|The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports|
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Part- II Education for A Better Life
School Buildings and Equipments .
Technological Development in Education .
Development of Educational Management .
Health Insurance .
Attention to Education of Categories of Special Needs .
Basic Education School Buildings and Equipments
Since the President of the Republic adopted the issue of education and considered it as Egypts National Project ,the Ministry of Education exerted a lot of efforts with a certain emphasis on school buildings and equipments, with the aim of giving access to modern built schools that meet with recent tendencies in building and designing schools; in the context of a set of challenges represented in:
Continuous population increase and its bad distribution in certain areas .
Commitment to the principle of free compulsory basic education for 8 years for all citizens.
The destruction and damage caused to some school buildings as a result of October earthquake of 1992.
Shortage of financial allocations needed to face the increasing challenges year after year. Nevertheless the Ministry has worked hard despite these challenges .
The efforts of the Ministry of education in this concern can be summerised as follows:
First : New and replacement buildings:
7500 new schools equipped with labs, libraries and all necessary modern requirments have been establishment, since the beginning of the third five plan started the year 1992 and ended the year 1997 at a cost of 6.8 Million Egyptian pounds.
The fourth five year plan 97-98 /2001-2002 includes the construction of 6.23 classrooms at a cost of 6.23 million Egyptian pounds 35.280 of which to face the population increase 43.218 classrooms to face multi shift classes, 5574 to face class density and 17.516 classrooms to replace demolished schools.
The Technology and science discovery centre was established with the purpose of linking the educational process with the life phenomena surrounding with the pupils which have a relation with the innovated scientific phenomena such as genetic engineering computer sciences space sciences alternative energy geology) .
To eliminate the second shift in the new schools and increase their enrollement capacity (15-30%) the system of mobile classes is used.
The following table demonstrates the continuous increase in the no. of schools established since the year 1991 and till the end of the year 1998.
Table no. (24)
Indicates the percentage of increase in the school number of
kindergarten, basic education, special education and one classroom schools
during the period from 91 - 1998 .
|Year||Kinder.||Primary||Prep.||Special Ed.||One Classroom||Total|
The table indicates an observed increase in the no. of schools (one classroom schools - Kindergartens- special education preparatory education primary education). The increase is a little bit slight in the stage of primary education .
Second: Renovation and maintenance
The General Administration of Educational buildings has set up a renovation and maintenance work plan that began in 1991 and continued till the year 1998. According to the plan, 3000 school buildings were constructed annually.
Third: In the field of developing educational models.
The Ministry of Education takes care of a number of elements in determining the sites, planning, designing and selection of building material of the schools . all school models include ( a library Laboratory- an educational computer activities workshops a class for handicapped kindergarten classes clinic playgrounds)
Fourth: School equipments
School equipments are available for all educational stages, kindergarten classes & benefited from modern equipments such as computers telephones videos slides screens). Moreover, private sector participated in manufacturing educational aids and educational computers, besides universities, institutes, faculties of education, faculties of applied arts, in establishing study departments to graduate specialists in educational aids and technology. The Ministry of Education is keen to renovate technical education schools and to equip them with equipments and advanced technology to meet the changes that takes place on local and international level.
The Technological Development
It is important to emphasize, herein, that education in Egypt is an issue of national security and existence, since it is responsible for upgrading those who are apt of thinking, designing, manufacturing and production. Those who will be able to reformulate reality in order to effect potentions for the future. Hence, infusion of technology does not only imply the provision of equipment. In the first place, it implies development in thinking, deducing the appropriate results, arranging of information and improving the performance of students, teachers and managers. It also implies the broadening of minds and increasing capacities of information exchange and communication.
Technological development targets an educational environment within which students can develop their experiences through self learning and utilization of all information sources and various technological aids, in order to teach them how to have access to information by themselves. Technological development also targets improvement of the quality of information and increasing its efficiency. This can be achieved through: -
Solving the problem of class over density.
Facing the problems of the decreasing numbers of the scientificaly and educationaly qualified teaching staff.
Bearing in mind individual differences among students.
Combating illiteracy, which impedes different fields of development.
Training teachers on scheduling objectives, preparing teaching aids and appropriate teaching methods.
Taking measures for adaptation with the modern educational concepts which look upon the learner as the essence of the educational process.
Raising the standard of the educational directorates in order to meet the world administrative development.
Taking measures to narrow the gap between the handicapped students and the normal.
In Utilization of technological development for the improvement of the quality of education, the Ministry of Education has developed a comprehensive plan for the improvement of education through technological usages. This has been achieved through parallel procedures represented in :
a) A horizontal path: through the provision of equipment in multi-media rooms and the halls of developed sciences, and through receiving the transmission of thematic educational satellite channels, high speed channels, distance education, the Internet, and satellite channels. This is being undertaken in implementation of the strategic plan of the Ministry of Education for the infusion of technological development in all schools.
b) A vertical path: through updating the existing equipment and increasing their numbers in some sectors.
c) Training: of specialists, teachers and operators of these equipment, supervisors and directors.
First: Technological Development in Schools:
Technological development has been provided in 18500 schools all over the country to cover different stages of education (kindergartens, primary, preparatory, secondary) either general or vocational within the five year plan which targets all schools before the end of the Century.
This has been elaborated in the following six major areas:
a) Multimedia Labs :
Computer labs have been established for the projection of multimedia programmes, which are the latest device of self-learning for depending on computers as a teaching aid. Equipment comprised computers, enlargement projectors to display on enlarged wall screens, Television and video sets, interactive CD/ROMs (CDI) for the kindergarten and primary stages, drivers for the CD/ ROMs produced by the Ministry of Education as well as world encyclopedias.
b) Science Developed Labs :
They stress the integration of all sciences. The philosophy of technological development implies providing labs and experimentation during the early stage of pre-school, while giving opportunities for enjoyment and developing the scientific sense in the pupils of the primary stage. At the same time this encourages them to get aquainted with experimentation and having the early capacities of deduction, as well as improving their lab skills and the experimental based thinking in order to reach the needed information through understanding. No doubt, this will result in the breeding up of a manpower able of production and innovation.
c) Knowledge Sources Network :
156 schools and 27 distance training halls are using the internet through direct contact; together with 4330 schools and distance training hall through :
4482 schools, development centre and distance learning hall use the service of electronic mail and screen participation system through the network of the Ministry of Education (internet).
17 Assembling centres have been established in 17 educational mudyrria to make use of the full capacity of EI of the distance training web to reduce the costs of automatic call between governorates and the central Ministry. This facilities the introduction of the internet in the schools affiliated to each mudyrria.
Electronic library was established through "Juke Box" on a central basis and is now being enlarged to cover all governorates in Egypt.
All science clubs (27 clubs) are now functioning in all governorates.
Implementation of all equipment installation in the developed schools (17000 schools).
A home page & the Ministry of Education is set up.
Thus, all school libraries are being supported to be transfered into a comprehensive library and a source of information. They include CD/ROMs, video tapes, and books with teaching aids. They are also connected with the Internet. In addition, a special network is established to connect the Central Library with the Center of Technological Development, hence, allowing the exchange of electronic books. All schools participating in the project can have remote access to the potentions of the Central Library without having to hold extra references in each school.
Developed schools have been equipped by the necessary Internet and the Ministry network connections and electronic mail. This emphasizes capacities for self-learning and search for information. Several students have carried out related distinguished researches and have established special home pages. Expansion is undergoing the Internet services to reach 4 megabite / second in order to increase performance rates to enable a great number of sites and schools exchange files and screen sharing by sound, text and picture.
d) Labs for Receiving educational Satellite transmission:
Developed schools have been equipped for receiving thematic educational satellite channels(as elaborated in the enclosed chart). The effect of these channels is well noted especially in remote areas.
e) Technology mobile teams :
These represent mobile models of the labs mentioned before in order to transfer development to villages and hamlets in remote undeveloped areas. Every educational governorate administration is equipped by mobile labs, with a total number of twenty five. They are transferred from place to place according to the plan of the administration. They have been able to deal with about 1019661 of the teachers, students, social specialists, administrators and parents. They also participate in literacy and the widespread of the culture of handicrafts.
f) Science Clubs :
These clubs aim at finding suitable measures that help develop innovative abilities of the youth. They provide practical and reference potentions through the utilization of computers. These clubs will be transferred in the future into training centers on technological production in the various fields, such as electronics, computers, programming and software etc. They are found in all governorates with a total number of 27 clubs.
Second : The Center of Technological Development and Support of Decision Making is being provided by the necessary equipment which can realize the targeted plan in the fields of information systems, multi-media and video tape productions for the purpose of transmission through the educational thematic channel, in addition to the production of computer programmes, graphics, animation, virtual libraries as well as developing all administrative processes in the Center and the Ministry according to recent systems.
Third : Developing Educational Administrative departments :
Twenty seven centers of technological development have been established or elevated in the educational administrative departments. Centers of training on technological development have been established and provided with multimedia lab equipment and developed science labs for the four educational stages and receivers of educational satellite channels as well as training equipment on networks.
Educational administrative departments are equipped by 575 computers for administrative automation and 477 computers for statistics.
Fourth : Training :
1. Distance Training Network :
A video conference distance education network has been established to link together 27 sites in all governorates and Luxor City (22 sites using optical fibers high speed channels, 5 related sites via Arab Sat (2B), 4 mobile systems via satellite) in order to establish distance training centers in remote areas. Interviews and important celebrations are transmitted through the network in Egypt and abroad.
Distance training, in this way, has realized savings amounting 7:1 of what was spent to train the same numbers in the old traditional way, while facilitating financial and physical burden over the trainees, especially women. This generally raised the numbers of female trainees especially in remote areas.
Thirty four sites on the visual network have been elevated (V.C.) by using E1 systems and satellites.
Directors of different stages, supervisors, teachers, administrators, technicians and specialists have been trained through the training network. Hence, the numbers of trainees since its establishment is (374000) through (267) training courses and (49) special programmes on practices and assessment.
2. Centeral Specialized Training Centers :
A center for training on developed sciences has been established in the premises of the Students Association (June 1998). It has been provided by necessary labs and equipment for training purposes on science in the different stages in all directorates.
A center for training on developed sciences has been established in the Silver Tower (August 1997). It has been provided with science labs for various educational stages with the aim of training specialists, supervisors on the utilization of developed labs.
The training center on networks and multimedia in Al Haram have been provided with (100) computers to reach a total number of (216) computers and a high speed channel for connecting with the Internet. It is scheduled to provide training for all the personnel in the field of education on using networks, each in his own field of specialization.
3.Specialized Training :
About 122000 persons have been trained in all fields. Among the trainees were supervisors, teachers, lab personnel, administrators in the centeral and affiliated training centers, specialized trainers, engineers and technicians for the maintenance of equipment, in addition to special training courses.
Fifth : Information Systems and Dicision Making Support :
The plan of technological development is concerned with necessary studies and information needed for the development of professional governmental performance in the fields of education and administration. Because the Ministry is rendering great importance for improving performance, a database has been designed to cover all schools using the software (oracle), while taking measures for reconsidering various educational projections. Linkages between the Organization of Schools Building and the Department of Information and Statistics have been realized in order to exchange information, design and carry out applications for twelve departments located in the premises of the Ministry. They also aim at training personnel on the following:
a) Administrative automation and developing Communications :
This targets the utilization of computers on a wide scale in sectors and directorates affiliated to the Ministry with the aim of improving performance, as well as the restoration and classification of information, the establishment of a local network for the exchange information and facilitation of the work.
b) Databases : It concerns the establishment of necessary databases concerning schools, their equipment, teachers and their conditions, while concentrating on the information about the distinguishing or the impeding conditions for undertaking the principles of awarding or punishing, as well as having databases on teachers in missions abroad for follow up measures.
c) Documentation by Scanning : This aims at establishing a documentation system for the classification and indexing of all the documents of the Ministry including Ministerial decrees, media coverage of various ministerial activities in coordination with the Center of Technological Development and the Centeral Department of the Technical Secretariat.
d) Geographical Information Systems : This aims at the establishment of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) that connect the development plan with the sites of the schools participating in the project, in order to nominate the schools in the coming stages on geographical and scientific bases. It also aims at providing linkages between geographical sites and the related cultural, economic, social and environmental information, in order to support the educational decision making in general.
e) Expertise Banks : The Center of Technological Development intends to have the assistance of many distinguished experts in all the fields related to the teaching of sciences, engineering, computers, information, medicine, agriculture, education, arts, cinema, administration, monuments, environment either planned for or carried out by the Center.
Sixth: Production Fields:
Multi-media: A number of (138) programmes have been produced for the different educational stages in the governmental and experimental schools.
Computer Graphics: A number of (70) films using computer graphics systems have been produced.
Video Films: A number of 75 films have been produced.
Students with Special Needs: Five multi media programmes have been produced for the service of students with special needs. They include the visual dictionary for the deaf.
Seventh: Supporting the Educational Satellite Thematic Channel:
The Center of Technological Development and Decision Making Support has contributed in producing programmes for the educational satellite channels as well as enriching and teaching films, through translating into Arabic and producing films based on world encyclopedeas. The number amounts to (68) multi-media films produced on Betacam tapes and 75 enriching films.
A number of (9478) schools, (27) educational directorates, (239) educational administrations and (25) mobile technological troups have been equipped with receivers of the transmission of educational satellite channels. The impact of these channels have been recorded in schools of remote areas, according to transmission tables in the Ministry of Information as indicated in the annexed table.
Eigth : The Thematic Educational Satellite Channel :
In an attempt of making use of all potentions of the Egyptian ( Nile Sat), the thematic educational programmes have occupied a whole satellite channel. Transmission started for schools in November 1998.
The first channel has been dedicated for primary education, the second channel for preparatory education, the third for secondary education, the fourth for technical education, the fifth channel for languages and the sixth for enlightenment. A special channel is being prepared for upgrading teachers, and another one for literacy programmes.
The main objectives of thematic educational channels have been decided upon to achieve :
Improving the qualitative components of the educational process.
Enhancing the concept of self-learning and self-independence on the part of the students.
Providing innovative programmes in all subjects for all the educational stages.
Providing programmes enriching the subject curriculae, besides providing general cultural programmes emphasizing contemporary scientific conceptions for the general audience.
Realizing the various aims of education, learning for all and continuous education.
Promoting exerted efforts for literacy, adult education and post literacy.
Introducing futuristic teaching and educational conceptions, while relating the audience with current events.
Practical upgrading in some professional specializations.
Providing programmes on professional specializations and life requirements for the audience at large.
10.Providing informion to the audience on the present and futuristic educational issues.
11.Contributing in enriching the academic and educational culture of the teachers.
12. Enabling people with special needs and people with special aptitudes to achieve their ambitious goals.
Futuristic Prospects in the Field of Educational Technological Development :
Ambitious approaches in the field of education are very wide. Through these ambitions it is targeted to realize the following:
In the field of the distance training network V.C.
- It is intended to expand the network in order to cover (260) educational directorates through three phases. Starting by the end of 1999, nearly 45 directorates will be covered, thus enabling them hold grouped training courses or courses for separate groups in the governorates.
- Connecting the local distance training network with the colleges and scientific centers for the purpose of training teachers through the U.S.A. and some European countries.
Connecting the local distance training network with similar networks in the Arab and African countries to realize their integration.
In the field of technology in schools
Horizontal expansion of technology usages in schools :
Kindergarten 393 schools
Primary 5833 schools
Preparatory 62 schools
Special education 402 schools
Support of technology usages in private schools:
- Kindergarten 1145 schools
- Primary 1205 schools
- Preparatory 747 schools
-Secondary 323 schools
Vertical expansion in provision of computers and display equipment in schools with the contribution of the private sector and donating bodies
Expansion in establishing a network of electronic libraries covering all governorates, through 3 stages. The first stage commences on October 1999. It will provide schools with databases and CD/ROM holdings in addition to visual display tapes of the central technological centers and their affiliates.
Arabization of subjects from the Internet to the Intranet of the Ministry of Education in order to realize :
- increased access to research in networks.
increased potentions of electronic linkages among schools.
Increase the capacity of the Ministrys network to include 10000 schools with a range of (4) megabites / second, in October 1999 for the first stage and (8) megabites / second for the second stage.
This will lead to enhancing the potentions of :
The system of interactive communication.
The system of educational transmission through the network.
The system of visual educational transmission through the network.
The Electronic library and World Networks:
- Interactive television (ITV)
Integrated units for self learning using computers.
3) Expension in establishing schools of the future :
These schools comprise groups of developed labs:
genetic engineering lab environment lab the history of the earth lab laser lab robot and artificial intelligence lab communication lab networking lab health and fitness lab.
4) Rendering importance to students with special needs :
Preparing a series of video tapes to provide retarded students with life and behavioural skills, in order to associate them with the community, intensify their native feelings, and help them integrate in their environments.
Preparing CD/ROMs to teach curriculae for the handicapped and provide computers and special programmes.
Producing a special dictionary for the Arabic vocabulary to meet the needs of the deaf.
Using the Braille method for printing the curriculae.
Providing appropriate teaching aids for each kind of handicaps.
Training on using modern technology.
5) Expansion in establishing Science clubs :
For educational directorates, the establishment and provision of equipment for :
Electronic equipment labs.
Computers and printers labs.
Computers simple labs.
Integrated labs for biology.
Labs for the environment and measuring pollution.
Labs for astronomy and solar energy.
6) The Educational Channel :
Establishing the interactive educational channel.
Expansion in establishing viewing centers to receive transmission of educational channels.
Planning for 1999/2000 and the following years cover :
increase in transmission hours to become 5 hours daily, while adding 22 new programmes and repeat their transmission twice or more every day.
Fridays are chosen for live repition of the transmission of the curriculae programmes of the educational satellite channels upon the request of the students, while rendering special importance to enriching programmes through all channels.
7) Information systems :
Establishing the unified automated network of the Ministry of Education including directorates / administrations / schools.
Expansion in new integrated data automation applications for the Ministry and the affiliated bodies and centers.
Enhancing effectiveness and facilitating data flow among departments of the Ministry, while ensuring accuracy in education projections.
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