The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Bangladesh
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



8.0 PROGRESS TOWARDS GOALS AND TARGETS

Introduction

During 1990-1998 notable efforts have been made in both government and NGO sectors toward achieving EFA targets. However, database in Bangladesh is poor, more so in maintenance of data in a systematic way. For example, majority of urban non-poor children (and specifically in Dhaka City) goes for ECCE/pre-primary education, and specially those who seek learning through English medium. No study has yet been undertaken to collect figures about these children going to privately run improvised English medium schools. There are also schools of similar type that impart education in Bangla, following western/foreign education systems. No systematic statistics are available about these students.

The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) maintains data on population by age groups in a manner that does not correspond to school-enrollment data requirements for EFA assessment. For example, statistics are maintained in age-groups of 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years etc., as against PMED/ EFA requirements of <=3-5 years, 6-10 years, etc.

EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT

Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) of children covers a three-year cycle programme corresponding to 3-5 years age-group. Under the programme, the Government of Bangladesh is committed to improving child health care, nutrition, living environment, primary education, etc. Most of these activities in this regard are carried out under the supervision of the government agencies through various ministries; non-government and community service organizations are also involved in delivering services, especially in early childhood care and education.

ECCD at Family Level

In respect of education, early childhood care starts at the family level, as parents particularly the literates seek to have young children of 3-5 years to be familiar with alphabets along with pictures. Young children of such age accompany elder children, if any, to any one of primary level educational institutions, such as nursery/kindergarten/primary school (Bangla or English medium) Forqania/Ebtedayee/Dakhil Madrasah (Bangla/Arabic medium) or even day care centres. Normally, schooling environment starts in urban areas at age-group 3-5 years and a little later, 6-8 or more years in rural areas, or it could be any age group, to the extent that the legal provisions for birth registration is not rigidly followed in Bangladesh.

It is to be admitted, however, that as far as EFA Goals are concerned, adequate efforts have not been made. To be more precise, there has not been a single project toward a well defined target. The existence of ‘baby class’ as a pre-primary education is the weakest part of education system. Performance of this part of education is not in any records. At its best, it is an activity for familiarizing children with schooling; but its weakness is that it is not carefully, managed. Moreover, in its nature it is not oriented toward ‘child development’ in true sense of the item. Therefore, the Government will take decisions about designing and implementing an ECCD programme reflecting both quantity and quality. For all practical purpose early childhood education (ECE) will be a part of a more comprehensive approach to ECCD.

GROSS ENROLLMENT IN ECCD: FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

(Core EFA Indicator- 1)

The ECCD during 1991-98 could not be termed as a significant one. The NPA recognized that the focus should be on childhood development which includes health and nutrition and development of both physical and mental abilities of the child in a pleasant, painless and harmonious way as a preparatory step to formal schooling. The government intended to support the non-government and community initiatives by participating in advocacy, dissemination of information and knowledge. By way of formalizing baby classes attached to primary schools for the age group 4-5, the Government wished to cover 30 percent of the schools by 1995 and 50 percent by 2000, and support feeder school programmes at community level in terms of class room construction, teachers, implements, studies and research, etc.

Whether gross enrollment has been in the agenda or not, some children go to some type of educational institution beginning approximately at the age of 3 years and ending at the age of 5 years (or even later). Available Survey Data * in this regard show that the national gross enrollment rate in early childhood development is 22.4 with a gender parity index of 1.1. The estimated population of 3-5 years age group is 11.52 million, of which pre-school gross enrollment is 2.6 million. The total number of males in the age group is 5.88 million and that of females 5.64 million, gross enrollment being 1.25 million and 1.33 million for males and females respectively. Thus the GER for males is 21.3 and for females 23.6. The rural urban GER is duly proportionate to population ratio, the overall urban GER being 20.9.

* These data reflect 1999 situation. The methodology for data collection is multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) of a sample of 60,000 household across the country intended to represent the national situation. Gender and location (urban, rural, slum and non-slum) desegregate the result of the survey with estimates made for national and sub-national (divisional) levels. The survey is a collaborative effort of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), which is a government agency, and UNICEF, Bangladesh. Survey findings are published regularly each year under the title "Progotir Pathey" (Path to Progress).

The national figures have been derived from the rates available in MICS data, that is, date based on 60,000 household.

The male enrollment rate in urban areas tends to be higher (21.5) than the female enrollment rate (20.3); but in rural areas female enrollment rate is higher than the male enrollment rate. Male enrollment does not vary between rural and urban areas, but female enrollment in rural and urban areas varies by 4 percent, higher in rural areas, which is a notable development in favour of females. This is also reflected in the overall country situation with a higher enrollment rate for females. For details, please see spreadsheet in Table-3.

Variation between Divisions (geographic regions/administrative divisions) ranges between 19.0 per cent and 24.0 percent, which is not much to warrant any special comment, except that the two Divisions of Sylhet and Rajshahi being at the lowest end would deserve special attention in future programming. Female enrollment rate is consistently higher than male enrollment rate in five divisions, while in Dhaka the rates are almost equal.

It is to be noted that 51 per cent of children in the age group of 3-5 years are males and 49 per cent females, which tallies with national ratio of males and females. But enrollment of males to ECCD is lower at 48 per cent, as compared to 52 per cent of females.

Considering what has been stated as proposed coverage through ECCED, as in the NPA (page 60), gross enrollment of 2.5 million in ECCED is little above 2.34 million which was in a way target for 1995, but quite below the target (59.5%) of 4.2 million which was targeted for 2000. This is explained by lack of proper emphasis on programming in the area of ECCED.

NEW ENTRANTS TO PRIMARY GRADE - I FROM ECCD PROGRAMME

(Core EFA Indicator - 2)

An estimated number of 4.2 million children presumably of the age group 5-8 have entered primary grade -1 in 1998, of these pupils 2.3 million are males and 1.9 million females. New entrants to grade-1 in public schools number 2.5 million and in private schools 1.7 million. Urban grade-1 students number 846,000 and the students of rural areas are about 3.4 million. The proportion of females is lower in both rural and urban areas and also in public and private schools (Table-4).

The national estimates on new entrants with ECCD experience have been derived from the sample household survey, that is multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) conducted by BBS and UNICEF and published in Progotir Pathey, as referred to in table - 3. New entrants to grade I colums 3 -5 in table 4 are as per actual figures available from the office records of DPE.

Among the new entrants to primary grade-1 those who have had ECCD experience are 2.2 million which is 52 per cent of the new entrants. Out of these 2.2 million new entrants 1.3 million study in public schools and 906,000 study in private schools. Gender distribution of the new entrants with ECCD experience is 55 percent male and 45 percent females.

Regarding urban-rural distribution of the new entrants to primary grade-1 with ECCD experience, urban students number 478,000 with a gender distribution of 261,000 males and 217,000 females. In rural areas new entrants with ECCD number 1.7 million of which 957,000 are male and 774,000 are female.

Nationally, the percentage of the new entrants with ECCD does not vary between public and private schools. However, among the new entrants with ECCD experience males number higher in Table -3 et Table -4

public schools, and females number higher in private schools (53.7%). In the urban areas, male entrants with ECCD experience are somewhat higher in percentage (57.5%), as compared to females (55.4%) . A similar pattern holds good for rural areas (male 52.6% and female 49.4%). Also, in the urban areas more males (with ECCD experience) are in public schools, but in rural areas more females (with ECCD experience) are in private schools.

Regionally, the percentage of new entrants with ECCD experience vary from 40 per cent to 75.9 per cent, the lowest being in Barisal and the highest in Sylhet, Rajshahi being vary close to the lowest. For details, please see spreadsheet in Table-4.

APPARENT (GROSS) AND NET INTAKE RATIO: NEW ENTRANTS IN PRIMARY GRADE-1 (Core EFA Indicator 3 & 4 )

Calculation of rates with reference to official entrance age (6 years) poses a serious problem, as most of the parents in rural areas do not maintain birth records, and as such recording of age at entrance is not correct. Many of the children enrolled in different grades of primary education are either over aged or under aged although students getting enrolled in primary Grade-1 is shown to be of age 6.

Figures of new entrants of all ages as in Table - 5 are derived from the records of the Directorate of Primary Education. New entrants of all ages in primary education, based on such records, are 4.54 million of which 2.45 million are males and 2.09 million are females. These students study in both public schools (2.70 million) and private schools (1.85 million). Students getting enrolled from non-formal NGO schools are also included here.

School entrance age population is estimated at 3.6 million (BBS). The new entrants of primary school entrance age are found to be 2.34 million (51.5 per cent of new entrants of all ages) of which 1.19 million are males and 1.15 million females. Public schools have 1.39 million and private schools 0.95 million students, both male and female.

Gross intake or apparent Intake rate (AIR) is derived by considering the new entrants of all ages divided by the school entrance age population. In this situation the numerator is higher than the denominator. The result is, therefore, likely to exceed one hundred percent. Data for the new entrants of all ages are available from the DPE records. Thus, AIR based on DPE records stands to be 125.7 percent. But NIR is based on data available from a survey especially conducted by DPE in 1999. According to this survey, NIR is found to be 64.8 percent. The gender parity index for AIR is 0.9 and that for NIR is 1.0.

For AIR there is no variation between rural and urban locations; but the NIR tends to be higher in the rural locations (65 rural and 63 urban). For males NIR is higher in urban areas, but for females NIR is higher in rural areas. For details, please see spreadsheet in Table-5.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

General steps taken by the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) in the area of formal primary education include:

In addition, the following special steps have been taken to increase enrollment

According to data available from the Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), there have been 63,534 primary schools which include 37,710 government 19,683 registered non-government primary schools; 3263 community schools. In addition, there are 3177 unregistered schools. Besides, there are 1292 Secondary High Schools (with primary sections) 8231 Ebtedayee (primary) Madrasahs, 2850 high Madrasahs with primary school section, 1545 Kindergarten schools, 1,042 Satellite schools, and 53 experimental schools, and about 700 NGO run primary schools.

Pursuant to enactment of compulsory primary education, and introduction of such programmes as Food for Education, social mobilization, increase of physical facilities in education, enhancement of school attractiveness programmes and measures for enhancement of quality of education, there has been a remarkable increase in the rate of enrollment.

Education for Working Children

At present ‘Shishu Kallayan’ (Child Welfare) Primary School for working children are in operation throughout the country. In these schools there is provision for studying from class I to class V. Of these schools, 6 are in Dhaka and Narayangonj and the rest 40 are in different districts of the country. These schools are being administered by Shishu Kallayan Trust. Trust-schools, particularly those in Dhaka and Narayangonj will be turned into specialized schools in phases. In the first phase, about 500 students will be selected under this programme. It is expected that the implementation of this programme will start from next January 2000.

Moreover, under the Non-formal Education Project-3 of DNFE arrangement has been made to organize two-year basic literacy course for the urban working children through nearly 5 thousand centres in 6 Divisional Headquarters including Dhaka. The Directorate of Non-formal Education (DNFE) has designed special course for this purpose. The learning period is short and the course duration is 2 years only in this project. The working children feel comfortable to study in these centres because the "learning hour" is more flexible and curriculum is condensed. Experience of non-formal education project-3 of DNFE has suggested that it is not much meaningful to operate general type of primary schools for the working childfren. For providing simple literacy skill, the NFE centre based approach is more appropriate. Recently arrangements have been made to turn the children as regular students through financial support by with drawing them from the labour market. Centre based non-formal education is suitable to those students who are not very meritorious and are not eager to pursue higher education. Financial support to the tune of Taka 400 per month for primary level and Taka 600 for secondary level will be extended to selected meritorious, competent and willing students to allow them to pursue higher education. Additional fund will be given to them for the fees of SSC examination . After passing the SSC examination, they may further continue with higher education through their own efforts.

TOTAL GROSS ENROLLMENT RATIO AND NET ENROLLMENT RATIO IN PRIMARY EDUCATION (Core EFA Indicators – 5 & 6)

Official school age population in the age group 6-10 years in 1998 has been estimated at 19.02 million of which 9.73 million are males and 9.29 million are females. As against this official school age population of 19.02 million, total enrollment (all ages) stood at 18.36 million (9.58 million males and 8.78 million females), as per DPE records. Thus, the gross enrollment rate is 96.5 per cent ( Spreadsheet Table - 6).

Enrollment of official primary school age pupils has turned out to be 15.5 million, as against official school age population of 19.02 million. This means that net enrollment rate is 81.4 per cent. Of the total enrolled 15.5 million, 7.8 million are males and 7.7 million are females.

Total enrollment (all ages) in urban areas stands at 3.7 million (20 per cent), as against 14.7 million in rural areas (80 per cent). Both urban and rural areas has the same gross enrollment rate of 96.5. But the net enrollment rate in urban areas is higher at 82.9 than the rate of 81.1 in rural areas. Table -6

IDEAL Project

The Government of Bangladesh has taken up a number of steps to address the issue of quality of education at the primary level. IDEAL - Intensive District Approach to Education for All is one of the projects of the Directorate of Primary Education to improve the quality of education in Bangladesh. The main objectives of IDEAL are to: establish and strengthen local level planning and management of primary education, practice improved classroom teaching and learning methods, reduce gender disparity, and promote active community participation. IDEAL activities are broadly grouped into: Local level Planning, School quality and Social Mobilizaiton and Communication.

IDEAL was started in Jhenaidah district in 1996. So far, IDEAL has been expanded to about 1700 primary schools in 17 Districts with the technical and financial support of UNICEF. The main thrust of IDEAL is to improve the quality of primary education with the active participation of all the stakeholders, evolve decentralization in school planning, management and monitoring in order to make the schools more responsive to the local conditions and needs and to strengthen the school-community link. An innovative teaching approach known as Multiple Ways of Teaching Learning (MWTL) based on the Multiple Intelligence theory of Prof. Howard Gardner of Harvard University has been effectively adopted and applied to make teaching more child-centred, participatory and joyful to the children.

Lessons learned so far indicate the IDEAL helps significantly to increase the learning achievement of the children. School Management committees are now more active in improving the school condition. Government is willing to cover all the 64 districts with IDEAL project. Development partners like Aus-Aid, Asian Development Bank, CIDA and SIDA are taking interest to support IDEAL.

For the males gross enrollment rates in both urban and rural areas are the same at 98.4. For the females also the gross enrollment rates are the same, but at a lower rate of 94.5, compared to that for males.

The net enrollment rates for both male and female groups in urban areas, 81.8 and 84.0 respectively, are higher than the rates of their rural counterparts, 79.6 and 82.7 respectively.

The gender parity index is 1.0 for both GER, and NER, and also in both urban and rural areas.

For gross enrollment rate, the divisional variation ranges between 93.7 and 100.0, Khulna having the highest rate (100.0) and Barisal having the lowest one (93.7). For net enrollment, interestingly, Barisal has the highest rate (88.4), while Sylhet has the lowest one (78.6), Dhaka standing very close (79.9) to Sylhet.

Considering the gross enrollment rate for males, divisions vary between 92.1 (Barisal) and 101.8 (Khulna), and for females variation ranges between 92.2(Chittagong) and 98.2 (Khulna). It is thus indicated that gross enrollment for females has a smaller variation between regions.

With respect to net enrollment for males Barisal has the highest rate (87.9), while Sylhet has the lowest (77.6); and for females also Barisal has the highest rate (89.1) while Sylhet has the lowest (79.8).

The overall high participation in primary education is explained by the inclusion of enrollment of all types of education institutions related to primary education viz. government and non-government primary schools, attached primary section of high schools, PTI’s experimental schools, Ebtedayee Madrasah, Ebtedayee section attached to high Madrasah, kindergarten schools, satellite and community schools. It may be noted that in the section on EFA targets, enrollment of only government and non-government primary schools has been considered. In any case, the achievement (both gross and net enrollment) is high. According to EFA target, the gross enrollment target was set at 95 per cent for both sexes and 94 per cent for girls by the year 2000. It is now seen that the target has already been achieved by the year 1998. For details, please see spreadsheet in Table - 6.

Comparing against the goals set for EFA, although achievement level for gross enrollment has gone above the target, the completion rate has remained below the estimated target Thus may be seen table 6A.

Table - 6 A

EFA Goals and Achievement (in %)

 

Goal

Achievement

1991

1995

2000

1998/99

Gross enrollment rate

76

82

95

96.5

Completion rate

40

52

70

62.0

Source: Primary Education in Bangladesh (DPE), 1998; Study of literacy Rate (DPE), 1999; and PMED’s Estimate.

Considering the enrollment trend over the period of 1991-1998, it may be seen in the following table 6B that enrollment of both boys and girls in primary schools has consistently increased in absolute numbers, and the increase may be regarded significant. But, as the primary schools age population group has increased in size the percentage increase particularly among boys is not evident. However, it is interesting that the percentage of girl’s enrollment has shown an increase over this period. This is an improvement in regard to gender parity.

Table - 6 B

Number of Enrolled Students and % of Students in Primary School

 

Year

Number of Students

% of Students

 

Total

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

1991

12,635,419

6,910,092

5,725,327

54.69

45.31

1992

13,017,270

7,048,542

5,968,728

54.15

45.85

1993

14,067,332

7,525,862

6,541,470

58.50

46.50

1994

15,180,680

8,048,117

7,132,563

53.02

46.98

1995

17,284157

9,094,489

8,189,668

52.62

47.38

1996

17,580,416

9,219,358

8,361,058

52.44

47.56

1997

18,031,673

9,364,899

8,666,774

51.94

48.06

1998

18,360,576 *

9,576,942

8,783,634

52.16

47.84

Source: DPE (GOB) Office Document

Note : The figures include students of all categories of primary level institutions.

* Estimated/Provisional

ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

Basic Education for 6-14 Age group

Children and adolescents of the age-group 6-14 years is estimated to be 33.19 million in 1997 and it is estimated to increase by 12.19 million by 2000. The target for enrollment at basic grade-1 has been set at 521,500. The gross enrollment has been found to be 149,000 under INFEP and 235,500 under NFE-3, making the total enrollment at 384,500 which is 73.75 per cent of the target.

Basic Education Enrollment: Adults

Again, under the adult literacy programme, the population of age-group 15-45 years has been estimated at 49.9 million in 2000. The NFE programme under EFA, has not covered the entire population of the relevant age groups. As it stands, the EFA target has been set at 1.14 million (INFEP), 2.95 million under NFE-1, 8.18 million under NFE-2 and 22.88 million under NFE-4 thereby making a total of 35.15 million adults. Thus, programmes have been taken to reach 70 percent of the adult population, 15 - 45 years.

A review of the non-formal education programmes indicates that gross enrollment to basic education under these programmes has been 2.02 million under INFEP, 1.26 million under NFE-1,3.34 million under NFE-2 and 4.19 million under NFE-4, that is, a total of 10.8 million or 30.75 per cent of the target.

NGO Programme on Basic Education and Contribution to EFA Goals

Involvement of NGOs in education has been a phenomenon with the Government decision to have NGOs complement government efforts towards universal primary education, more so since the signing of World Declaration for EFA by 2000. NGOs, community based organizations (CBO), and private voluntary organizations (PVO) are engaged in offering non formal basic education (NFBE) and non formal primary education (NFPE). More specifically the programmes are:

    1. early childhood (pre-primary) education programme
    2. non-formal basic/primary education programme for (6-10 age group)
    3. non-formal basic education programme for adolescents (11-14 age group)
    4. non-formal basic education programme for adults (15-45 age group)

The nationwide non-formal education programme is implemented under three delivery modes:

    1. Centre Based Approach (CBA) through NGOs
    2. Total Literacy Movement (TLM), through districts administration
    3. Primer Distribution to PVOs and CBOs

CBA covers about 33 per cent of the total NFE programme and subvention is provided to NGOs who implement the programme. The remaining 67 per cent of the programme is implemented by the district administration under TLM approach through mobilizing local community. Besides, participating in government NFE programme, NGOs independently run NFBE programme. In order to encourage the total level small voluntary organization in providing NFE the DNFE provides free primers and guidebook.

A study* conducted in 1999 has sought to assess the role of NGOs in imparting basic/ primary education and their contribution toward attaining the goal of EFA by 2000. The study has been based on both primary and secondary data. For primary data sample survey of NGO schools has been conducted and school level authorities have been interviewed by using a pre-designed instrument. Secondary data have been collected from the government authorities concerned with education (PMED, DNFE) and NGOs (BRAC, DAM, RDRS, SUROVI). In the field survey for primary data three stage-stratified sampling was done as follows :

    1. Rural and Urban strata (including city areas)
    2. Six strata for six Divisions
    3. Random selection of two thanas from each division, one thana with low literacy rat and the other with high literacy rate.

From each selected thana two primary schools, one rural and one urban, were selected for the study.

* Study on NGO programme on Basic Education, DPC Group of consultants and House of Consultants Ltd. (Commissioned by PMED, Government of Bangladesh), November 1999.

Total Literacy Movement (TLM)

It is a time-bound, innovative, area-specific and goal-oriented participatory NFE delivery approach in which the whole community is mobilized through extensive campaigns using various modes, with a particular emphasis on local folk culture. The responsibility of designing planning and implementation of programme lies with local administration and the community. It is essentially a bottom-up approach in the sense that launching of the programme entirely depends on the willingness of the community. Before seeking government assistance, the local authority has to form a registered society, conduct a baseline survey and run some literacy centres on pilot basis using its own resources, where DNFE provides all technical supports that include primers, guides, training packages, etc. Despite all these activities attributable to the community and local administration in TLM mode of programme delivery, DNFE becomes catalytic in the whole process right from sensitizing the community to initiating follow up continuing education programme for the NFE graduates. Officials from PMED and DNFE interact periodically with local officials as well as with cross section of people of the TLM Districts. Status of pilot programme, leadership of local administration and degree of motivation among local people are carefully observed and assessed.

The minimum implementation unit of TLM is a District, while there is a provision to manage NFE in phases if required. TLM is a very cost-effective and voluntary NFE delivery approach. However, there are provisions for performance-based cash award for facilitators and supervisors at the end of the programme or a monthly honorarium.

Number of NGOs in Bangladesh

According to a list available from the Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh (ADAB), which is the apex body of NGOs, there are 993 NGOs in the country of whom 418 offer non-formal education literacy programmes under a subvention programme from the government and 306 provide NFPE programme. NGO programme are, however, mainly urban-based.

Dhaka Division has the highest concentration of NGOs (47.4 %) while Sylhet Division has the lowest concentration (3.7 %). About 56.8 per cent of the total NGOs are located in urban areas and 65 % of the urban NGOs are concentrated in Dhaka Division.

Enrollment in basic education programme

NGOs (418) operate 121,135 basic education centres with an enrollment of 3,634,050 (Table A). About 55 percent of the enrollment are females. Each centre has one teacher and 30 learners. Male-female ratio of teachers is 45:55 and urban-rural ratio of both enrollment and teacher is 6:94.

On an average, number of basic education centres per NGO is 992 in Sylhet Division followed by Chittagong Division (600 per NGO). Rajshahi Division has 489 centres per NGO, while Dhaka Division has the lowest position with 172 centres per NGO.

Dhaka Division has the highest concentration of enrollment (33.87%) followed by Rajshahi Division (23.81 %) and Chittagong Division (20.31%), Barisal Division has the lowest enrollment concentration (3.65%).

Involvement of NGOs in NFPE programme

About 31 percent (306) NGOs are involved in NFPE programme and a great majority of learning centres (93%) and enrollment (92%) are located in Dhaka Division, particularly in urban areas of Dhaka Division (89%). There are 38,288 NFP schools with an enrollment of 1,342,362 of whom 63 percent are girls (Table-B). Number of teachers in the NFP schools stands at 40,347, per centre average teacher being 1.05.

Table : A

Number of NGOs offering Non-Formal Basic Education Programme,Number of Basic Education Cenres, Enrolment and Teachers

Country Year

 

 

Location

No. of NGOs

Offering

Non-formal Basic Education

No. of Basic Education Centres

 

 

Enrollment

 

 

Teachers

       

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

National Total

418

121135

1635322

1998728

3634050

54510

66625

121135

  Urban

320

6765

91327

111623

202950

3044

3721

6765

  Rural

98

114370

1543995

1887105

3431100

51466

62904

114370

Dhaka Total

238

41061

553837

676913

1230750

(33.87%)

18461

22564

41025

Chittagong Total

41

24600

(600)

332100

405900

738000

(20.31%)

11070

13530

24600

Rajshahi Total

59

28840

(489)

389339

475861

865200

(23.81%)

12978

15862

28840

Khulna Total

60

15300

(255)

206550

252450

459000

(12.63%)

7885

8415

15300

Barishal Total

13

4425

59738

73012

132750

(3.65%)

1991

2434

4425

Sylhet Total

7

6945

(992)

93758

114592

208350

(5.73%)

3126

3819

6945

Source : DNFE. GOB. Data available at DNFE office, as the Centres of NGOs are funded and activities monitored by DNFE.

Note :Figures in the parenthesis indicate division-wise number of basic education centres per NGO and division-wise percentage distribution of enrollment.

Table : B

Division-wise number of NGOs offering NFPE Programmes, number of Learning Centres, Enrollment, and number of Teachers in NEP Schools

Country / Year

 

 

Location

No. of NGOs

offering Non-formal Primary Education Programmes

No. of NFPE Centres

 

Enrollment

 

Teachers

       

Male

Female

Total

Total

 

National

Total

306

38288

493377

848985

1342362

40347

  Urban

176

35846

452601

791895

1244496

37741

  Rural

130

2442

40776

57090

97866

2606

Dhaka Total

118

(38.56%)

35656

(93.13%)

444160

789293

1228453

(91.51%)

37226

Chittagong Total

19

(6.21%)

420

(1.1%)

4087

6028

10115

(0.75%

359

Rajshahi Total

75

(24.51%)

1031

(2.69%)

180.27

23929

41956

(3.13%)

1239

Khulna Total

51

(16.67%)

623

(1.63%)

10579

14555

25134

(1.87%)

651

Barishal Total

33

(10.78%)

311

(0.81)

4753

6576

11329

(0.84%)

324

Sylhet Total

10

(3.27%)

247

(0.65%)

11771

13604

25375

(1.89%)

548

Source: CAMPE. Data derived from in Directory of Education Programmes of the NGOs Bangladesh, September 1995. CAMPE has not updated data after 1995. The enrollment data ( for full primary schools ) may have been included in the total national enrollment figure for primary education.

Note :Figures in the parenthesis show the division-wise percentage distribution of NGOs, NFPE centres and enrollment.

GER at the primary and basic education levels

  1. GER under non-formal basic education programme works out to be 10.58 percent 1.
  1. Under the NFPE programme GER is 7.06 percent2 as against 96.5 percent at the formal primary education level.

Contribution to Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD)

The dimension and scope of Early Childhood Care and Development is extensive and it is in this context that collaborative efforts between the Government and NGOs are important. NGOs are well known for their capacity to develop community-based interventions that can utilize immense potential of available human resources. Effective communication for attitudinal changes is necessary for the attainment of goals in ECCD and for an appropriate social environment to facilitate the change and sustain them. The focus will have to be on optimal mix of advocacy, social mobilization and programme coordination with NGOs. The NGOs/voluntary organizations can also be encouraged to supplement government efforts by creating facilities for the development and welfare of the disadvantaged, deprived and disabled children as well as for urban poor and other marginalized groups.

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION (a) AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP; AND (b) PER PUPIL, AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP PER CAPITA (CORE EFA INDICATOR-7 ), AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON PRIMARY EDUCATION AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION (Core EFA Indicator -8)

Public expenditure in Bangladesh primary education sub-sector (or education sector or for that matter, any sector) is incurred annually through budgetary mechanism. The national budget is in two parts, namely: (i) Revenue Budget (estimate of revenue income and expenditure), and (ii) Development Budget (allocation of fund for development projects/programmes/sectors). Expenditure under the Revenue Budget is incurred normally to meet current expenses of recurring nature for running day to day affairs of the government, whereas expenditure under the Development Budget is incurred normally as one-time investment for creation of new assets but in the primary and non-formal education sub-sectors a lion’s share is directed to current expenditure. Allocations for development expenditure are made through the mechanism of Annual Development Programme (ADP), which constitutes the Development Budget part of the national budget in a given financial year (FY).

Public Expenditure under Revenue Budget

In primary education sub-sector (and the education sector) public current expenditure from Revenue Budget has been incurred on account of:

Public Expenditure under Development Budget

Public expenditure on primary education from development budget has mostly been incurred on the following accounts:

It would be noted that over the years since 1991 there has been steady increase in total public expenditure (Spread sheet Table 7 and also figures 4, 5, 6 & 7) for education which includes Primary and Mass Education. Of course the primary education allocation absorbs more than 95 percent of the allocation in this sub-sector under the Development Budget. Allocation under Revenue Budget goes to primary education only (Table 7A and 7B), as DNFE which implements mass education is still under Development Budget. It is further noted that although allocation in quantity has increased, allocation for primary and mass education, as percent of education sector allocation has not increased overtime.

Data presented in Table 7 (Spread sheet) would also show that public expenditure on primary education as percent of total public expenditure on education does not show any consistent pattern of increase, rather since 1997 it shows a declining trend. This is in spite of an increasing share of GDP during all the years from 1990. Public expenditure on primary education as percent of GDP, however, increased from 1990 till 1995 and after then it declined. Almost the same pattern holds true for per pupil public expenditure on primary education as percent of GDP per caption.


Previous Page Next Page