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Early Childhood Education

1 - Changes in initial enrolment by type of Institution. School Census - 1997 through 1999

Unit of the Federation

Initial Enrolmen in Pre-School Programs

1997

1998

1999

Total

Federal

State

Municipal

Private

Total

Federal

State

Municipal

Private

Total

Federal

State

Municipal

Private

Brasil

4,292,208

2,025

606,858

2,695,893

987,432

4,111,120

1,380

396,361

2,725,755

987,624

4,230,243

1,025

379,927

2,799,427

1,049,864

North

325,400

534

127,159

144,782

52,925

299,009

549

87,716

161,642

49,102

297,916

393

75,587

165,433

56,503

Rondônia

33,206

0

13,930

12,356

6,920

31,977

0

12,054

11,833

8,090

30,715

0

10,724

11,890

8,101

Acre

14,017

26

9,027

3,947

1,017

13,890

26

9,127

3,475

1,262

17,219

27

11,705

4,056

1,431

Amazonas

42,046

0

10,214

19,299

12,533

42,814

0

7,786

24,395

10,633

42,140

0

740

27,282

14,118

Roraima

12,296

76

8,589

2,460

1,171

13,644

29

9,445

2,726

1,444

13,734

0

9,201

2,929

1,604

Pará

173,224

432

59,285

88,388

25,119

148,324

454

27,714

98,947

21,209

145,237

366

24,933

96,532

23,406

Amapá

21,456

0

15,447

3,507

2,502

18,551

0

10,439

5,205

2,907

16,743

0

6,333

6,918

3,492

Tocantins

29,155

0

10,667

14,825

3,663

29,809

40

11,151

15,061

3,557

32,128

0

11,951

15,826

4,351

Northeast

1,407,013

641

210,198

820,702

375,472

1,283,513

259

119,510

789,499

374,245

1,268,839

229

106,382

783,971

378,257

Maranhão

247,436

0

31,319

152,899

63,218

224,642

0

26,847

142,130

55,665

205,877

0

21,515

140,048

44,314

Piauí

89,628

10

29,082

40,519

20,017

81,825

119

23,641

38,966

19,099

81,834

85

24,878

38,284

18,587

Ceará

271,727

0

9,658

170,821

91,248

243,795

0

3,065

149,155

91,575

251,474

0

1,063

149,725

100,686

R. G. do Norte

73,414

173

6,847

48,282

18,112

93,273

0

6,967

57,386

28,920

91,554

0

5,989

53,162

32,403

Paraíba

88,451

38

13,717

51,662

23,034

97,742

38

20,957

54,966

21,781

98,223

30

20,943

55,977

21,273

Pernambuco

155,129

140

5,096

87,751

62,142

152,758

0

2,529

90,251

59,978

145,201

87

1,991

81,694

61,429

Alagoas

64,601

74

7,427

41,226

15,874

56,272

75

2,843

37,980

15,374

52,262

0

1,656

37,171

13,435

Sergipe

79,114

0

19,015

46,839

13,260

81,985

0

21,412

47,970

12,603

82,112

0

21,641

48,002

12,469

Bahia

337,513

206

88,037

180,703

68,567

251,221

27

11,249

170,695

69,250

260,302

27

6,706

179,908

73,661

Southeast 1,840,383

196

86,845

1,378,625

374,717

1,821,062

219

52,017

1,389,755

379,071

1,896,971

171

48,518

1,431,045

417,237

Minas Gerais

445,283

196

29,121

324,531

91,435

420,490

171

11,722

316,569

92,028

439,072

171

11,666

319,754

107,481

Espírito Santo

86,772

0

24,262

48,627

13,883

78,222

0

7,537

57,396

13,289

81,821

0

3,356

64,830

13,635

Rio de Janeiro

269,203

0

33,462

120,719

115,022

267,772

48

32,758

122,093

112,873

286,401

0

33,392

130,545

122,464

São Paulo 1,039,125

0

0

884,748

154,377

1,054,578

0

0

893,697

160,881

1,089,677

0

104

915,916

173,657

South

493,218

614

104,768

276,558

111,278

493,268

353

83,551

296,373

112,991

535,433

192

93,047

322,820

119,374

Paraná

182,030

202

7,519

118,272

56,037

191,049

0

5,267

128,306

57,476

209,339

23

4,433

141,308

63,575

Santa Catarina

154,297

412

35,452

90,086

28,347

145,882

353

16,639

99,430

29,460

157,301

169

26,621

100,365

30,146

R. G. do Sul

156,891

0

61,797

68,200

26,894

156,337

0

61,645

68,637

26,055

168,793

0

61,993

81,147

25,653

Mid-West

226,194

40

77,888

75,226

73,040

214,268

0

53,567

88,486

72,215

231,084

40

56,393

96,158

78,493

M. G. do Sul

48,380

0

13,233

21,800

13,347

38,268

0

1,699

24,186

12,383

42,666

0

1,913

28,998

11,755

Mato Grosso

49,025

0

17,097

22,087

9,841

40,701

0

5,170

26,472

9,059

39,705

0

1,510

29,262

8,933

Goiás

78,503

40

24,987

31,339

22,137

85,809

0

25,773

37,828

22,208

95,930

40

30,152

37,898

27,840

Federal District

50,286

0

22,571

0

27,715

49,490

0

20,925

0

28,565

52,783

0

22,818

0

29,965

Source: Ministry of Education/ INEP /SEEC

In this sense, the negative growth of enrollments represents a painful but necessary adjustment in the division of resources between the various levels of education and implies no reduction in the service rendered to the age groups under consideration.

The data presented in Table 18 relating to the distribution of children in pre-school programs by age group indicate the age/grade gap and its gradual correction in the course of time. They also reveal that in 1996 a reasonable portion of children of 7 or over were covered by pre-school programs. This was a sign that in the following years there would be - as indeed there was - a decrease in enrollments in that level of education, affecting older children who moved on to primary education. For the educational policy, this represents a challenge to regain the gross rate of previous coverage and to stimulate further growth.

In the case of pre-school programs, the indicators show a better distribution of enrollments between the rural and urban areas than in the other levels of education. As a matter of fact, although the percentage of enrollments in the rural area is much lower than in the urban and has actually declined since 1996, one must take into account the continuous reduction of the rural population throughout this entire period. Between 1991 and 1996, years in which IBGE data were available to the Ministry of Education, the relative participation of the rural population fell from 24.4% to 21.6%. In the same period, however, enrollment in both levels rose 25.6%, a bigger growth than the 16.4% registered for children in the urban area (Table 19).


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