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variation of the proficiency averages in Mathematics and Portuguese from 1995 to 1997.

Chart 2 – Position of the units of the federation vis-à-vis the difference in average proficiency in mathematics between 1995 and 1997

Difference in average between 1995 and 1997

Decrease in proficiency (average)

(statistically significant decrease)

Stability

(statistically insignificant difference)

Increase in proficiency (average)

(statistically significant increase)

4th primary education

 

RR, DF

Brazil, N., NE., SE., S., M-W.

RO, AC, AM, PA, AP, TO, MA, PI, CE, RN, PB, PE, AL, SE, BA, MG, ES, RJ, SP, PR, SC, RS, MS, MT, GO

 

8th primary education

 

RR, SP, DF

Brazil, N., SE., S., M-W.

RO, AC, AM, PA, AP, TO, MA, PI, CE, RN, PB, PE, AL, SE, BA, MG, ES, RJ, PR, RS, MT, GO

NE.

SC, MS

3rd secondary education

 

 

Brazil, N., SE., M-W.

RO, AC, AM, RR, PA, AP, TO, MA, PB, AL, SE, ES, RJ, SP, PR, MT, GO, DF

NE., S.

PI, CE, RN, PE, BA, MG, SC, RS, MS

Source: Ministry of Education/INEP/ DAEB – SAEB 95/ 97

In Portuguese, the situation is very similar to that found in Mathematics (Figure 2). There are few significant changes to the average proficiencies for Brazil and regions.

Chart 3 – Position of the units of the federation vis-à-vis the difference in average proficiency in Portuguese between 1995 and 1997

Variation in averages between 1995 and 1997

Decrease in proficiency (average)

(statistically significant decrease)

Stability

(statistically insignificant difference)

Increase in proficiency (average)

(statistically significant increase)

4th primary education

 

M-W

RJ, GO, DF

Brazil, N., NE., SE., S.

RO, AC, AM, RR, PA, AP, TO, MA, PI, CE, RN, PB, PE, AL, SE, BA, ES, SP, PR, RS, MS, MT

 

MG

8th primary education

 

Brazil, SE

ES, SP

N., S., M-W.

AC, AM, RR, PA, AP, TO, MA, PI, CE, RN, PB, PE, AL, SE, BA, MG, RJ, PR, SC, RS, MS, MT, GO, DF

 

NE.

RO

3rd secondary education

 

Brazil, SE

SP

N., S., M-W.

RO, AC, AM, RR, PA, AP, TO, MA, CE, RN, PB, AL, SE, BA, ES, RJ, PR, SC, RS, MS, MT, GO, DF

 

NE.

PI, PE, MG

Source: Ministry of Education/INEP/ DAEB – SAEB 95/ 9

The results of the evaluation of primary education show that guaranteeing the desirable level of education to all students still represents a great challenge for the Brazilian educational system. In order to overcome this situation, it is vital to go on trying to improve and better adjust the training and practice of teachers in the lower grades of primary education so as to broaden their knowledge and use more effective and innovative methods. It is essential to assess the quality of the teaching resources that are being used and even review the curricular proposals now in effect, because only based on such knowledge it is possible to define and implement alternative forms of intervention that will enhance the students' opportunities and levels of learning.

8. Summary of Core EFA Indicators

To make comparison with other countries easier, we present the Core EFA Indicators for Brazil in consolidated fashion. The text contains many other indicators.

8.1 Early Childhood Development Programs

Gross enrolment ratio in early childhood programs

Table 55 - Gross enrollment rate in pre-school by gender and total – Brazil – 1998*

Gross Ratio

Gender Ratio

Total

50.4

Masc.

50.2

Fem.

50.5

Source: MEC/INEP/SEEC

* This indicator includes the data relating to gross enrollment in reading and writing classes.

Percentage of entrants into grade 1 with ECD experience

These data are not available in the case of Brazil. The statistics that refer to the 1st grade of primary education do not distinguish the students who had access or not to pre-school. Nevertheless, considering that enrollment in pre-school and reading and writing classes corresponds to about half of the 4-6 age group, it may be concluded that around 50% of new entries to primary education did have access to pre-school.

8. 2 Primary education

Gross intake rate in primary education

Data not available in the case of Brazil because the School Census for the 1st grade does not collect data on entrants and repeaters.

Net intake rate in primary education

Data not available in the case of Brazil because the School Census for the 1st grade does not collect data on entrants and repeaters.

Gross enrolment ratio in primary education

Table 56 - Primary education – Gross enrolment ratio – Brazil – 1970/1998

Year

Gross Ratio

1970

81

1980

98

1991

106

1994

114

1996

116

1997

119

1998

128

Source: Ministry of Education/INEP/SEEC

Net enrolment ratio in primary education

Table 57 - Primary education – Net enrolment ratio – Brazil and regions – 1996/1997

 

1996

1997

1998

Brazil

90.5

93.0

95.3

North

86.1

89.3

90.4

Northeast

84.3

89.1

90.0

Southeast

94.7

95.9

97.4

South

94.7

96.1

96.2

Mid-West

94.6

94.4

93.9

Source: MEC/INEP/SEEC; IBGE- Population Count – 1996

Obs.: Data estimated by Carlos Américo Pacheco (NESUR/IE/UNICAMP) and José Marcos Cunha (NEPO/UNICAMP)

Current public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Table 58 - Public expenditure on education by program – All levels of government as a percentage of the GDP: R$814,073,365,500(*) – Brazil – 1995

 

All levels of government

Administration

0.76

Early Childhood Education (0-6 years)

0.22

Primary Education

1.46

Secondary Education

0.37

Higher Education

0.96

Physical Education and Sports

0.14

Students Aid

0.18

Special Education

0.05

Retirement and Pensions

0.49

Total

4.62

Source: NESUR/FECAMP.

(*) Values in R$ of 1997.

Current public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total current public expenditure on education

Table 59 - Public expenditure on education by program and level of government responsible for costs – Brazil - 1995 (%)

Level of government

Federal

State

Municipal

Administration

16.36

18.69

7.10

14.71

Early Childhood Education (0-6 years)

0.18

0.30

14.67

4.48

Primary Education

8.81

44.54

65.17

41.52

Secondary Education

5.52

7.38

0.58

4.92

Higher Education

42.32

18.61

0.02

19.18

Physical Education and Sports

0.31

0.96

3.37

1.50

Students Aid

0.24

1.24

1.28

1.00

Special Education

0.37

0.50

1.10

0.64

Retirement and Pensions

25.89

7.78

6.69

12.05

Total

100.00

100.00

100.00

100.00

Source: NESUR/FECAMP.

Percentage of primary education teachers with academic training (minimum officially required qualification) – four lower grades and four final grades

Table 60 - Primary Education– 1st-4th grades – Percentage of teachers with required training/qualifications – Brazil - 1998

Without minimum training

With minimum training

Above minimum training

11.9

66.5

21.6

Source: Ministry of Education/INEP/SEEC

Obs.: The minimum training is complete secondary education. Above the minimum training are the teachers with higher education.

Table 61 - Primary Education– 5th-8th grades – Percentage of teachers with required training/qualifications – Brazil - 1998

Without minimum training

With minimum training *

24.2

75.8

Source: Ministry of Education/INEP/SEEC

* The minimum training is complete higher education. There are teachers with training above the minimum, that is, with Master's and Ph.D. degrees, but these cases were not computed separately.

Percentage of primary teachers with teaching certificates according to national parameters

Data not available in the case of Brazil.

Student/teacher ratio

Table 62 - Primary education – Student/teacher ratio – Brazil – 1975/1998

Year

Student/teacher ratio

1975

21.8

1980

25.6

1985

23.8

1987

23.0

1989

22.9

1991

22.5

1996

23.9

1997

24.2

1998

24.9

Source: MEC/INEP/SEEC


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