The EFA 2000 Assessment: To know more about the EFA movement
Homepage of country reports
Country reports listed alphabetically
Country reports by region
Homepage of the World Education Forum

  National Coordinator:

Name: Mr. Pema Thinkley
Ministry of Health and Education, Education Division
Phone: (975-2) 25-146
Fax: (975-2) 25-183

Education For All
An Assessment of the Progress
Education Dvison
Ministry of Health / Ministry of Health / Education Division
Ministry of Health and Education
Royal Government of Bhutan / Thimphu
(November 1999)

The purpose of this report is to review the progress, achievements and shortfalls in the provision of basic education for all children, youths and adults for the ultimate goal of Education For All by the year 2000. An assessment of the report will enable us to construct a comprehensive picture of the progress towards the EFA goals since 1990, identify and prioritise strategies for overcoming difficulties and accelerating progress and revise national plans of action accordingly.

The report looks at the programmes geared towards the goal of Education for All. It describes in detail the strategies, objectives and progress in the areas of early childhood development, primary education, and non formal education. The indicators for the whole country are worked out mainly at the national level only, given the lack of region-wise demographic data.

The main sources of data used in this report are the Statistical Yearbook of the Central Statistical Organisation, Education Statistics of the Education Division and the 7th and 8th Five Year Plan Documents published by the Planning Ministry. Although the Education enrolment data are based on yearly school census and as such accurate, other data such as demographic data are only estimates based on sample surveys. The National EFA Task Force with members from representatives of Education Division, Planning Commission, Youth Development and UNICEFCountry Office were instrumental in initiating and putting to shape this report. UNICEF and UNESCO have also provided valuable guidance in finalizing the report.

Table of Contents


Executive Summary

Part I


1. Education System

2. Education Administration

National EFA Goals and Targets

National EFA Strategy and Programmes:

3. Early Childhood Care and Development

4. Primary Education Enrolment Expansion

    Community Schools

    Development of Boarding Schools

    Rehabilitation Programme of Existing Schools

    Private Primary Schools

    -Advocacy Programme For Primary Education

    Education for The Disabled

    Teacher Training

Primary Education Quality

    -New Approach to Primary Education

    -Improving the Supply of Learning Materials

    -Improving the Internal Efficiency of the System

    -Improving Management of Education Resources

5. Alternative Channels of Education

    -Monastic Education

    -Non Formal and Literacy Programmes

National EFA Decision-Making and Management

Cooperation in EFA

6. Support from Beneficiaries

7. Other Sectors in the Government

8. Donor Agencies

Investment Since 1990

Part II

Progress Towards Goals and Targets

9. Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Development Activities

    Declaration of Universal Child Immunisation in 1991

    Improvement in Nutrition of Children

    Enhanced Enrolment in Pre-primary School

    Establishment of Nurseries/Day Care Centres in Urban Areas

    Non Formal Education

10. Primary Education Enrolment Expansion

    -Community Schooling Programme

    -Expansion and Development of Existing Schools

    -Feeding/Boarding Programme

    -Free Textbooks and Stationary

11. Girls Enrolment2

12. Education For The Disabled13

13. Primary Education Quality

    -Teacher Numbers and Quality

    -Distance Education

    -Curriculum Improvements

   - Improved Teaching Learning Methods

   - Improved Student Assessment System

   - Enhanced Competencies

    -Professional Support

   - Resource Centres

14. Non Formal Education Programme

15. Expansion of Basic Education and Training

    -Changes and Revision in Formal School Curriculum

    -Basic Skills Development Programme

   - Rigney Education(Traditional Arts and Crafts School)

    -Youth Programmes

    -Youth Centre

   -Increased Acquisition of Knowledge Through Alternative Channels

    -Agriculture Extension Programme

    -Public Health Education

   - Environmental Education

   - Entrepreneurship Promotion and Development

   - Capacity Building at the Block Level

Effectiveness of EFA Strategy, Plans and Programmes

Main Problems Encountered and Anticipated

Public Awareness, Political Will

General Assessment of the Progress

Part III-Prospects

Policy Directions for the Future