibility scope to basic education and to achieve an enrolment target, not less than 95% by year 2000.

    " Main directives for developing education in the coming stage" document, that was approved by the Council of Ministers in 1996 A.D. defined the State objectives and directives in implementing the Education for All project according to goals and aims emerging from the universal Declaration on Education for all, as follows:

  4. To continue to ensure suitable education opportunities to all citizens, enroll all children in age to receive education and achieve balance among region in building schools to successfully achieve the state policy on providing education for all.
  5. To reduce educational waste rates such as dropping out, failure, school delay and illiteracy sources eradication in order to achieve better educational available resources and possibilities use. This document defined also the procedures that lead to achieve the state goals and directives as follows:
  6. To continue to accept all pupils in the different educational levels, especially in basic education ( primary and preparatory ) and ensure all admission requirements such as teachers equipped premises, and class rooms.
  7. To take the necessary administrative and educational measures to improve schools capacity to keep pupils with difficulties in education, to offer them better social services and to deal with social reasons which bring about educational waste
  8. 1.1.3 Educational acquirement and outcome:

    This dimension’s goals and objectives depend upon the second main pillar on which relies the above mentioned educational policy of the Ministry of Education. It is directed on improving the educational quality and levels, in order to better meet the learners needs and the country’s social and economic development requirements.

    In order to achieve this goal, the Ministry allocated in the " directives to develop education in the coming stage " document a main subject on improving the pupils educational level which aims at:

  9. Improving the pupils educational quantitative and qualitative skills in all educational subjects, especially Arabic language, mathematics, sciences and English language, in such a way that schools graduates performance, in main subjects, equals world perfection levels.
  10. Developing the technical and organizational procedures which lead to achieve a better level of seriousness and firmness in education management and progress, in a way that, allows most pupils to reach the required perfection levels.
  11. Reviewing, constantly, the school curricula and books, while taking into consideration the necessity of improving the ministry expectations, as to pupils, opening horizons for qualitative knowledge and higher intellectual skills that must be acquired by pupils; in the light of international educational developments, the needs of the Bahrainee society and the ambitions resulting from educational outcome, trials, and current programs and books adoption as well as benefiting from world expertise in this sector.
  12. The Ministry endeavored to develop the educational evaluation system in basic education which is applied since 1995/96 A.D. and aims at:

  13. Achieving a qualitative change in the education process through introducing new adjustment methods and tools and considering evaluation as the way to improve teachign and learning.
  14. Assessing education through perfectible learning and formative evaluation system.
  15. Taking care of the brilliant pupils and those with difficulties, in a formal methodological manner, according to certain defined techniques and programs that rely, basically, upon formative evaluation and supplementary competencies knowledge.
  16. 1.1.4 Adult literacy

    Referring to the Constitution of the State of Bahrain, which guarantees the right to education for both youngsters and adults, the Ministry of Education adopted the expression " from the cradle to the grave " as a motto for the educational plan. It set the final objective underscored in the universal declaration on education for all, namely, "ensuring basic education needs to all children, youngsters and adults," as well as considering adult education as parallel to formal education in order to eradicate illiteracy and to help illiterates to attain a minimum level of civilization, as to acquiring and using reading, writing and counting skills in their professional progress and their cultural advancement along with promoting the practice of their citizenship rights and engagement

    The national literacy plan in the country aimed at eliminating illiteracy, as well as preventing all possibilities for its development by the year 2000 (for age-grade 10 years and over) as to both males and females. In the main directives to develop education in the coming stage ", the plan sought, besides literacy, to achieve unity and harmony in developing formal and informal education and adult education and life-long education programs, as well as to improve programs quality and to make them more responsive to the labour market needs.

    1.1.5 Basic skills training

    The State considers the educational process in a way that exceeds schooling. It considers teaching reading and writing skills, under literacy programs, as part of a more comprehensive strategy that aims at providing the learner with a basic education, integrating him into a sustainable educational system as well as at confirming the consolidation principle between education and development. This is why it uses the training programs on basic skills to meet the economic and social needs, including individual’s needs for achieving intellectual progress, renewing their capacities and developing their ability to interact with their society.

    According to the above mentioned, the concerned parties in the State, both, form the public and private sectors set up an objective which meets with the universal declaration on Education for All, namely broadening training programs on basic skills that are needed by youngsters and adults and assessing these programs effectiveness.

    Through this, many training programs on basic skills, with the view of ensuring Education for All, emerged; all of them aimed at:

  17. Developing individual knowledge, and providing people with various skills; in order to face the rapid progress in knowledge and to meet the scientific and technical development and the of the labour market needs as well as the public demands and training needs.
  18. Developing women’s capacities and employing their free time, so that it benefits the woman herself, her family and society.
  19. Changing the female society from consumer to a productive sector, which can rely on itself, integrating it into the productive society sectors, as well as, ensuring opportunities for social coherence.
  20. 1.1.6 Education for a better life

    The State through its competent bodies adopted as part of its objectives the Universal Declaration on Education for All proposal, on ensuring a better life for all by providing individuals and families with information, skills and necessary values for a better life and a sound and sustainable development. These factors are available through media and modern telecommunications as well as sensibilisation of the public, children and adults, so that they would know the role they have to play in social, cultural and educational process of their society; and ensuring new educational methodologies along with the adequate circumstances through giving educational, cultural and intellectual draughts and taking advantage of the new technologies.

    1.2 " Education for All ": strategies and action plans

    The State assumes, mainly through its different bodies, the responsibility for drawing up strategies and action plans in order to achieve education for all, each in its mandate. The Ministry of Education is considered as being the competent party, since the educational policy in Bahrain includes strategic and procedural plans that aim for developing the educational system and overcoming all problems and challenges it faces in spreading and improving education.

    In the early 90s, the Ministry adopted under its program a medium educational plan (1989/90 – 1994/95 A.D. ) which includes the targeted dimensions of Education for All, such as basic education, literacy training and adult education.

    As the implementation of the first quintuple plan of the Ministry reached its end and drawing up a new educational plan began, the Ministry had to review its previous directives and to make the necessary reforms on the whole educational system, As a result, and after full study, the document was issued under the title " Main Directives to develop education in the coming stage " which was approved by the Council of Ministries on 26/5/1996 A.D.

    The Ministry of Education worked on translating into acts these thirteen directives which are basically oriented by executive projects. A number of projects has been drawn up in the frame of the main subjects, such as identity and citizenship; improving the student’s knowledge acquirements level; technical education labour market and development needs; educational management and school management; relation between home, school and society; vocational training and sustainable workers professional development; educational researches; data system development; quantitative expansion; literacy and adult education; private education; cultural affairs and missions; public libraries.

    As a result, the Ministry prepared as second educational plan ( 1995/96 – 2000 /2001 A.D. ) It presented its different sections which were restricted first at three main section pertaining to basic education, secondary education, literacy and adult education, to which all other activities of the Ministry are related.

    The Ministry presented each of these sections in a comprehensive table which includes the quantitative and qualitative tasks, distributes the programs and projects included in the section into sub-fields related to one or more of the Ministry departments and determines the responsibility of each department for implementing these tasks, either autonomously or with the cooperation of other departments.

    Implementation of the plan expectations was followed up through preparing a special form to gather data from the different bodies of the Ministry’s departments in order to assess the achieved progress in each part, as well as the problems and difficulties faced during the implementation process. A comprehensive follow up report, on each school year of every plan section has to be drawn up.

    According to this report, will be taken a number of recommendations, that to adjust some tracks performed by the departments in order to implement the plan’s directives.

    In addition to the comprehensive educational plan, the competent ministries in the state, each in its competency, draws up action plans which aim at achieving the six targeted dimensions of Education for All as follows:

    1.2.1 Early childhood care and development

    Private education institutions, in which are available nurseries and kindergartens, draw up their plans and programs to enroll children in pre- school age according to regulations provided for in the 1998 A.D. law, on private educational and training institutions. The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs monitor these institution plans and progress through the reports they submit to both Ministries

    The ministry of Labour and Social Affairs elaborates its plans and programs to strengthen the social centers role through the expanding social services offered to children, increasing kindergartens’ number and establishing a kindergarten in every social Center. The Ministry carries out a set of programs oriented towards taking care of children of all groups including thoses with special conditions and needs ( orphans, natural children, children belonging to broken families )

    The National Institution for people with disabilities – which is a high national committee with legal personality – participates in drawing up plans and programs which aim at mobilizing, organizing and consolidating official and non- governmental efforts, preventing duplication in offering care and rehabilitation services to people with disabilities, in all disability sectors, and drawing up the general policy for rehabilitating people with disabilities.

    The Ministry of Health provides preventive and health services aiming at taking care of early childhood through a network of basic health care centers.

    The strategies and action plans are inspired by the objectives of Ministry of Health and the world health Organization, in order to achieve health for all target, by year 2000 A.D. Criteria for monitoring progress in this field were set according to the health standards provided for in the Convention for Child Rights and the Universal Declaration for Child Protection, Survival and Development. The State of Bahrain acceded to the Convention, by issuing a royal decree in 1992.

    The Ministry of Health/Chiild Protection Committee, with the cooperation of the World Health Organization set up comprehensive action plans to protect children; including a program plan on physical and moral therapy, a plan on awareness, education and finally; a plan on enhancing national laws related to children protection.

    Public Institution for Youth and Sports plays an active and important role and monitors, discusses, and updates the national plan for childhood, with the cooperation of the relevant parties, through annual reviews. It Follows up the implementation of this plan and treats difficulties that hinder the implementation process. The target group addressed by the Institution’s programs are children whose age-grade rages between 4 to 6 years in pre- school stage till 12 years, through children centers established in Bahrain, in the view of the for establishing children centers which enable them to develop their capacities in a right way, as well as to enter into contact with others and to learn from other children experiences.

    The following are the main components of the early childhood care institution strategy and action plans.

  21. Deciding on creating a national committee for children in which will be represented the Government Ministries and the relevant civil community organizations. This committee will act as a national mechanism to follow up the adoption of the Arab plan and the implementation of the articles of the International Convention on child Rights; to care for early childhood needs in general and achieve coordination and unity among services provided by different parties.
  22. Training officials working with children, especially on moral and social, child and related centers levels.
  23. Analyzing the problems and difficulties which hinder service offering, in order to develop them and ensure sustainable provision, in the right way to guarantee services to children, to meet their needs and to improve their talents and capacities.
  24. 1.2.2 Basic education

    The national plan spreading developing basic education relied on the first educational plan ( 1989/90 – 1990/95 A.D. ), the main directives to develop education in the coming stage ( 1996 ) and the second educational plan (1995/96 – 2000/2001 A.D. )

    Strategies and action plans have to be reviewed by the educational department, which are responsible for following up an monitoring the development strategies and plans implementation. This can be done through making on site visits and studying reports presented by schools on the executed educational work, programs and projects; practices and procedures followed in order to enhance the educational and administrative sides of the school work cycle. These reports are considered as a review on activities and processes conducted by the school in order to achieve the objectives of the school work plan.

    Furthermore, the competent departments the Ministry monitor the progress of basic education programs and plans at private schools which are addressed to pupils of both sexes having 6 to 15 years old.

    The basic education needs of children whose grade-age ranges between 6 and 12 years, who are the make up the target group of formal education at public and private schools, are restricted to acquire: reading, writing, oral expression fluency, mathematics and practical skills in such a way that allows the learner to continue his studies by himself.

    The basic education action plan addresses pupils with special educational needs and aims at integrating them into all education stages ( basic, preparatory and secondary ) in regular classes.

    1.2.3 Educational acquirements and outcome

    The competent departments in the Ministry of Education draw up action plans to improve the children acquirements level, according to the procedures determined by the document "Main directives to develop education in the coming stage "; through carrying out studies and developing school curricula, as well as teaching and learning methodologies.

    1.2.4 Adult literacy

    The national Committee literacy, chaired by the Minister of Education and made up of members representing a number of Ministries and companies, is the main committee in charge of setting literacy strategies and action plans in the country. The state of Bahrain work towards achieving illiteracy eradication among all illiterates, whose grade- age ranges between 10 and 14 years, by the year 2000, providing education free of charge for every individual who desires to enroll and encouraging him, in every possible way. including that civil servant functions depend now on having literacy certificate or obtaining one’s commitment to enroll in a literacy center. The basic education needs of this group are limited to acquire reading, writing, accounting and life skills.

    1.2.5 Basic skills Training

    The Ministry of Education worked on ensuring basic education for youngsters and adults and training them on various skills, especially those related to the individual life. The Ministry sets action plans for training programs addressed to youngsters and adults who enjoy a certain level of education allowing them to enroll into qualitative literacy seminars; such as language, health, educational and vocational sessions.

    These literacy seminars aim at increasing the individual’s knowledge and helping him to acquire some professional skills he may need at work, or in other fields of life. This, along with ensuring a special educational track addressed to the literate women in order to keep the maintain the knowledge they have acquired and transform them into productive potential and setting a vocational training program addressed to the preparatory stage graduates. The Ministry monitors the action plan progress in this field and plan tracks are amended according to training program society needs.

    The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs plays an important role too in setting action plans and programs for training and developing human resources in the country and acquainting them with basic skills so they would become full partners in the economic development process.

    The Ministry of Health inserts, in its plans, training programs on basic skills. These programs include carrying researches and studies to identify the youngsters behavior and needs; training health and education employees on advisory skills addressed to teenagers and youngsters and the way of treating them; ensuring health services to teenagers and youngsters and spreading awareness among youngsters and all members of society.

    1.2.6 Education for a better life

    The Ministry of Education in cooperation with the State competent bodies in the State sets plans and programs which aim at offering educational activities and programs to school pupils for a better life. These programs include awareness-raising through the different media such as radio, television stations and press.

    The Ministry of the Council of Ministers affairs and Information draws up an annual media plan, through the radio and television committee which sees to broadcast among its programs a number of educational and cultural programs addressed to children, women and the general public.

    1.3 "Educational for All ": decision making and management

    Decision making pertaining to basic principles of Education for All policy is carried out by the State high authorities; namely; the competent.ministries and other bodies through special committees. Many advisory committees are responsible for discussing the educational and teaching process different constituent factors and components. Their efforts aim at carrying out the requirements of ensuring education for all, as well as developing this education and improving its level as follows:

    1.3.1 Early childhood care and development

    Many ministries cooperate in the decision making process related to early childhood development and care, each according to its competency.

    The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs is in charge of decisions pertaining to nurseries and care centers for children with disabilities and legal protection of children through specialized committees.

    The Ministry sees to the protection of children and keeping them in a safe environment through the care services provided by the Ministry’s Institutions, so that they can be brought up adequately.

    The Ministry of Education decisions involve kindergartens through an educational committee, chaired by the Minister of Education. Its membership is made up of the Ministry directors. The Ministry monitors, administratively, the civil community kindergartens, delivering the related permits and staff training.

    The Ministry of Health takes decisions related to preventive and health services addressed to early childhood; namely, submitting the child to a comprehensive regular check up, from childhood till he reaches six years, as well as the basic vaccinations against epidemic diseases. The planning committee for the mother and child health presents its plans and programs to the high bodies in the Ministry to take a relevant decision.

    The committee members represent specialists in the various fields of prevention therapy, nutrition and health education, etc. From that committee, emerged seven sub- committees representing both governmental and non- governmental parties; Children mortality Committee, natural feeding committee, family planning committee, Committee for Child protection in Critical Conditions, Women’s Health Committee, Committee on fighting contagious diseases.

    The Ministry of Health is responsible for ensuring permanent on site monitoring, through physicians, nurses, health districts’ agents, physicians supervising maternity and child services in health centers. Target groups are made up of all pre-school children in the country both citizens or residents, to whom are offered the adequate therapeutic services and advanced medical care to every child who needs intensive and advanced care. Besides these services, the Ministry provide, through, the committee concerned with protecting children from mistreatment, advanced services, ensuring thus, in cooperation with other children protection related bodies, physical and moral therapy , as well as, social support.

    The Public Institution for Youth and Sport takes decisions pertaining to children addressed programs and services. Its decisions are translated into different cultural, educational and entertaining activities addressed to pre-school children whose grade-age ranges between 4 and 6 years and to those below age 12 years. The mentioned services are offered through children centers, established in Bahrain in view of the for such centers which allow children to develop their abilities in the right way and help them enter into contact with others, to learn from other children’s experiences. These centers receive children from other institutions; such as psychotherapy institutions, child care centers and diabetic children; and this as a contribution to reduce these children’s endurance and offer them cultural and entertaining services. The Institution monitors also the Science Center for Children and Youth which aims at developing the children’s scientific sense, familiarizing them with scientific innovations, taking care of the, scientifically, talented children and reinforcing their creativity spirit. The Institution participates, in cooperation with the competent authorities, in organizing scientific seminars related to child and family situation.

    1.3.2 Basic Education

    The Educational Committee is the high organism which manages the educational affairs in the State of Bahrain. All the policies it sets and the decisions it implements are closely related to two fundamental pillars of the State general educational policy. This committee is chaired by the Minister of Education and has all the assistant agents and directors as members. It is responsible for performing all tasks related to programs and plans setting in order to implement the State general policy; following up the implementation process; adopting teaching plans,methods; drafting annual budget of the Ministry and the projects of rules and regulations. The decisions issued by the Committee are binding, their follow up and implementation are discussed later on.

    The Basic and preparatory education development committee which was nominated in October 1996 takes the decisions related to main issues as to basic education, its development and spreading. The decision is then submitted to the Educational Committee which take the final decision.

    The Primary and Preparatory Education Committee comprises two members from the Ministry and representatives of the Education College of the University of Bahrain. This committee is in charge of setting the basic education comprehensive perspective and the school system development in each of its modules according to the educational goals of the State of Bahrain and in the light of the national and foreign expertise experience outcome,, reforming the basic education development, deducing the evaluation consequences and benefiting from them in basic education development, defining qualifications and conditions of the development project implementation and monitoring the implementation process. The decision is then submitted to the Educational Committee which takes the final decision.

    The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs takes parts in taking the decisions pertaining to children with disabilities who are in school age, and those who enrolled into special centers, on consultation with the National Institution for People with Disabilities, which is the high authority with a moral personality. It comprises members working in the field of care and rehabilitation, besides representatives of people with disabilities.

    1.3.3 Educational acquirements and outcome

    The issues, pertaining to improving the educational acquirements level, are discussed in the meetings held by the primary and preparatory education developments committee, (aforementioned) schools administrators committee, which includes all the concerned stage schools’ administrators, and the high Committee of school curricula, chaired by the assistant minister to programs and training with the membership of the educational directions administrators and heads of advisory committees for education. This Committee is in charge of proposing the general policy for school curricula development, defining the development plans priorities and implementation follow up. These committees submit their reports to the Ministers Committee, which takes the relevant decisions, after discussing technical and administrative issues, then submits them to the Education Committee for final decision.

    1.3.4 Adult literacy

    The Education Committee takes the decisions pertaining to the programs of the ministry’s adult education centers. As for the national committee for literacy, it takes the decisions related to the programs of the state ministries.

    From this national committee, are derived many committees: the Information Committee, the training Committee, the Financial Committee which takes its decision and submits them to the national committee for literacy.

    This committee is an advisory committee nominated on a ministerial decision, headed by the Minister of Education and includes members of the Ministry of Education and of other official parties. This committee followed up the recent achievements in the field of literacy and adult education and submits propositions that aim at acclerating illiteracy training in Bahrain.

    1.3.5 Basic skills training

    The Ministry of Education takes decisions related to ensuring adult training and rehabilitation programs and vocational training programs at schools by the Education Committee.

    The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs takes decisions on human resources development training programs in the country and providing them with basic skills.

    As for the Ministry of health, it takes decisions related to ensuring basic education and training on life skills which influence youngsters and adults health in schools and outside through organizing seminars, conferences and cultural forums.

    1.3.6 Education for a better life

    Every State competent authority takes decisions that aim at raising people consciousness of issues of common interest or issues that concern the group who follows them through mass media such as press, radio and television.

    The Official Information authorities in the State cooperate in transmitting messages of common interest; such as literacy, medical, educational and cultural awareness campaigns.

    1.4 Education for All: main activities since 1990 A.D.

    Following the Universal Declaration on Education for All which was approved in the poumitraine conference ( March 1990 A.D. ) and to translate the State of Bahrain commitment to carry out the decisions, it had participated in their making process, on spreading and improving education;

    The first meeting on education for All was held December 1-4, 1991 A.D. in Bahrain under the topic " Permanent workshop on basic education for all by 2000". The state of Bahrain participated also in all conferences and meetings organized by various educational, regional, Arab and international organizations.

    On the national level, many conferences and forums on education for all were organized. The Ministry of Education organized annual educational conferences for schools on subjects pertaining in the 90s to Education for all such as developing educational and learning strategies, evaluation system of basic education, educational acquirements among pupils and the four pillars of education in the 21st century.

    The different national and specialized committees held meetings in which they stressed, and still stressing, upon, education for all related issues, increasing access opportunities to different educational and training programs, for all society members in order to achieve economic and social development in the country

    In the 90s, were issued many legislation and regulations on issues pertaining to the six target dimensions of Education for All, along with taking the necessary measures to the educational reform and broadcasting information campaigns which aim at raising the society consciousness of the required role for achieving education for all objectives. the following is a brief presentation of these activities

    1.4.1 Early childhood care and development

    The state gave special attention to early childhood care and development in .the 90s, especially when it validated, in September 1991, the United Nations convention on Child Rights and issued a royal decree (n.6) in 1992, on the approval of the Convention on Child Rights and the Universal Declaration on Child Protection, Survival and Development, by the State of Bahrain, as well as a decision pertaining to the nomination of a national committee on childhood, where are represented the Ministries and childhood-related civil community organizations. These organizations being the national mechanism which ensures the follow up of the Arab plan and the implementation of the provisions embodied in the International Convention on child Rights, as well as fulfilling early childhood requirements in general and achieving coordination and integration among services offered by different parties.

    In the light of the aforementioned, the scope of services and care addressed to children was widened through encouraging private associations and institutions concerned about caring for all groups of children ( normal and with special needs ) to create nurseries, kindergartens and centers for children with special needs and letting these parties obtain financial and moral support from the State.

    Besides the existing associations and centers which were established in the 90s all over the country and look after normal children and children with special needs, many kindergartens and centers addressed to children with special needs were created as follows.

  25. The friendship kindergarten for blind children to the friendship association for blinds which was established in 1990 and receive children in pre-school age..
  26. The kinesitherapeutic kindergarten affiliated to the Bahrainee center of International kinesitherapy which was established in 1994 and is addressed to children with physical disabilities in pre-school age.
  27. Child center for daily care affiliated to the Ministry of labor and Social Affairs which was established by the own efforts of the Rotary club of Selmania in 1993 and is addressed to children with multi handicaps and cerebral palsy, whose age grade ranges between 4 and 12 years.
  28. Center of loyalty affiliated to the Bahrainee association for mental disability which was established in 1994 and is addressed to children with mental disability, whose age grade ranges between 4 and 10 years.
  29. Center of hearing and speech abilities development of the Bahrainee association for childhood development, which was established in 1994 and is addressed to children of different ages ( since the first months and for those who suffer from hearing handicaps )
  30. Hope center for Early childhood care affiliated to the Child and mother care association which was established in 1995 for mentally retarded children whose age-grade ranges between 3 and 6 years.
  31. In order to organize work in the special education institutions which include nurseries and kindergartens, the law on special education institutions was amended by the law –decree (n.25) issued in 1998.

    The Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs implement the regulations provided for by law and pertaining to work progress inside those ministries’ special institutions.

    In order to give the kindergartens an educational role in preparing children for joining primary education, the Ministry of Education nominated a committee in charge of developing a program addressed to kindergartens by the administrative decision n.1231/97 issued on February 10, 1998.

    1.4.2 Basic Education

    The Ministry of Education plays an important role in ensuring basic education for all. It stresses in all its meetings, whether in the those held by the Education committee or by the development and advisory committee, upon the necessity of enrolling all school age children and taking the necessary measures to evaluate education on this stage. The Ministry carries out information campaigns aiming at communicating to society, through the different media, the education projects implemented by the Ministry at schools in order to improve the education process such as the class teacher system in primary education, the evaluation system in basic education and the school system as a main education entity. These projects enjoyed intensive media coverage through organized conferences as well as seminars and workshops held in order to raise the educational bodies’ awareness of these projects and their advantages. the mass media have also been used to communicate the projects goals to the public opinion.

    Among the measures taken by the Ministry aiming at ensuring education for all, the experience of integrating children with special needs into regular classes in 1992/93 was implemented and still is until now. The role of the special education committee, which was nominated in 1986, was thus enhanced through the establishment of sub-committees which look after children with special needs in view of their physical, mental, emotional or behavioral disability.

    Are members of this committee representatives of the civil community and private sectors related to the committee’s work. This committee works on solving this children group related issues, in all public education stages, especially in primary education, during which are discovered all disabilities and problems from which the child suffers and which had not been diagnosed in the family environment.

    The Ministry of Education organizes the educational process through legislation and rules adopted by the decisions it issues. In the 90s many legislation and rules were issued, the most important being the ministerial decree n. 11/96 issued on 30/10.1996, on the nomination of the basic and preparatory education development committee as well as the basic education reform system issued in 1995.

    The Ministry of Education and Social Affairs concentrated its activities in this field by ensuring basic education to children with special needs who are in age of entering schools through the specialized centers, some of which being affiliated to the Ministry, others to voluntary non governmental associations monitored by the Ministry. As we mentioned in the field concerning taking car of and developing early childhood, many centers concerned about caring for Children at the primary stage were established, and every child is enjoys the adequate education according to his case. The new established centers in the 90s which are addressed to the Children whose age-grade ranges between 6 and 12 years are:

  32. The Bank of Bahrain and Koweit rehabilitation center affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs which was established in 1992.
  33. Child center for daily care affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs which was established in 1993
  34. Center of loyalty affiliated to the Bahrainee association for mental disability which was established in 1994
  35. Center of hearing and speech abilities development affiliated to the Bahrainee Association for Childhood development which was established in 1994.
  36. 1.4.3 Educational acquirements and outcome.

    The Ministry of Education is responsible for the process of controlling the level of educational acquirements among pupils in all educational stages in Bahrain, since it receives most of pupils, especially in basic education and which exceeds 90% of the population. Therefore, the Ministry paid close attention to improving the level of educational acquirements among basic education pupils and held many meetings and conferences to this purpose, the most important being the twelfth annual education conference on acquiring education held in December, 1997 in which participated many administrative and education bodies in preparatory schools. Besides, was included in the " main directives to develop education in the coming stage " document adopted in 1996, a special subject on improving the level of acquiring education along with defining the procedures which must be adopted in this field by schools and competent bodies in the Ministry.

    The Ministry granted in the 90s an important interest to the educational researches which assess the level of educational acquirements at the primary stage, especially with regard to basic subjects ( Arabic and mathematics ).

    All primary schools were encouraged to study the level of educational acquirements among their pupils. Many of these schools conducted diagnosis studies of the pupil’s level in the basic subjects, in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching programs and find solutions which will improve the pupil’s level in educational acquirements and basic skills and competencies defined by the Ministry.

    Among the measures taken by the Ministry to evaluate basic education in the primary and preparatory stages, the decision n. 357/94 was issued on December 19, 1994 on basic education evaluation system, followed by the decision n.231/95 issued on September 2,1995 on testing the basic education avaluation system before adopting it, and the decree n.1/96 of January 15, 1996 on the nomination of a committee in charge of studying the education reform system in basic schools.

    1.4.4 Adult literacy

    The National Committee for literacy held its meetings which aim at following up the procedures adopted to the eradication of illiteracy between citizens according to the drawn up plan to this purpose. The Information committee affiliated to the National Committee for literacy carried out wide information campaigns through radios, televisions and daily press. It, also, covers important events such as the Arab day for literacy the international day literacy and inaugurating any new center. The Ministry of Education draws up these programs.

    The Ministry of Education also carries out information campaigns regarding literacy and adults education programs through conferences, masques and human associations as well as through messages sent to all ministries and societies in order to understand illiterates training and work then on initiating morning classes addressed to them in their work places and evening classes addressed to citizens and foreigners. Things are the same for clubs, the Ministry still urges clubs management to reckon l the illiterates living in the regions where the clubs are located, in order to initiate classes in the clubs themselves.

    It also took many legislative measures in this field aiming at reforming it and encouraging the learners to pursue their studies, and a number of decisions were issued for this purpose.

    Among the measures taken to reform education under literacy training programs to absorb resistance and overcome abstinence from literacy training programs, we can list the following:

  37. Developing Education system evaluation in literacy training programs.
  38. Dividing the school year into two terms at the end of which tests are conducted on courses studied during the term.
  39. Developing literacy program and writing books on the subject
  40. Developing teaching and learning methods and drawing up a training plan to all teachers in the literacy training program and in the stage that follows it
  41. Adopting of the old learners honoring system on the Education Day by his Royal Highness
  42. Ensuring kindergartens affiliated to the literacy training centers in order to take care of the student’s children during teaching time and setting ups a program helping them to acquire some skills and trends in the light of their age.
  43. Allocating studying missions in the University of Bahrain addressed to students who have finished their studies in the literacy training centers.

1.4.5 Basic skills training

All governmental departments and local societies work on ensuring training on life skills, addressed to youngsters and adults in and outside schools. All of these entities organize information campaigns to publicize their programs through mass media and encourage people to attend them, and grant certificates to the participants

The Ministry of Education presents for example a vocational training program to students at post preparatory stage along with organizing different evening training programs on basic skills needed by adults of both genders in order to benefit from job opportunities or for self education.The Ministry of Labor and social Affairs organizes also vocational training programs in different work sectors, some on a high level and others pertaining to social development.

1.4.6 Education for a better life

The competent State organs conduct campaigns for sensiblizing the public, in order to ensure a better life. The Radio and Television committee presented in the 90s many educational,family and medical programs.

Its campaigns in cooperation with the Ministry of health stressed upon on issues pertaining to youth such as drug addition and contagious diseases and others.

1.5 Cooperation in education for All

The government organs in the State of Bahrain, represented by the Ministry of Education, are the competent party that ensures basic education services for all. A number of private institutions and non- profit associations participate in ensuring some of those services. They cooperate, in this field, with the government organs, especially in issues concerning early childhood, basic education, literacy training and adult education. Moreover the state enjoys the adequate support of the regional and international organizations in order to ensure education for all. The Gulf States also contribute grant support in the frame of bilateral cooperation. The following are the main cooperation and support aspects according to the main fields of the report.

1.5.1 Early childhood care and development

Care granted to children and parties who grant it can be divided into two categories as follows:

  1. Nurseries and Kindergartens:
  2. The private sector in Bahrain is responsible, to a great extent, for establishing of nurseries for children below age 3 years and kindergartens for children in pre-school stage whose age-grade ranges between 3 and 6 years. These institutions are established by Bahraini or foreign individuals (national or foreigners) or by legal personalities inside private national or foreign schools or national non governmental associations.

    The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs support the role of Kindergartens that fall under its control and works on establishing nurseries in every social center. Technical support is translated by preparing training programs, seminars and insuring workshops for women working in nurseries, upgrade their level and increase their work outcome..

    The Ministry of Education grants, all kinds of support to kindergartens through monitoring these private educational institutions and working on development plans. It contributes also to develop and train kindergartens human resources.

    The Ministry of Education works nowadays, through a committee of specialists in different fields towards drawing up a national program for kindergartens. The UNICEF and the Arab Gulf program to support development UN organizations are the most important organs and non governmental organizations which support the Ministry in this field

    The Ministry of education also establishes kindergartens in women literacy centers, these projects have been supported by the Arab Gulf program to support development UN organizations (UNCFED )

    The Ministry of Information initiated the establishment of the first kindergarten addressed to the children of its women workers.

  3. Care Centers for Early Childhood with special needs

Basic services offered to small children with special needs are submitted to the control of the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs along with the non-profit associations which are strongly supported by the Ministry as a contribution to enhance their role

Care is addressed to children with unknown parents, rphans, and children from broken families who are included in this category by the children care center affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. Is affiliated to the Ministry too the children center for daily care which is addressed to children suffering from multi handicaps. Work in this center began since 1993 by the private efforts of the Rotary club of Selmania.

The care centers addressed to this category and affiliated to the aforementioned voluntary non governmental associations are the hope center for children with disabilities the hearing and speech abilities development center, the friendship center for blind the kinesitherapeutic center and the Hope center for Early Childhood

The Ministry of Education takes care of the blind children through the Bahraini Saoudian Institute for the Blind. It is controlled by establishing a kindergarten for this category of children

Health and preventive services are reserved for the Ministry of Health and mostly, offered through the public sector. The private sector does not play an important role in this field. The Ministry of Health has given special interest to preventive services addressed to mother and child, considering the importance of this community sector. Moreover, international organizations; such as UNICEF world Health Organization (WHO ) United Nations Development Program (UNDP )and many national societies contribute to supporting many projects and programs as well as to ensuring training opportunities and supportive researches.

1.5.2 Basic Education

The public sector schools are the main party that ensures basic education services since they receive no less than 85% of the target group. Whereas other parties are the Private sector schools, the civil community schools and some centers addressed to children with special needs. All of these parties assimilate the remaining percentage of the target Group and are financed by individuals, commercial societies civil community associations and religious institutions.

All of these parties cooperate with the Ministry to implement the spreading plan and follow in this process the same procedures adopted by the Ministry. Some implement programs that meet the needs of a special group of families, but all of them have to teach certain subjects such as arabic and Islamic education for arab and muslim pupils as defined by the Ministry. AS a result, the total percentage of enrollment of the target group did not fall under 95% since the school year 1990/91. The State is responsible for financing education in its schools in all levels

There is cooperation in the education sector with some United Nations organizations some regional organs and non governmental organizations. The basic education unique program project supervised by the arabic education Office of the Gulf Countries, in which Bahrain is an active member, is the most important aspect of cooperation aiming at achieving the common educational goals and improving the basic education quality on the regional level. The mathematics and sciences programs have been applied to all basic education classes in the year 1993/94 at all public schools.

The State of Bahrain insists on the right of the child with disabilities to special care and fulfils his needs free of charge when it is possible through granting subsidies, equipment and benefiting from rehabilitation and training services. The disabled child enjoys special care from the official and non governmental parties. the private sector supports these parties’ efforts, in order to meet this category’s needs, through developing care and rehabilitation programs in the kindergartens and civil community and public special centers, addressed to different disability cases to guide disabled people to social integration and adaptation.

Many care centers offer services to the children with disabilities as follows:

  1. The center of the National Bank of Bahrain for rehabilitating disabled children (addressed to children whose age-grade ranges from 6 and 12 years ) It is affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and offers permanent or temporary shelter services and daily care which includes rehabilitation services and programs, medical, physiotherapy and subsistence services.
  2. The Social Rehabilitation Center: affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, it offers people with disabilities rehabilitation and care services, social health and psychic care
  3. The Center of the Bank of Bahrain and Koweit for rehabilitation which is affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and social Affairs.
  4. The Chikhan El Farsi Center for comprehensive communication: a public institution affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, it offers all kinds of rehabilitation and education services to people suffering from hearing impairment.
  5. Child Center for Daily Care: affiliated to the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, it is addressed to children with multi handicaps whose age-grade ranges between 4 and 6 years.
  6. Bahraini Saudian Institute for the Blind ( addressed to pupils whose age-grade ranges between 6 and 15 years), it is a regional institute
  7. Hope Center for children with disabilities: affiliated to mother and child care association
  8. Hearing and Speech Ability Development Center: affiliated to the Bahraini Association of Childhood Development
  9. Center of loyalty: affiliated to the Bahraini association for cerebral palsy :
  10. The State Ministries and organs such: as Housing, Municipalities, Trade and Communications, Interior and Health departments offer people with disabilities a wide variety of services.

    The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs also insists on supporting the efforts of child and disability related associations. It encourages the establishment of such associations in order to increase and widen the scope of services and care offered to children

    Many civil communities parties such as Bahraini kinesitherapeutic Center, Friendship Association for the Blind, Bahraini Committee for Disabled People Sports, Bahrainee Association for Mental Handicap, Bahraini Association for Dawn’s Syndrome, Bahrainee Association for Childhood Development ( Hearing and Speech Abilities Development ) and Mother and Child Care Association ( Hope Institute )

    1.5.3 Adult literacy

    The Ministry of Education is the main party in charge of ensuring literacy services. Literacy programs are financed by annual budget allocation, in addition to the contribution of the literacy fund, whose capital is made up of donations gathered from the private sector and the school dues paid by those who enroll in sustainable education programs, These are used to cover some expenses required by the literacy training programs such as equipment purchase, and salaries of staff, employed in specific projects in the field of literacy training and adult education.

    The national Committee for literacy is, as mentioned before, the national mechanism that monitors literacy activities. The official and non governmental parties are represented in this committee including the Ministry of the Council of Ministers Affairs and Information, .the Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, the Public Institution for Youth and Sports ( through national clubs ) women associations and the Public Committee of Bahraini Workers.

    The Ministry and public institutions organize literacy programs in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, in work places and during work time. These programs involve almost all ministries, in addition to private societies, national clubs and mosques

    Other parties cooperate with the Ministry of Education to promote literacy programs, such as the state Civil service Council, through helping in reckoning the illiterates in the governmental departments and solving the problems faced by the program implemented in the work place, and during paid work time; regular schools through educating illiterate parents in the morning; and the medical education department in the Ministry of Health, through organizing medical education programs in adult education centers.

    As for the cooperation with regional and international organizations, the Ministry of Education cooperated with the following parties for supporting literacy activities

  11. Arab Gulf program for supporting the United Nations development organizations ( UNCFED ) by which financial support was granted for the kindergartens projects in literacy training centers for two years.
  12. UNICEF: there was coordination with the organization in setting the family education programs for women who have overcome illiteracy.
  13. UNESCO: through offering technical consultations for developing literacy and adult education programs, the last of which was implemented in 1997, and developing of family education program for women which was implemented in 1993
  14. The Arab Organization for Education culture and sciences (Arab organ for literacy and adult education ) cooperated with the Ministry of Education in implementing " the national plan to spread primary education and literacy in the Arab World by 2000". Many meetings and seminars were held for this purpose, benefiting from consultations offered by the organization in literacy training. related technical affairs

1.6 Investment in education for all since 1990

Important changes have occurred , related to spending on different kinds of basic education through the public sector or the private sector as follows:

1.6.1 Early childhood care and development

The Bahraini private sector plays, as we mentioned before, an important role in ensuring early childhood care through nurseries and kindergartens. Private sector funds spent on early childhood programs and activities, have witnessed a significant, caused by the increasing number of nurseries and kindergartens

The multiple education methods offered to children in nurseries and kindergartens, in addition to the wide variety of entertainment and education needs; such as toys and necessary explanation methods, and hiring of some women with special academic qualifications, which is a very important matter; have caused these institutions expenses to change a lot.

Changes were bound to occur also in the repetitive spending system. This happens, for example, through increasing the number of workers, the hiring of high graduates or widening premises capacity to receive an important number of children, regarding some comparative advantages that attract parents.

Society and family expenses in this field have also changed. These changes are due to the new concepts adopted in society. All family members work and have to put children in special institutions whose number is increasing, since the need for such institutions has increased. This led to a gradual increase in expenses

As for foreign assistance, it has reached this field. This assistance is granted by international organization in the form of international expertise delegation to contribute in upgrading the workers competencies in the institutions or workers with special competencies delegation in order to ensure developed concepts and information. UNICEF and the Arab Gulf program supporting the United Nations development organizations contributed to financing the project of creating a kindergartens development entity in the State of Bahrain This entity is in charge of training workers in kindergartens. Whereas the Ministry contributed to the payment of the workers salaries and to ensuring all required materials and equipment

1.6.2 Basic education

Investment in ensuring basic education for all from 1990 till 1999 is not a new policy in the State of Bahrain. It began since 1919 when formal education was adopted. The State of Bahrain worked on adopting the policy of ensuring education, free of charge, in public schools for all citizens and foreigners. It also endeavors to finance all education services with frame of the state public budget of the State.

It is worthy to notes that expenses on operating schools represent one of the highest rates in the state budget which confirms that ensuring credits for the schools sector is a priority

Important changes affected the public expenditure on primary education since 1990. The generalization of the class teacher system could reduce labour cost but it costs the state very much as to school premises with specific architectural qualifications, services, equipment, furniture and offsets. The Ministry’s capital expenses increased with the continual process of building new schools, according to modern qualifications and resorting to owned premises, instead of leased one.

As for the teachers levels, there is a special teaching cadre for teaching and administrative bodies in schools, which links between the improving financial situation and upgrading the professional and academic competencies.

The private sector has also known important changes in its expenses on basic education through horizontal expansion. The new investments are made opening of many new private schools. Many changes have also occurred in the repeated expenses system such as increasing workers salaries, ensuring new education materials and building premises with educational qualifications.

Important changes occurred in the society and family expenses because of the enrolment in private schools which led to the increased expenses

The private sector plays an important role in supporting programs and services addressed to children with special needs, along with the public sector, through financial support, building new premises or providing equipment etc. This support is in continual increase.

It is normal that society and family expenses increase with regard to children with special needs. This is due to the increasing awareness of the disabled children with special needs and their care requirements either by society through official, non governmental and private efforts to widen the scope of services addressed to this category in its different groups or by the families which endeavor to ensure these services to their disabled children

The International Organizations support, such as UNESCO and UNICEF, benefits for training workers in the field of disability care. There is now a better knowledge on how to receive this support and of benefit from it

One of the new main investments which are addressed to children with special needs is financing new premises for handicapped children by both private and public sectors, such as a special center for the rehabilitation of children suffering from severe mental disability or cerebral palsy, a center for multi handicapped children, a center for the rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment and a center for the rehabilitation a children suffering from simple cerebral palsy

1.6.3 Adult literacy training:

The Ministry of Education allocates expenses pertaining to the literacy and adults education programs. As for the private sector, it has a rather limited role in this field except some contributions offered by societies institutions and notable individuals, to support the literacy national fund, as well as by some associations and clubs which contribute in one way or another in ensuring the literacy programs in their locations for surrounding societies

The Ministry of Education allocates a special budget for literacy activities. This budget covered annually the employees salaries and anyone who had enrolled in the three stages. The annual growth in the literacy eradication and adult education budget reached % in 1999 compared with 1,3 % in 1998

As for foreign assistance to the literacy programs, it is still limited and offered, as aforementioned, by some organizations

Family expenses have known some changes but there is no serious study on the education and literacy effects on society and family expenses

As for changes in repeated family expenses system, they are stable, to a certain extent, and no significant changes have been registered. The Ministry conducted an important information campaign in 1997 in order to familiarize the public with literacy and its dangers through a charity events.

The financial revenues that resulted from this campaign served to support the literacy national fund budget.

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