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Basic Education in the Nineties

The document entitled "Egypt and the Twenty First Century" issued by the Cabinet of Ministers on 15/31997, stressed the importance of education and learning both to the country and the citizen. The document expressed also the state’s commitment to develop education through an educational system that realises quality and gives access to all pupils to acquire educational experiences to meet their current and future needs.

On the other hand the document is an indicator of the new concept of education as "national security",; a concept that has been conceptualized in the document "Mubarak and Education a Vision for the Future" issued in 1992 . the document considered education the national project of Egypt till the end of this decade. This means the continuity of the efforts of education reform on all levels especially basic education for all .

In addition, basic education is compulsory for all children in the school age (6 to 14 years) according to the law no. 139, for the year 1981. People’s Assembly agrees on 15/5/1999 to return the sixth grade to the first part of basic education, to become six years "low no. 123 for the year 1999". Basic education comprises now two stages: the first stage is primary education which lasts for 5 years and will become six years by the year 2000. The second stage is preparatory education which lasts for 3 years.

Primary Education (the first stage of basic education):

In the context of Gometain declaration principles concerning Education for All (1990), the state focussed on available opportunities for Education for All; besides improving the quality of education in different schools and stages for preparing the individual able to deal with the future. Egypt is considered one of the nine most populous countries .

Within the framework of preparing and assisting citizens to develop their potentialities to meet the challenges of the age, came the initiation of Mrs Suzanne Mubarak, the wife of the President, and chairperson of the Egyptian Organistation for Development and Childhood, to sponsor the organisation of national conferences for the development of education in Egypt. In co-opertion with the Ministry of Education, a National Conference for the development of primary Education was held as a beginning for a series of conferences and efforts which aim at planning and realising reform in Egypt .

The National Conference for the development of primary education curricula held during February, 1993, reflected a significant landmark for qualitative development which formulates the quantitative expansion and represented a distinguished vision of the efforts rendered to achieve reform for the educational process.

National Conference for the Development of preparatory Education was held in 1994; then the National Conference for the teacher preparation and training was held in 1996 .

The following are the main goals of basic education in Egypt as identified by the various laws and according to the resolutions adopted by the National Conferences of Education:

Preparing and developing Egyptian citizens in a manner that will assist them to adjust to the demands of a modern changing society and to face the renewable challenges; besides enabling them to comprehend the religious, national and cultural dimentions of their identify.

Providing the society with citizens who have mastered basic scientific skills, with special emphasis on skills of reading, writing, arithmetic and the disciplines of future sciences (science, mathematics and languages).

Providing citizens with essential fundamental knowledge on health, nutrition, environment and the development related issues:

Preparing and assisting citizens to develop required skills, including analytical skill, critical thinking , scientific skills and problem – solving skills can enable them to respond to ongoing demands and adjust to scientific and technological progress.

In the context of the above mentioned main objectives, the aims of primary education focus on the child’s right to education and his right to enjoy his childhood in such a way that enables to:

Deepen the child’s sense of belonging to his country, while emphasizing loyalty and develop a sense of pride;

Strengthen the child’s faith and pride in his religious, spiritual and social values while respecting the religious of others’ their sacred beliefs and modes of worship;

Acquire the basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, in such a way that leads to smooth effective communication in its various modes through the mother tongue, thus enabling children to communicate with their fellow citizens by means of expressing their opinions, interacting, conversing, and reasoning ;

Develop the scientific way of thinking and the ability for decision making based on related information analysis, thus stressing the concept that the process of thinking is more important than the content;

Face the challenges of the twenty first century, which includes primarily, exposure to the disciplines of the future as well as their everyday applications, while introducing electronic computers and training on applied skills related to modern technology;

Provide and maintain the essentials of health, physical and psychological hygiene and relevant physical education issues;

Acquire the ability to participate positively in team and cooperative work, and the ability to recognize the relationship between rights and duties, between giving and shouldering responsibility within a framework of achieving freedom, establishing democracy, intensifying the sense of self- respect , respect for the others and the sense of responsibility;

Appreciate objectively national heritage, elicit its noble values, make use of its lessons, comprehend the status of his society, its identify as well as understanding the developmental efforts exerted for its promotion and the possibilities of its progress within the context of the scientific, and technological changes and the practices of order and discipline, besides dealing with resources to participate in promoting productivity.

Encourage free and organized activities, initiative work and the desire to explore and discover while emphasizing dignity and the ability to appreciate arts, music and drama, thus creating opportunities besides giving opportunities to practice free opinion, independent will, understanding and arguing rather than rote memorization;

Develop skills and attitude of self education to enable the child to reach accurate information in the various sources within a context of lifelong education and the desire to teach others;

Strengthen the relationship with the environment and develop abilities and experiences of everyday life; and

Provide educational care for the groups with special needs in order to enable them acquire the fundamentals of common culture, in addition to enabling the intellectually and physically gifted to realize their full potentialities.

Achievements in Primary Education:

The Ministry of Education has undertaken a new policy targeting comprehensive development of education in the primary, preparatory and secondary stages, thus addressing a better future and aiming at realizing the main goals of the National Conferences for the development of education which are adopted by the Supreme Council of Pre-University Education:

Constant development of curricula and teaching methods of primary education to meet the modern requirements of education, scientific and technological progress. It is taken into consideration that the number of books have to be limited in the first grades, besides minimizing their size and the amount of information. More attention is given to language, mathematics, religious education and the different activities .

Construct efforts to make education accessible to all children in the compulsory school age as demonstrated in the following table:

Table (5)

The Development of no. of Students in the

Period 1991/1992 and 1998/1999

School Year

No. of Children

Increase

Percentage

91/92

6541725

98/99

7351118

The above table demonstrates the development of no. of children enrolled in the primary stage during the period 1991/1999 with an increase of 809393 which means a percentage of 12.37%.

The educational policy in Egypt aims at realizing universalisation of primary education for all children in the compulsory school age; that is to say six years old children.

The Ministry of Education has succeeded in this concern in realizing an observed increase in the enrollment rates as demonstrated in the following table:

Table (6)

Percentage of enrollment in Primary Education

School Year

Percentage of enrollment

1992/1993

75.12%

1998/1999

86.81%

The above table demonstrates the increase percentage in the number of primary school children, taken into consideration that this percentage does not cover the pupils enrolled in AlAzhar education .

The next table demonstrates the development of the percentage of female percentage as contrasted to the total enrollements in primary education .

Table (7)

Development of the no. of pupils of primary education

in the period 89/1990 and 98/1999

School year

Male

Female

Total

Percentage

1991/1992

716341

607014

1323355

54.3%

45.7%

1998/1999

688282

633378

1321660

52%

48%

The above table demonstrates that the increase in the percentage of enrolled girls in primary education is almost near the percentage of female representation in the Egyptian society which reaches about 49% according to the census of 1996. This is considered one of the main indicators of educational equity, on the other hand, it refers to the fact that gender disparity is about to disappear in Egypt .

Rendering special attention to the various levels of learning memorizing, analyzing, deduction and problem solving of rote memorization. The Ministry has undertaken a policy for increasing the numbers of teachers covering classes and pupils.

This is elaborated by the following table .

Figure (1)

Table (8)

Demonstration of the development in the no. of teachers

and the quota of teachers for each classroom

in primary education 1991/1992 – 1998/1999

Sch. Year No. of Teachers No. of Classes No. of Pupils No. of pupils for each teacher Quota of teachers for each class

91/1992

253801

146420

6402472

2523

1.7

1998/1999

314528

173520

7351118

23.37

0.55

Increase

60727

27100

949646

27100

60757

Percentage of Increase

19.31%

15.62%

12.92%

   

The table above shows that the increase in the numbers of teachers exceeds the increase in the number of classes and the number of pupils; which means the degree of attention given to the enhancement of the quality of education.

Dividing primary education into two stages: First: the first three grades, second: the fourth and fifth grades. The purpose of this division is to cope with knowledge objective of education namely, the acquisition of basic skills in reading, writing and mathematics at the end of the first stage. At the end of the second stage, we are sure that the pupils are able to use these skills and apply them freely in the life daily activities.

Responding to the requirements of the child development in the age stage characterised by movement, activity and curiosity. This has been realised through introducing educational activities which include physical, psychological, musical and theatrical skills; also through appropriate practical skills and free activities. At least 30% of the curricula is devoted to such activities.

Giving a big share of proportional weight of knowledge to learning, writing, Arabic hand writing and different other skills in no more than 70% of the educational plan.

Renovations in Primary Education

In the Field of School Organisation:

Within the framework of developing and promoting school building, considerable attention is given to develop school grades and classrooms to be replaced by suitable equipped rooms that conform and match with the different subjects and learning activities.

The rooms provided with educational aids and modern educational technological instruments . Pupils enter these halls according to schedules instead of passing all the school day or part of it in one classroom. Consequently, children are allowed to move freely and refresh themselves, while at the same time utmost utilization of the school building is realised.

Special attention is devoted to the development of school equipment of particularly the teaching aids, and other requirments.

New Inputs in School Curricula:

Teaching the English Language in the 4th grade of primary education has been provided since 1994. The French language has been taught in the same grade starting with the following year. The teaching of these languages is intended to be basis for learning them later on.

An experimental language school has been established to teach the French language.

A special concern is rendered to ensure promoting the scientific aspects of the pupils’ practical abilities and talents through the introduction of conservation and restoration lessons in the fourth and fifth grades. Hence pupils will actually acquire live practical experiences as well as develop their potentialities.

Focussing on providing school curricula with the environmental and population educational concepts.

As regards improving the cognitive abilities, children are trained to have access to the sources of information by themselves especially the library in order to develop skills of self-teaching. This is persued within the framework of meeting the child growth requirements of this stage which could also be achieved through various educational activities that provide physical, artistic, and musical skills as well as other free activities.

Particular attention is given to learning Arabic handwriting as an independent subject as concerns the classes and the grades.

Particular attention is given to ensure ongoing developments in primary education curricula .

Certain classes are specified to the school library .

Activities:

Realizing the linkage between the primary school activities and the surrounding environment through curricula and activities, so that the role played by the school should include developing and promoting the surrounding social environment as well.

Training and encouraging children to practice rhetory, theatrical, artistic, scientific and sport activities.

Preparing special programs for the clever and the gifted . Besides rewarding them with honouring certificates, plans are set up to develop and improve their talents and potentialities

Diversification of Education Funds:

Encouraging private sector and businessmen to participate in funding education.

Encouraging the establishment of co-operatives aiming at the establishment of basic education schools which track the model of national institutes.

Pupils Assessment:

It is planned that the assessment of primary education pupils is undertaken on a comprehensive basis. It should not be limited to written examinations, but it ought to extend so as to include oral and scientific exams; besides measuring performance in view of the gained experiences.

The psychological state of the pupils is taken into consideration through reducing the daily home assignments to allow them enjoy themselves and practice useful activities.

Primary Teacher Preparation and Training:

In order to raise the standard of the teachers, the sources of preparation have been unified. In this regard the following steps were undertaken:

Implementation of the project scheduled to upgrade primary teachers, by raising the standard to the university level. About ten thousand teachers are enrolled annually in 15 colleges of Education.

Establishment of new departments for upgrading primary teachers within the colleges of education.

Establishment of specialized colleges of education to provide teachers of art, music, home-economics … etc.

In the field of in-service training, the following measures are carried out:

Increasing the number of training programs organized by the Ministry of education through training centers.

Providing special training on educational evaluation and assessment through the National Center of Examinations.

Providing continuous distance training through video- conference classes spreading all over the country.

Giving attention to raising the cultural standard of the teachers through providing the recent developments in education . In this regard, the National Center for Educational Researches and Development has published a series of publications dealing with the new prospects in education and they are put at the disposal of all teachers throughout the country .

Indicators of Achievements in Primary Education Indicators (3,4,5,6)

Table (9)

Apparent gross intake rate, net intake rate and both gross intake rate

and net intake rate in the same grade (98/99).

 

Indicators 3,4,5,6

Value

Observation

3

Gross intake in primary grade 1

99%

4

Net intake rate in primary grade 1

87%

5

Gross intake rate in primary

99.6%

6

Net intake rate in primary

91.8%

Table (9) demonstrates that the gross intake rate in primary is noticeably high . This is due to either a considerable percentage of children over 11 years old in this grade or to late enrollment in the school right from the start. As for the net intake which is more accurate, it refers to the fact that Egypt is about to reach the total universalisation of children in the primary stage in case Al-Azhar schools are added. These schools are taking increased numbers due to the expansion in this kind of schools; most of which are established by self efforts.

Indicators (7,8)

Table (10)

Indicators of current expenditure on education (97/98)

 

Indicator

Value

Observations

7

Current expenditure on education as a percentage of GNP

19%

8

Public expenditure on basic education as a percentage of the total expenditure on education

14.1%

Indicators (9,10,11)

Table (11)

Percentage of teachers having required qualification

and percentage of pupil teacher ratio

 

Indicators 9,10,11

Value

Observations

9

% of teachers having required qualifications

99.75%

Statistics of MOE (97/98)

10

% Teachers licensed to teach

-

No data

11

% of pupils to teachers

1-24

 

Indicator no. (9) demonstrates that the majority of teachers working in primary schools have the minimum required qualification, which is a high educational qualification. There is a great effort exerted to give teachers in-service training; besides a percentage of pupil teacher ratio seems in a good state. But we have to take into consideration that this percentage is an average of the pupil teacher ratio all over the country . the ratio can differ from region to region.

The above mentioned table demonstrates the interest of the state in the enhancement of education. This interest is shown in the increase of the rate of expenditure in education. The state budget indicates that about 16.4% million Egyptian pounds are allocated to education. The increase of expenditure on basic education is abort 45% (7.6% annually). Allocation of investment in basic education (school building and infrastructure) has increased by about 35% (7.3% annually) during the period from 91/1997. The share of education from government expenditure increased from 12% to 19% during the period 1991/1997. It is worthy to say that the budget has increased to 16.4% in the year 1999/2000; besides a great attention is given to the different levels of education as concerning promoting the level of primary education teachers scientifically and educationally .

Indicator (12,13,14,15)

Table (12)

Rates of repetition and retention till

the fifth grade and coefficient of efficiency

 

Indicator

Value

Observations

12

Rates of grades repetition

5.60%

Details in table 13

13

Rate of retention till

91.74%

Average of the years 1991-1996

14

Coefficient of efficiency

91.7%

Average of the years 1991-1996

15

% pupils who reached the fourth grade in primary education and acquire a group of skills a greed upon.

No data

 

Indicator 12

The general rate of repetition in the primary stage as demonstrated by indicator (12) can not be considered high; but the detailed schedule of grades shows an irregular increase towards the high grades of primary education .

Table (13)

Percentage of repetition in the primary education grades

92/1993 – 97/1998

Gr. 1

Gr. 2

Gr.3

Gr.4

Gr. 5

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

92/93

0.33

0.29

7.19

5.23

6.40

4.62

10.68

8.25

12.74

9.53

93/94

0.19

0.17

7.69

5.45

10.48

6.80

11.35

8.24

15.38

11.20

94/95

0.19

0.16

6.56

4.54

7.51

4.80

9.41

6.78

14.65

10.83

95/96

0.28

0.23

6.45

4.49

8.17

5.12

10.20

7.07

13.98

10.52

96/97

0.69

0.53

5.14

3.40

5.31

3.19

7.75

5.20

10.68

7.29

97/98

0.64

0.50

4.58

3.04

5.18

3.11

8.21

5.34

11.52

7.66

The above mentioned table shows that the ratio of retention till the fifth grade of the primary stage, surpasses 90%. It refers to law ratio of dropouts among the pupils enrolled in the primary stage. Indicator (14) refers to the high ratio of coefficient of efficiency, which exceeds 90%.

Awareness campaigns have been launched to face the drop out phenomenum. They focus on the dissemination of the importance of education for both boys and girls.

The most deprived areas are given more attention; especially in rural areas. Therefore the ratio of dropouts in the primary stage was reduced as shown in figure(2).

Figure (2)

Preparatory Education (the second stage of basic education)

Preparatory education represents in particular the middle stage of the education phases. It formulates a linkage between the parts of the educational process. The preparatory school has a distinguished character and a specific function. It is the stage which enables the pupil to recognize his attitude and discover his abilities in order to be properly directed to the suitable kind of learning in the secondary education. During this stage national culture is consolidated. It is a medium stage between the primary which is the large basis of education and the secondary stage where the pupils identify their specialization in order to continue their university education. Hence forth, it plays a very important role in building and formulating the pupil’s personality, for it raises interest in public affairs and national issues. The preparatory school also constitutes the first stage of forming consciousness and the feelings of the pupil. It represents the stage of changing from childhood to youth. Consequently it often witnesses the psychological changes that shape the attitudes of the normal citizen . It is in this stage that a pupil could be guided to continue either in the general or the technical secondary stage or to practice work independently after having the appropriate training.

Within this context, the National Conference for the Development of Preparatory Education was held in November 1994. It was chaired by Mrs Suzanne Mubarak in her capacity as a chairperson of the Egyptian Organization for Development and Childhood . This conference is a continuation of the previous one on Primary Education. Participants in the Conference included public figures as well as members from the People’s Assembly and the Shura (Consultative) Council besides representatives of consultative bodies, international and foreign organizations and embassies. It was also attended by deans of education Faculties, professors of education., members of Al-azhar and the Teachers’ syndicates, teachers, parents, members of research centres…etc.

Preparatory Education Functions and Objectives:

In the light of the current educational policy and its principles preparatory education aims further at achieving the following targets:

Eliminating the main sources of illiteracy while enabling the learner to master communication skills,

Emphasizing the components of the values acquired by the learner on a rational basis,

Helping the leaner realize social cooperation and contribute to the welfare of the society,

Equipping the learner with the principles, values and the skill that would enable him to work, adjust and interact with a technological society,

Providing the learner with the essential fundamentals of knowledge,

Assisting the learner to develop his skills of the self-learning.

In the light of this philosophy and the above mentioned objectives, preparatory education aims further at achieving the following targets:

Fulifilling and realizing the objectives of the primary stage as regards developing the physical, mental, emontional and social potentialities of the learners in order to cope with their growth in this level of education

Developing and emphasizing democratic attitudes and practices, while establishing the basis for political participation and cooperative work by means of various school activities in such a manner that would enable the learners to interact positively with the institutions and individuals of the society and shoulders the duties and rights of citizenship.

Reinforcing the fundamentals of the national identity and the Egyptian personality while deepening national loyalty

To realize these essential objectives, special attention is given to changing the structure of the preparatory school in order to become a unified school for all learners, thus realizing the principle of equity in educational opportunities and ensure the provision of essential fundamentals of a common culture for all citizens.

Providing sufficient educational care for the talented and those who have outstanding potentialities as well as those of special needs is being emphasized, while preparing the appropriate programmes for each group, the necessary teaching methods, educational aids and specialized teachers.

The Conference has emphasized in its recommendations the necessity and importance of developing the preparatory school curricula with special emphasis on deepening religious, moral and social values in the religious education with the aim of reaching correct comprehension the religion and respect for the beliefs and faiths of the others. The Conference also recommended the development of teaching the Arabic Language aiming at using classical Arabic in expression, speech and in the different fields and situations. It also called upon the development of the examination system of the preparatory certificate to be terminated on two semesters as a continuation of the system of the first and second preparatory grades of primary education. In this concern a Ministerial Act (no. 301) has been issued on 14/9/1994 which stipulates the application of this system for the examinations terminating the studies of the stage of basic education by the school year 1996/1997 (two semesters: the examination of the first semester is in January and that of the second semester is in June).

The philosophy of preparatory education development:

Preparatory education is based on a number of basic principles complementary to what has been mentioned concerning primary education. the most important of these principles are:

Stressing the religious values through the correct comprehension and understanding.

Developing effective communication skills improving and reinforcing the medium of the Arabic language as a basis for consolidating the national identify. On the same level rendering considerable attention to foreign languages as a means of communication with world civilization.

Giving first priority to the disciplines of the future and studying them deeply and thoroughly.

Developing objective and critical thinking.

Acquiring creative attitudes in order to excel in their work.

Developing self attitudes and tendencies.

Curricula Planning and Development Aims at:

Providing the principle of electives and abiding at the same time by the basic core of subjects.

Stressing the religious and social values.

Giving due attention to teaching Arabic language in a way that enforce the usage of classical Arabic language as a means of expression.

Giving due attention to the teaching of foreign languages and upgrading its level .

In the light of the recommendations of the National Conference for the Development of Preparatory Education the following procedures have been taken:

Reducing the size and number of books but increasing the quality of the content at the same time .

Giving attention to high cognitive levels including understanding, application and analysis .

Development of the study plan to adapt with a full day system of teaching.

The committees for reviewing the recommendations of national conferences of education development:

As a continuation of the efforts of education development; high committees have been formed to review the recommendations of the national conferences for the Development of education. The committees focused on the implementation of these recommendations and how to develop curricula. A reconsideration and analysis of the developed curricula have taken place in the light of field visits and suggestions and in the light of modern changes and aspirations for the future.

The Committees reviewed the curricula of both primary and preparatory stages and highlighted the following points:

The importance of adapting the curricula of primary and preparatory stages to international levels .

Modernization of information and data to match international changes and developments.

Reducing curricula quantity to be appropriate with the pupils age; keeping up the scientific level at the same time.

Inclusion of modern issues and concepts in the content of the books, such as:

Protection & conservation of the environment, health, population, tourism, human rights and development, tolerance, education for peace, respect for work and production quality.

The linkage between curricula and modern technology.

Paying attention to the shape and content of books.

The Committees Recommendations:

The importance of depending on the school book; together with the activities notebook.

The importance of inclusion of the book entitled "the way to excellence" with the pupil’s evaluation manual to provide revision questions which measure the different thinking level.

Preparing the pupil to search for information and to depend on self learning.

Providing teacher guide for each syllabus and each grade.

Quantitative development  91/1992 – 1998/1999

The numbers of preparatory education pupils developed during the period 1991/1999 as shown in the following table:

Table (14)

Development of Pupils’ Number in Preparatory

Education During the Period 1991-1999

Academic Year

No. of pupils

Increase

Percentage

91/1992

3.596.365

98/1999

4.152.624

Table (14) demonstrates that the increase in the no. of preparatory stage pupils amounted to 559.259 which means a percentage of %15.56

Interest in the quality of education:

Table (15)

Academic Year

No. of teachers

No. of Classes

Teachers/Class

91/1992

153555

84917

1.8

98/1999

193469

95453

2.03

Increase

%20.23

%12.4

 

The above mentioned table demonstrates that the percentage of increase in the numbers of teachers exceeded the increase in the number of classes; a matter which reflected the focus on the importance of education quality.

Table (16)

Percentage of Repetition in the Preparatory Education Grades

1992/1993 – 1997/1998

Gr.1

Gr.2

GR.3

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

92/93

13.22

11.56

8.23

6.78

16.11

12.07

93/94

16.84

14.27

9.53

7.75

14.51

10.33

94/95

15.17

12.40

9.21

7.08

14.99

10.81

95/96

12.37

10.15

7.31

5.73

13.56

9.64

96/97

11.96

10.00

6.01

4.46

13.51

9.69

97/98

12.84

10.12

6.65

4.69

14.74

10.69

The table above shows that the ratio of repetition in preparatory grades in the years 1992-1993 and 1997-1998 refers to the tendency towards lower percentage of female pupils repetition.

The following figures demonstrates that :

Figure (3)

Figure (4)

Improving the educational process through advanced technology:

Our world is a world dominated by science and technology which are now the main features characterizing our life. The main concern of Egypt is providing a place in the school for every child; since the challenge of enhancing and developing education is considered since the nineties the main source of interest . The main features of education development are:

Introducing technology to schools: advanced schools have been equipped with multi-media labs, computers and programs for pupils of special needs. Schools have been equipped with advanced science labs. The number of advanced schools in basic education amounted to 608 during the period 1998/1999

Advanced schools have been linked with the internet . An electronic library has been established.

The establishment of science clubs, Educational Technology Discovery Center, technology caravans and, civilization museums; has turned the school to be a center of attraction for the pupils.

Making use of technology in training teachers, inspectors, laboratory specialists, administrative and technical staff.

Educational satellite channel was established in the context of integration and co-ordination between the Ministry of Education, TV & broadcasting Union. The purpose of the channel is to improve the content of the educational process, supporting the principle of self-learning and education for all, enhancing literacy and education of pupils of special needs.

Professional Development of Teachers and Supporting their Abilities

Teachers are considered the cornerstone of education innovation, develop and reform. Therefore improving the teachers status is the main driving force for the educational process. The following measures illustrate the commitment of the Ministry towards the teachers:

Supporting financial incentives .

Addressing the problem of occupational stagnation .

Increasing the remuneration for participation in examinations.

Increasing the allocations of health, social and cultural care.

The numbers of teachers witnessed an observed development; a matter which reflects the interest in the quality of education through increasing the ratio of teachers contrasted with the ratio of pupils. The following table shows the development of teachers in basic education.

Table (17)

Development of numbers of teachers in basic education

1991-1999

Stage

Total no. in 1991

Total no. in 1999

Increase Percentage

Pre-School

7288

14894

104.36%

Primary

273056

314528

15.19%

One Class Room

658

3794

476.6%

Preparatory

153555

193469

26%

The National Conference for the Development of Teacher Training and Welfare (November 96).

The recommendations of the Conference reflected the strong belief in the teachers role as a driving force in the system of education.

Among the main recommendations the Ministry has begun implementing are:

First: the philosophy of teachers preparation:

Supporting the role of the teacher as a co-ordinator in the educational process and not merely carrier of culture and Knowledge .

The teacher is the cornerstone in formulating the comprehensive concept of the development of educational process.

Keenness to furnish the teacher with new educational methods that provide him with means and tools for coping with the spirit of the age.

Ensuring the existence of a clear and stable teacher training policy in the context of a realistic vision, that addresses all aspects of teacher training needs.

Thorough selection of teachers.

Second: the development of teacher preparation:

Thinking of the establishment of a specific council for teacher preparation and welfare.

Insisting on the importance of university level for all educational institutions of different affiliations.

Ensuring specialized training for different teachers.

Ensuring the right selection of the teaching staff in teacher preparation institutions.

Providing all teacher training institutions with pilot experimental schools.

The establishment of an internship program for new graduated teachers.

The establishment of a license system for the authorization of working as a teacher.

Third: Teacher training and welfare:

The establishment of a promotion system linked to the concept of continuous education and obtaining specialized certificates.

The establishment of teacher welfare systems to upgrade his social and economic status.

The establishment of in-service multi-training system for teachers to improve their efficiency and facilitate their access to innovations in their specializations.

The establishment of a distance education system to upgrade the level of basic and technical teachers to reach the level of the first university degree.

The establishment of a training system on the national and international level to give them access to innovations in the developed countries and help teachers to rub shoulder with modern trends in the field of education .

The following measures have been taken to implement the recommendations of the National Conference for the Development of teacher preparation, training and welfare:

Cultural services and facilities for teachers through, providing them with all educational and scientific innovations .

Thirteen books entitled "Prospects and the education field " have been issued by the National Centre for Educational Research and Development.

Providing in-service training through creative means to give access to the best teacher training for big number of teachers of different specialisations; through advanced technological multi-media .

Providing teacher training abroad to upgrade the skills of teachers through utilizing advanced technology and rubbing shoulder with new advances in the educational field in developed countries (England-United States of America – France).

Reforming the teacher material and moral status:

Financial allocations for reforming teacher status as well as solving the problem of occupational stagnation have been increased.

Increasing financial incentives for all teachers to reach 25% .

Increasing the remuneration for school principles in the different educational stages to reach 100% .

Annual increase in the remuneration for participation in examinations to become 170 days compensation, which represents 5% of the basic salary.

The increase of daily, remuneration for participating in the works of General Secondary Education Certificate and other similar certificates, to reach 7% as from the beginning of the academic year 1993/1994.

Supporting teachers hospitals and increasing allocations for teachers social and cultural services.

Supporting teachers’ colleague fund to reach 32 months pay in 1999 in stead of 20 months pay in 1992.

The following training programs indicate the efforts exerted by MOE to upgrade the efficiency and performance of continuous education:

Using advanced technology in the training of the teacher:

Technological means are used in teacher training programs. Technology plays an important role in providing advanced training for teachers . the centre of technological development in the Ministry of Education has been equipped with all necessary technological installation needed for the implementation of efficient training plans. 27 branch technological centres had been established in other educational mudyrrias .All of them are equipped with the following:

Multi media labs.

Advanced science labs in each educational muddyria for the four educational stages with the aim of qualifying specialists and teachers.

Target groups are trained through distance training centres (video conference) .

Optic fibers and satellites are used for remote areas . this network consists of a site in each governorate in addition to the main hall in the Ministry.

Several different training courses are held through video conference to train teachers in the field of curricula and any innovations the school management besides training the school management and the educational "Idarra" The video conference is used also in the field of literacy, one –classroom teacher training, Kindergarten, special education, parents and technical guidance . Curricula Development Centre, the National Centre for Educational Research Development and Faculties of Education are participating with MOE General Education Department in the implementation of the training programs.


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