The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   Egypt
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Previous Page Next Page



Development of the Management ofBasic Education in the Nineties

The school is basically, the educational institution comprising the materials and the manpower which need a good management that can realize the objectives of the institutions.
This part of the report deals with innovations in Education management :

1. Democratic dialogue :

President Hosni Mubarak said that " Progression cannot be realized except through the revival and the release of the Egyptians’ aptitudes and capabilities. Great numbers of the people should participate in increasing production and improve its quality. This target is one of the several and most important responsibilities that we still should work to achieve. Our plan to achieve this objective is to reconsider our concepts as regards the roles entitled to educational and training institutions which are, in fact, productive institutions that should be rendered utmost priority among our investive programmes".
This proves the importance of the serious contribution of all personnel involved in the field of education within the Ministry, the administrative sectors, educational directorates and administrations, as well as all kinds of schools. It intensifies their role in providing conceptions and attitudes that assist in achieving the objectives of education.
This is stated to be the goal the Ministry is attempting to realize recently, depending on the democratic dialogue between the Minister of Education and all educationalists, and even parents and students, which is being carried out on a large scale. It is manifested through the meetings of the Minister of Education with directors of directorates, educationalists and students with the aim of exchanging views and dialogues, on democratic bases, in which all of them are given opportunities to express their opponent views and attitudes. This is also represented in the television programmes and interviews during which discussions are organized between the Minister and the students. In these interviews students are allowed to convey their views concerning innovations and educational reforms, their complaints and how to solve problems on the part of the competent authorities. These acts surely lead to realize a democratic dialogue.

Other manifestations confirming this attitude are:

Video conference meetings:

On the threshold of the Twenty First Century, the Third World Countries are facing the great challenge of assuring their existence. Egypt, the cradle of civilization, has unfortunately become one of the developing countries. Hence, education to Egypt is an issue of national security and of existence.
Bearing in mind the nature and volume of educational problems in Egypt, the Ministry of Education adopted a comprehensive plan for the development of Education through technology, while recognizing that technology is not an end in itself, it is rather a means for enhancing the development of education. Developing education implies improvement of thinking, cognition and understanding, as well as their practical applications.
Using technology is not merely the updating of equipment or techniques, it is promoting thinking in order to be able to dedicate suitable measures and elevate information. It also tends to promote the performance of both the teacher, the student and the managing bodies as well. It also helps develop cognitive abilities for information exchange and communication.
Consequently, education in Egypt has to emphasize developing the capacities of innovation, creation and designing in all fields. Technological approaches are not limited to the provision of new equipment, they tend to develop and arrange intellectual processes.
The video conference network is very useful in arranging meetings among competent officials in the various directorates and educational administrations and distance education institutions.
The Minister of Education contacts the teachers, students and headmasters in all stages of education all over the country through the video conference device.

These dialogues have provided several benefits:

Self-satisfaction for educationalists when they feel that the statesman who is responsible for education is interested in solving their problems.
Strengthening communication channels between the main institution represented in the general premises of the Ministry of Education and the affiliated educational units (the schools).
Fast decision-making and implementation, since these dialogues and interviews immediately point out shortcomings and enable decision makers to adopt right decisions for solving problems.
Utilization of this network implies the democratic atmosphere dominating high level officials and which is reflected over ordinary officials in schools.

B. Visits of the Minister of Education to Schools :

It has been noted recently, the importance rendered by the Ministry to the educational process, particularly in the different types of education starting from technical education and general education in kindergartens to the secondary stage. Dr. Hussein Kamel Bahaa Eddin has dedicated most of his time to examine the paths of the educational process in schools. He is also keen to recognize the problems of education and participate in finding solutions or having the opinions of specialized competent committees. His visits have realized several benefits such as :

Realizing consensus between the views of the authority, here, it is that of the Minister of Education, the decision-maker, and the views and opinions of the branches which form the bases of the educational process.
Enhancing the sense of commitment and continuous supervision and control, as well as field visits by the first level of authority officials. All these measures have helped the control of the educational process in schools, as well as the solution of all encountered problems during the school year.
Increasing self satisfaction on the part of the teachers, the school administration and the involved educationalists which is based on the feelings that the leader in the Ministry is well aware of the conditions of the institutions and is keen to solve any problem.
Strict confrontation of any occurring sudden events or problems in schools.
Assuring the confidence of the society in its educational institutions, while confirming once more the pioneer role played by the school in the community.
Providing the communicational dimension to education in order to focus public interest on the role of educational institutions and shed light on their activities.

C. Strengthening Communication ways:

Communication ways here are between the premises of the Ministry with its different sectors, and the educational directorates, administrations and schools. In the past, this communication was carried out on a vertical basis, from the top level of the authority downwards. In recent years, during the nineties, mutual communication has been realized among senior officials and schools, educational administrations and directorates. This has been achieved due to the provision of recent technological devices, as well as the interest given by the Minister and the leading concerned officials. Network communications have also assisted the ways of communication among them all.
The Egyptian Satellite " Nile Sat" together with the thematic educational channel will also contribute in strengthening communication among schools. They will assist in elaborating lessons of the set curriculae, finding dialogues and raising discussions among students and their teachers either in the same school or among others.

2. Automation of schools and educational institutions :

Administrative automation simply signifies the development of the managerial work either in the Ministry of Education or in the affiliated sectors and institutions, such as research centers whose work is related to education. They are the National Center of Educational Researches and Development and the National Center of Examinations and Educational Assessment, the Center of Curriculae Development, the various sectors of the Ministry, educational directorates in the governorates as well as educational administrations in cities, centers and divisions besides the schools. This development is being achieved through providing computers for automated archiving, establishing databases for providing information on the personnel of each institution including teachers, directors and headmasters, heads of divisions, directors of educational stages and administrations, in addition to personnel of the financial and administrative affairs, stores, libraries and security offices.
The Geographical Information System is utilized to provide information on school sites which assist in planning for comprehensive development.
"Oracle" programs have been used to establish a database comprising all schools, as have already been stated in "Mubarak and Education" for 1999. Various educational projections have been re-examined and linkages have been carried out between the Organization of School Buildings, and the Administration of Information and Statistics for exchanging information. Other applications have been designed and implemented for several departments in the Ministry as well as providing the necessary training of the personnel.
The project of administrative automation is being carried out for all institutions within the Ministry of Education for the service of the educational process. Modern technological equipment play a very important role in schools within the framework of this project, especially with bearing in mind that learning computer skills is not an end in itself but it is a means for the utilization of this technology in developing administrative works in schools and improving their communication with other units, whether they are other schools, supervising educational administrations, the directorates or the Ministry.

3.Developing School Councils :

The school is becoming an enlightening center within its local community. It works for its development and promotion, while getting benefit of its experiences and potentions. This mutual relationship between the school and the local community or the whole society at large is organized through strong effective school councils and associations. For this reason, the Ministry of Education has given importance to activating the role played by these councils, for example, the parental councils, teachers’ councils, the students’ association councils either on the levels of the schools, directorates or the national level.

Developing the role of the parental councils :

These councils were first conceived as a false presentation of democratic education, while the main purpose was collecting money in the form of voluntary contributions that could be spent over various aspects. In an attempt on the part of the Ministry , to develop and activate the role played by these councils, a Ministerial decree no. (5)was issued in 1993 concerning the councils of parents and teachers. Accordingly, the role of the parents is intensified to share actively in the development and implementation of the educational process, as well as achieving the educational goals. Their active participation is realized through financing the purchase of equipment for schools, particularly the teaching aids and technologies. This decree has also realized a pioneer role for the public control and supervision over the standards of education. Moreover, it succeeded in linking the schools with their environments and communities, as well as urging the society to support and activate the schools capacities and activities.
Afterwards, several Ministerial decrees have been issued organizing the works of the councils of the parents and teachers. The Ministerial decree no.(464) was issued in 9/8/1998, according to which the parental council is given the right to follow up the educational process from the beginning to the end. Consequently, it is considered a positive procedure allowing the council’s active participation in managing the educational process. At the same time it enables democracy prevailing inside the school.
The participation of the parental council as regards financement and technological support has been realized through the voluntary contributions providing Television and video sets, cassettes or computers as well as other additional necessary aids to enhance the educational process. The Ministry has intensified its support, as regards encouraging public participation and activating the role played by parents in the educational process. Thus, it has established boards of trustees consisting of eminent personalities of each local community to which the school belongs such as businessmen, academic teachers, engineers, ladies concerned with the social work who pay interest to education and who are ready to help motivate the school performance. Those members are not supposed to have any kids enrolled in the school. This board of trustees which is established on the level of the school, the administration and the directorate aims at :

Connecting the school with the surrounding environment.
Assisting the school in carrying out its teaching and educational responsibilities.
Providing technical assistance to schools concerning dealing with the students and overcoming constraints of the educational process.
Providing financial assistance to schools for the provision of teaching aids, instruments and raw materials to promote the educational services.
Assisting the schools in carrying out educational and productive projects.
It is apparently noted the importance rendered to management and its relation to technological innovations which have been used since the early nineties in all aspects of education including management itself. They have been used on a wide scale to cope with the contemporary age of knowledge explosion, the information revolution and the growing technological development in all aspects of life. These innovations help enrich the educational process and improve its management. They also provide various opportunities to tackle most of its problems.

School Nutrition

The Ministry of Education is paying much attention to school nutrition, because of the positive effects it has on the health of the students and their abilities of comprehesion and understanding. Some diseases attack students as a result of malnutrition and lack of vitamines, as they affect negatively the cells of the brains, hence, they do not improve in their studies. It is well known, in the studies related to human health, that negative effects of malnutrition result from diseases which attack children during their growth. Such diseases may result in permanent effects that may accompany the child through all his life, particularly as regards growth of the nervous system, the heart and the artries. Any sufferings of nutrition disorders affect severely on the cells of the brains and may even ruin them. Consequently the number of the gifted and the intelligent students decrease and the ability for innovation is reduced.
Obviously, we can say that in case that education is based on malnutrition it will not be able to realize its objectives, because the capacities of students for learning and interaction are not promoted, and consequently this will lead to wastage in education expenditure and costs.
Bearing this in mind, the Ministry of Education exerts considerable efforts to school nutrition and its provision, particularly to students in rural areas, the deserts and the urban poor districts. Efforts are addressed mainly to the school stages which require mental as well as muscular efforts on the part of the students, such as students of the secondary stage (agricultural - industrial) and experimental sportive schools.

Beneficiary institutions and individuals of school nutrition:

Students of boarding classes in all stages of education.
External students.
Students of all stages in the desert areas.
Special education students.
Primary school students in rural areas and poor districts in urban areas.
Students of secondary stages ( agricultural - Industrial )
Students of sportive experimental schools.

The Importance of School Nutrition:

Providing students with necessary calories to meet exerted efforts.
Providing students with vitamins to overcome anemea problems and diseases which are wide spread in poor areas. Iron and Zinc are included in the provided meals.
Some meals are provided with iodine since they are introduced in schools in the governorate of the New Valley to protect the students against thyroid gland diseases which affect most of them.
The following table illustrates numbers of students who benefited from school nutrition since 1991 till 1998.

Table no.(25)

Development in the numbers of students

benefiting from school nutrition

1991/1992 – 1998/1999

School year

Number of beneficiary students

Increased numbers

Percentage

1991/1992

3019130

   

1998/1999

8812581

5793451

% 191.9

This table illustrates the increase in the numbers of beneficiary students with a total of (5793451) and a percentage of % 191.9, which shows the great improvement achieved during the past few years. The allocated funds for school nutrition which amounted to L.E 204803791 stresses the importance of this nutrition and its impact on the development of the educational process.

Health Insurance

Health insurance is one of the important measures undertaken by the Ministry of Education concerning the welfare of the students during all stages and through the different types of Education. It tends to render importance to the health care for all the categories of students. This has been achieved in accordance to the recommendations of the health committee in the People’s Assembly, and in response to the resolutions adopted by most conferences held in this direction.
The Ministerial decree (no. 167) issued on 27/5/1990 in the article no.7 on insurance against accidents, stipulates using allocated funds to cover medical expenses for beneficiary students in cases of illness or when the medical authorities do not provide free medication in the school health units, or in the governmental hospitals. They can also be used for purchasing equipment for the handicapped according to medical reports.
The Ministry has also approved the implementation of the school health programme in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the UNICEF in public schools in some governorates. The coordinating committee of this programme has been established in pursuance of the Ministerial decree no.(38) issued on 11/2/1992, in order to arrange efforts exerted by different ministries representing the Egyptian part. It is also responsible for coordinating activities between the Egyptian part and the international organizations. It defines the work plan and the time table for its implementation and designate the persons who will be in charge, those who will supervise its implementation, follow up and evaluate the different stages.
Taking into consideration the importance given by the government to raise the standard of health care offered to school students, as they represent about % 20 of the whole population, it has been thought that this service can be provided through an integrated insurance system depending on accurate scientific planning. Hence, the Ministerial decree no.(99) has been issued in 1992 stipulating that the General Organization of Health Insurance provides an integrated health service for all students, because it has been noted that the standard of the previous services were insufficient for many reasons. Such reasons are : the few financial resources allocated for school health care, the existence of so many bodies responsible for this service (sector of medical treatment / sector of fundamental health care / sector of combating diseases…. etc).
The main objective of issuing such a decree is the promotion of health services, as well as finding new sources for sufficient medical care provided with progressed qualified cadres, and highly equipped with medical instruments in order to introduce an excellent model of planned health care.
The issuance of this decree has been accompanied by its implementation within a very short time and for great numbers of students on a wide geographical scale. All this great job undertaken by the National Organization for Health Insurance within this short period is, by all means, a very remarkable work regardless of all constraints or shortcomings. Since its commencement in February 1993, it has provided considerable efforts to provide service facilities for about 5.1 million students. This number has increased to reach 10.2 million students in October of the same year.
As soon as the Ministerial decree no.(18) has been issued in 1/2/1993, the service of health insurance has covered all students in all the stages of pre university education. It stipulates in its first article that the system covers the following categories:

Kindergarten children.
Students of the basic education stage.
Students of the general and technical secondary education stage and the students of five year vocational schools.
Students of preliminary secondary schools.
Students of the various types of private schools in all stages.

Education of Categories of Special Needs

In pursuance of the principles of equity in education, the Ministry of Education has rendered great importance to provide education equally to all citizens. This can obviously be noted through:
First: Efforts for the disabled:
Efforts exerted by the Ministry of Education are not only limited to field follow up of schools and classes of the handicapped in the various governorates, but they also extend to provide solutions of their own problems. Some of these efforts are:
1- Increasing the numbers of enrolled students in special education schools. Therefore, the numbers of these schools and the specialized teachers increase, in order to provide the educational pedagogical services for the different kinds of handicapped children.

Development of the Management of

Basic Education in the Nineties

The school is basically, the educational institution comprising the materials and the manpower which need a good management that can realize the objectives of the institutions.
This part of the report deals with innovations in Education management :

1. Democratic dialogue :

President Hosni Mubarak said that " Progression cannot be realized except through the revival and the release of the Egyptians’ aptitudes and capabilities. Great numbers of the people should participate in increasing production and improve its quality. This target is one of the several and most important responsibilities that we still should work to achieve. Our plan to achieve this objective is to reconsider our concepts as regards the roles entitled to educational and training institutions which are, in fact, productive institutions that should be rendered utmost priority among our investive programmes".
This proves the importance of the serious contribution of all personnel involved in the field of education within the Ministry, the administrative sectors, educational directorates and administrations, as well as all kinds of schools. It intensifies their role in providing conceptions and attitudes that assist in achieving the objectives of education.
This is stated to be the goal the Ministry is attempting to realize recently, depending on the democratic dialogue between the Minister of Education and all educationalists, and even parents and students, which is being carried out on a large scale. It is manifested through the meetings of the Minister of Education with directors of directorates, educationalists and students with the aim of exchanging views and dialogues, on democratic bases, in which all of them are given opportunities to express their opponent views and attitudes. This is also represented in the television programmes and interviews during which discussions are organized between the Minister and the students. In these interviews students are allowed to convey their views concerning innovations and educational reforms, their complaints and how to solve problems on the part of the competent authorities. These acts surely lead to realize a democratic dialogue.

Other manifestations confirming this attitude are:

Video conference meetings:

On the threshold of the Twenty First Century, the Third World Countries are facing the great challenge of assuring their existence. Egypt, the cradle of civilization, has unfortunately become one of the developing countries. Hence, education to Egypt is an issue of national security and of existence.
Bearing in mind the nature and volume of educational problems in Egypt, the Ministry of Education adopted a comprehensive plan for the development of Education through technology, while recognizing that technology is not an end in itself, it is rather a means for enhancing the development of education. Developing education implies improvement of thinking, cognition and understanding, as well as their practical applications.
Using technology is not merely the updating of equipment or techniques, it is promoting thinking in order to be able to dedicate suitable measures and elevate information. It also tends to promote the performance of both the teacher, the student and the managing bodies as well. It also helps develop cognitive abilities for information exchange and communication.
Consequently, education in Egypt has to emphasize developing the capacities of innovation, creation and designing in all fields. Technological approaches are not limited to the provision of new equipment, they tend to develop and arrange intellectual processes.
The video conference network is very useful in arranging meetings among competent officials in the various directorates and educational administrations and distance education institutions.
The Minister of Education contacts the teachers, students and headmasters in all stages of education all over the country through the video conference device.

These dialogues have provided several benefits:

Self-satisfaction for educationalists when they feel that the statesman who is responsible for education is interested in solving their problems.
Strengthening communication channels between the main institution represented in the general premises of the Ministry of Education and the affiliated educational units (the schools).
Fast decision-making and implementation, since these dialogues and interviews immediately point out shortcomings and enable decision makers to adopt right decisions for solving problems.
Utilization of this network implies the democratic atmosphere dominating high level officials and which is reflected over ordinary officials in schools.

B. Visits of the Minister of Education to Schools :

It has been noted recently, the importance rendered by the Ministry to the educational process, particularly in the different types of education starting from technical education and general education in kindergartens to the secondary stage. Dr. Hussein Kamel Bahaa Eddin has dedicated most of his time to examine the paths of the educational process in schools. He is also keen to recognize the problems of education and participate in finding solutions or having the opinions of specialized competent committees. His visits have realized several benefits such as :

Realizing consensus between the views of the authority, here, it is that of the Minister of Education, the decision-maker, and the views and opinions of the branches which form the bases of the educational process.
Enhancing the sense of commitment and continuous supervision and control, as well as field visits by the first level of authority officials. All these measures have helped the control of the educational process in schools, as well as the solution of all encountered problems during the school year.
Increasing self satisfaction on the part of the teachers, the school administration and the involved educationalists which is based on the feelings that the leader in the Ministry is well aware of the conditions of the institutions and is keen to solve any problem.
Strict confrontation of any occurring sudden events or problems in schools.
Assuring the confidence of the society in its educational institutions, while confirming once more the pioneer role played by the school in the community.
Providing the communicational dimension to education in order to focus public interest on the role of educational institutions and shed light on their activities.

C. Strengthening Communication ways:

Communication ways here are between the premises of the Ministry with its different sectors, and the educational directorates, administrations and schools. In the past, this communication was carried out on a vertical basis, from the top level of the authority downwards. In recent years, during the nineties, mutual communication has been realized among senior officials and schools, educational administrations and directorates. This has been achieved due to the provision of recent technological devices, as well as the interest given by the Minister and the leading concerned officials. Network communications have also assisted the ways of communication among them all.
The Egyptian Satellite " Nile Sat" together with the thematic educational channel will also contribute in strengthening communication among schools. They will assist in elaborating lessons of the set curriculae, finding dialogues and raising discussions among students and their teachers either in the same school or among others.

2. Automation of schools and educational institutions :

Administrative automation simply signifies the development of the managerial work either in the Ministry of Education or in the affiliated sectors and institutions, such as research centers whose work is related to education. They are the National Center of Educational Researches and Development and the National Center of Examinations and Educational Assessment, the Center of Curriculae Development, the various sectors of the Ministry, educational directorates in the governorates as well as educational administrations in cities, centers and divisions besides the schools. This development is being achieved through providing computers for automated archiving, establishing databases for providing information on the personnel of each institution including teachers, directors and headmasters, heads of divisions, directors of educational stages and administrations, in addition to personnel of the financial and administrative affairs, stores, libraries and security offices.
The Geographical Information System is utilized to provide information on school sites which assist in planning for comprehensive development.
"Oracle" programs have been used to establish a database comprising all schools, as have already been stated in "Mubarak and Education" for 1999. Various educational projections have been re-examined and linkages have been carried out between the Organization of School Buildings, and the Administration of Information and Statistics for exchanging information. Other applications have been designed and implemented for several departments in the Ministry as well as providing the necessary training of the personnel.
The project of administrative automation is being carried out for all institutions within the Ministry of Education for the service of the educational process. Modern technological equipment play a very important role in schools within the framework of this project, especially with bearing in mind that learning computer skills is not an end in itself but it is a means for the utilization of this technology in developing administrative works in schools and improving their communication with other units, whether they are other schools, supervising educational administrations, the directorates or the Ministry.

3.Developing School Councils :

The school is becoming an enlightening center within its local community. It works for its development and promotion, while getting benefit of its experiences and potentions. This mutual relationship between the school and the local community or the whole society at large is organized through strong effective school councils and associations. For this reason, the Ministry of Education has given importance to activating the role played by these councils, for example, the parental councils, teachers’ councils, the students’ association councils either on the levels of the schools, directorates or the national level.

Developing the role of the parental councils :

These councils were first conceived as a false presentation of democratic education, while the main purpose was collecting money in the form of voluntary contributions that could be spent over various aspects. In an attempt on the part of the Ministry , to develop and activate the role played by these councils, a Ministerial decree no. (5)was issued in 1993 concerning the councils of parents and teachers. Accordingly, the role of the parents is intensified to share actively in the development and implementation of the educational process, as well as achieving the educational goals. Their active participation is realized through financing the purchase of equipment for schools, particularly the teaching aids and technologies. This decree has also realized a pioneer role for the public control and supervision over the standards of education. Moreover, it succeeded in linking the schools with their environments and communities, as well as urging the society to support and activate the schools capacities and activities.
Afterwards, several Ministerial decrees have been issued organizing the works of the councils of the parents and teachers. The Ministerial decree no.(464) was issued in 9/8/1998, according to which the parental council is given the right to follow up the educational process from the beginning to the end. Consequently, it is considered a positive procedure allowing the council’s active participation in managing the educational process. At the same time it enables democracy prevailing inside the school.
The participation of the parental council as regards financement and technological support has been realized through the voluntary contributions providing Television and video sets, cassettes or computers as well as other additional necessary aids to enhance the educational process. The Ministry has intensified its support, as regards encouraging public participation and activating the role played by parents in the educational process. Thus, it has established boards of trustees consisting of eminent personalities of each local community to which the school belongs such as businessmen, academic teachers, engineers, ladies concerned with the social work who pay interest to education and who are ready to help motivate the school performance. Those members are not supposed to have any kids enrolled in the school. This board of trustees which is established on the level of the school, the administration and the directorate aims at :

Connecting the school with the surrounding environment.
Assisting the school in carrying out its teaching and educational responsibilities.
Providing technical assistance to schools concerning dealing with the students and overcoming constraints of the educational process.
Providing financial assistance to schools for the provision of teaching aids, instruments and raw materials to promote the educational services.
Assisting the schools in carrying out educational and productive projects.
It is apparently noted the importance rendered to management and its relation to technological innovations which have been used since the early nineties in all aspects of education including management itself. They have been used on a wide scale to cope with the contemporary age of knowledge explosion, the information revolution and the growing technological development in all aspects of life. These innovations help enrich the educational process and improve its management. They also provide various opportunities to tackle most of its problems.

School Nutrition

The Ministry of Education is paying much attention to school nutrition, because of the positive effects it has on the health of the students and their abilities of comprehesion and understanding. Some diseases attack students as a result of malnutrition and lack of vitamines, as they affect negatively the cells of the brains, hence, they do not improve in their studies. It is well known, in the studies related to human health, that negative effects of malnutrition result from diseases which attack children during their growth. Such diseases may result in permanent effects that may accompany the child through all his life, particularly as regards growth of the nervous system, the heart and the artries. Any sufferings of nutrition disorders affect severely on the cells of the brains and may even ruin them. Consequently the number of the gifted and the intelligent students decrease and the ability for innovation is reduced.
Obviously, we can say that in case that education is based on malnutrition it will not be able to realize its objectives, because the capacities of students for learning and interaction are not promoted, and consequently this will lead to wastage in education expenditure and costs.
Bearing this in mind, the Ministry of Education exerts considerable efforts to school nutrition and its provision, particularly to students in rural areas, the deserts and the urban poor districts. Efforts are addressed mainly to the school stages which require mental as well as muscular efforts on the part of the students, such as students of the secondary stage (agricultural - industrial) and experimental sportive schools.

Beneficiary institutions and individuals of school nutrition:

Students of boarding classes in all stages of education.

External students.
Students of all stages in the desert areas.
Special education students.
Primary school students in rural areas and poor districts in urban areas.
Students of secondary stages ( agricultural - Industrial )
Students of sportive experimental schools.

The Importance of School Nutrition:

Providing students with necessary calories to meet exerted efforts.
Providing students with vitamins to overcome anemea problems and diseases which are wide spread in poor areas. Iron and Zinc are included in the provided meals.
Some meals are provided with iodine since they are introduced in schools in the governorate of the New Valley to protect the students against thyroid gland diseases which affect most of them.
The following table illustrates numbers of students who benefited from school nutrition since 1991 till 1998.

Table no.(25)

Development in the numbers of students

benefiting from school nutrition

1991/1992 – 1998/1999

School year

Number of beneficiary students

Increased numbers

Percentage

1991/1992

3019130

   

1998/1999

8812581

5793451

% 191.9

This table illustrates the increase in the numbers of beneficiary students with a total of (5793451) and a percentage of % 191.9, which shows the great improvement achieved during the past few years. The allocated funds for school nutrition which amounted to L.E 204803791 stresses the importance of this nutrition and its impact on the development of the educational process.

Health Insurance

Health insurance is one of the important measures undertaken by the Ministry of Education concerning the welfare of the students during all stages and through the different types of Education. It tends to render importance to the health care for all the categories of students. This has been achieved in accordance to the recommendations of the health committee in the People’s Assembly, and in response to the resolutions adopted by most conferences held in this direction.
The Ministerial decree (no. 167) issued on 27/5/1990 in the article no.7 on insurance against accidents, stipulates using allocated funds to cover medical expenses for beneficiary students in cases of illness or when the medical authorities do not provide free medication in the school health units, or in the governmental hospitals. They can also be used for purchasing equipment for the handicapped according to medical reports.
The Ministry has also approved the implementation of the school health programme in cooperation with the World Health Organization and the UNICEF in public schools in some governorates. The coordinating committee of this programme has been established in pursuance of the Ministerial decree no.(38) issued on 11/2/1992, in order to arrange efforts exerted by different ministries representing the Egyptian part. It is also responsible for coordinating activities between the Egyptian part and the international organizations. It defines the work plan and the time table for its implementation and designate the persons who will be in charge, those who will supervise its implementation, follow up and evaluate the different stages.
Taking into consideration the importance given by the government to raise the standard of health care offered to school students, as they represent about % 20 of the whole population, it has been thought that this service can be provided through an integrated insurance system depending on accurate scientific planning. Hence, the Ministerial decree no.(99) has been issued in 1992 stipulating that the General Organization of Health Insurance provides an integrated health service for all students, because it has been noted that the standard of the previous services were insufficient for many reasons. Such reasons are : the few financial resources allocated for school health care, the existence of so many bodies responsible for this service (sector of medical treatment / sector of fundamental health care / sector of combating diseases…. etc).
The main objective of issuing such a decree is the promotion of health services, as well as finding new sources for sufficient medical care provided with progressed qualified cadres, and highly equipped with medical instruments in order to introduce an excellent model of planned health care.
The issuance of this decree has been accompanied by its implementation within a very short time and for great numbers of students on a wide geographical scale. All this great job undertaken by the National Organization for Health Insurance within this short period is, by all means, a very remarkable work regardless of all constraints or shortcomings. Since its commencement in February 1993, it has provided considerable efforts to provide service facilities for about 5.1 million students. This number has increased to reach 10.2 million students in October of the same year.
As soon as the Ministerial decree no.(18) has been issued in 1/2/1993, the service of health insurance has covered all students in all the stages of pre university education. It stipulates in its first article that the system covers the following categories:

Kindergarten children.
Students of the basic education stage.
Students of the general and technical secondary education stage and the students of five year vocational schools.
Students of preliminary secondary schools.
Students of the various types of private schools in all stages.

Education of Categories of Special Needs

In pursuance of the principles of equity in education, the Ministry of Education has rendered great importance to provide education equally to all citizens. This can obviously be noted through:

First: Efforts for the disabled:

Efforts exerted by the Ministry of Education are not only limited to field follow up of schools and classes of the handicapped in the various governorates, but they also extend to provide solutions of their own problems. Some of these efforts are:
1- Increasing the numbers of enrolled students in special education schools. Therefore, the numbers of these schools and the specialized teachers increase, in order to provide the educational pedagogical services for the different kinds of handicapped children.
The following table indicates this increase:

Table no. (26)

Increase in the numbers of students

In Special Education 1991/1998

Schools and affiliated classes

Students

Schools

Affiliated classes

Total

Males

Females

Total

1991

108

99

207

7950

4304

12254

1279

3210

1999

252

178

430

18246

9661

27907

2836

6063

Increase

144

79

223

10296

5357

15653

1557

2853

percentage

133.33%

79.80%

107.73

129.51%

124.47%

127.74%

121.74%

88.88%

Development of theoretical and practical educational curriculae :

The theoretical level:

- Revision of lists of textbooks for the schools of various handicaps.
- Preparation of suggested theoretical conceptions for their development.
- Analysis of general education textbooks starting from the first grade to the third, in order to select the appropriate books suitable for intellectual education.

The level of Practice:

Teaching English language is provided in the first stage of basic education.
Teaching (maintenance and preservation) subjects in the 7 th and 8 th grades of the schools of the deaf and the fourth grade of the schools of the blind.
Blind students of the third secondary are exempted from written and practical exams of the practical fields.
Providing (automatic computation - typewriter machines, drawing instruments, the art of directing and how to use the white sticks).
Providing health and psychological care to all students of special education.
Improving the educational process in schools of the mentally retarded and the deaf through students and teachers manuals.
Distribution of school grades for the mentally retarded has been reconsidered, with the aim of providing one preliminary school year. The policy of integration has been experimented through providing classes for the handicapped in ordinary schools in order to realize gradual, partial or total integration during the activity lessons.

In order to realize comprehensive development for all programmes of special education in Egypt, the Minister of Education has issued some regulations and directives in this regard. They are represented in the following measures:

Establishing a Consultative Committee presided by the Minister to formulate objectives and strategies for special education programmes in Egypt.
Establishing a General Technical Committee comprising competent personalities interested in special education, intellectuals, and academic professors of the fields related to the needs of these students.
Establishing a Specialized Technical Committee to study all the aspects of the educational and pedagogical process and the integrated care that should be provided to these students.
Establishing a Committee for developing the interior missions for upgrading teachers of different kinds and stages of special education.

These efforts have resulted in the convening of the First National Conference on Special Education during (16-19) October 1995, which adopted fundamental principles on which the development processes of special education are based.

Second: Efforts for the talented:

By the fifties of this century, the government is endeavouring to provide special integrated care for all students in general, and especially the talented. In this concern, the General Administration of Special Education is rendering importance to focus on the talented students starting from the kindergarten. Seminars have been held for institutions and university colleges of education and colleges of pre school education with the aim of finding proper ways for discovering and paying attention to the talented. Within the framework of developing special education programmes, other committees have been established to discuss the best appropriate ways for rendering care to these students, preparing special educational programmes as well as upgrading specialized qualified teachers for dealing with them.
Similarly, the Ministry has established many schools such as the Experimental Secondary School of the Talented for Boys in Ain Shams, which is concerned for their academic improvement, and the School of the Sportive Talented in Ismailia City. The Minister has issued several directives about providing incentives to students of the general secondary certificate and of vocational secondary schools who excel in sports.

The following table indicates this increase:

Table no. (26)

Increase in the numbers of students
In Special Education 1991/1998

Schools and affiliated classes

Students

Schools

Affiliated classes

Total

Males

Females

Total

1991

108

99

207

7950

4304

12254

1279

3210

1999

252

178

430

18246

9661

27907

2836

6063

Increase

144

79

223

10296

5357

15653

1557

2853

percentage

133.33%

79.80%

107.73

129.51%

124.47%

127.74%

121.74%

88.88%

Development of theoretical and practical educational curriculae :

The theoretical level:

- Revision of lists of textbooks for the schools of various handicaps.
- Preparation of suggested theoretical conceptions for their development.
- Analysis of general education textbooks starting from the first grade to the third, in order to select the appropriate books suitable for intellectual education.

The level of Practice:

Teaching English language is provided in the first stage of basic education.
Teaching (maintenance and preservation) subjects in the 7 th and 8 th grades of the schools of the deaf and the fourth grade of the schools of the blind.
Blind students of the third secondary are exempted from written and practical exams of the practical fields.
Providing (automatic computation - typewriter machines, drawing instruments, the art of directing and how to use the white sticks).
Providing health and psychological care to all students of special education.
Improving the educational process in schools of the mentally retarded and the deaf through students and teachers manuals.

Distribution of school grades for the mentally retarded has been reconsidered, with the aim of providing one preliminary school year. The policy of integration has been experimented through providing classes for the handicapped in ordinary schools in order to realize gradual, partial or total integration during the activity lessons.
In order to realize comprehensive development for all programmes of special education in Egypt, the Minister of Education has issued some regulations and directives in this regard. They are represented in the following measures:

Establishing a Consultative Committee presided by the Minister to formulate objectives and strategies for special education programmes in Egypt.
Establishing a General Technical Committee comprising competent personalities interested in special education, intellectuals, and academic professors of the fields related to the needs of these students.
Establishing a Specialized Technical Committee to study all the aspects of the educational and pedagogical process and the integrated care that should be provided to these students.
Establishing a Committee for developing the interior missions for upgrading teachers of different kinds and stages of special education.

These efforts have resulted in the convening of the First National Conference on Special Education during (16-19) October 1995, which adopted fundamental principles on which the development processes of special education are based.

Second: Efforts for the talented:

By the fifties of this century, the government is endeavouring to provide special integrated care for all students in general, and especially the talented. In this concern, the General Administration of Special Education is rendering importance to focus on the talented students starting from the kindergarten. Seminars have been held for institutions and university colleges of education and colleges of pre school education with the aim of finding proper ways for discovering and paying attention to the talented. Within the framework of developing special education programmes, other committees have been established to discuss the best appropriate ways for rendering care to these students, preparing special educational programmes as well as upgrading specialized qualified teachers for dealing with them.
Similarly, the Ministry has established many schools such as the Experimental Secondary School of the Talented for Boys in Ain Shams, which is concerned for their academic improvement, and the School of the Sportive Talented in Ismailia City. The Minister has issued several directives about providing incentives to students of the general secondary certificate and of vocational secondary schools who excel in sports.


Previous Page Next Page