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1998

Georgia

1235

3

71

18

10

1

60

70

25

4

1

 
Tbilisi city

199

5

23

38

36

4

115

24

56

14

6

 
Abkhazeti

8

3

100

     

48

100

0

     
Adjara

45

3

58

36

9

 

81

51

42

9

   
Guria

44

1

93

7

   

28

93

7

     
Imereti

223

2

78

11

9

2

52

78

18

2

1

 
Khakheti

216

2

84

13

3

 

49

80

20

     
Mtskheta-Mtianeti

58

2

95

3

2

 

35

91

9

     
Ratca-Lechumi &KS

37

2

84

14

3

 

33

84

16

     
Samegrelo & ZS

138

2

86

12

1

 

41

80

20

     
Samtskhe-Javakheti

49

2

94

6

   

38

92

8

     
Kvemo Kartli

105

3

59

27

12

2

72

63

29

7

1

1

Shida Kartli

96

2

84

14

2

 

47

81

19

     

 has the right to establish pre-school institutions or appropriate groups at Georgian institution with teaching children on mother tang of the minority.

There are four Russian and four Armenian kindergartens in Georgia, together with 61 Russian and 2 Armenian groups at Georgian pre-school institutions. Some groups are bilinguals where attendants teaching are performed on two languages: Russian-Azery (one group), Russian-Armenian (one group). Moreover, there exist three groups with the three instruction languages: Georgian, Russian and Azery.

In accordance to existing regulations, children in pre-school institutions are grouped by age as follows:

Mixed age groups of children are also functioning in pre-school institutions.

There are season and twenty-four-hour pre-school institutions as well. Children at kindergartens stay 9, 10.5, 12 or 24 hours in a day (for 5 days weekly). 1233 (99.6%) of pre-school institutions work 5 days a week and 8 of them function 6 days a week.

Education at pre-school institutions is carried out independently, applying programs, general methodology and supplementary literature worked out and issued under the guidance of the Ministry of Education of Georgia. They are independently managing their financial resources and income. In framework of education programs, they collaborate with other education institutions as well as with international organisations. Main legislative documents of Georgia regulating pre-school education are: the "Law on Education", the "State Program of Reforms in Education", regulations and instructions issued by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health Protection, documents prescribing state standards of pre-school education, internal regulations and educational program.

The system of pre-school education in Georgia is ruled and co-ordinated by the department of pre-school education, boarding houses and children’s rights protection of the Ministry of Education as well as by local municipal or rural education departments.

Scientific methodological centre of the Ministry of Education together with National Teacher Retraining Institute provide scientific and methodological supervision of pre-school institutions.

There are two kinds of pre-school educational institutions in Georgia: public (state) and private. The supervisors of the public institutions are state or local authorities. They have the right to execute the special programs created by the administration of institutions. A private pre-school institution may be established by permission of a local authority.

Pre-school institutions may be established or closed by permission of local administration. The public pre-school institutions are fully or partly financed from the state budget . The state defines the amount of expenditure. Pre-school institutions have the right to find different financing sources, to create own funds and to manage them. The funds of private pre-school institutions consist of parents’ fees, different investments and other incomes.

The nursing and education fees per one child at public institutions are fixed and are in compliance with the state financial norms. Otherwise fees subject to agreement between parents and the institution.

For additional services provided at the public institution, parent should pay extra money. Services should be carried out according to tariffs and rates set in agreements.

Managerial advising bodies for finding financial support are established at pre-school institutions. The regulation of an institution regulates organisational structure and activity of the body.

Political and economical changes that took place in Georgia in last decade badly affected the pre-school educational system and put it in a very complicated situation. The number of pre-school institutions was considerably reduced (see Table 4).

During the mentioned period the number of pre-school institutions has been reduced mainly in 1992. Their number has decreased on 533. In 1994 the number of institutions has been decreased on 300 units. Institution in rural areas were affected in particular: out of 300 closed institutions 214 are in rural regions. For today, only 43% of pre-school institutions are functioning in countryside (see Table 4).

Financial problems are the main reason for decreasing of the number of institutions. Pre-school institutions in past were financed from the state budget, parents were partially paying for food only.

Till 1990 the cost in pre-school institution per one child was equal to 44 roubles monthly. Annual state expenditure on pre-school education was about 80 million roubles. Since 1990 the amount of money allotted for pre-school education from the state budget gradually decreased. Pre-school institutions today are on municipal security.

 

Table ^8 Basic indexes of preschool institutions

 

Pre-school education institutions

Urban & Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

Georgia

2479

1322

1253

1223

1241

1094

676

656

636

646

1385

646

597

587

595

Tbilisi city

281

202

201

198

199

 

202

201

198

199

 

0

0

0

0

Abkhazeti

233

0

0

5

8

 

0

0

5

6

 

0

0

0

2

Adjara

146

49

46

45

45

 

45

43

43

43

 

4

3

2

2

Guria

117

62

44

49

44

 

15

17

17

18

 

47

27

32

26

Imereti

392

249

249

232

223

 

124

115

117

109

 

125

134

115

114

Khakheti

269

203

216

216

216

 

43

46

46

46

 

160

170

170

170

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

80

59

53

58

58

 

21

18

19

18

 

38

35

39

40

Ratci-Lechumi &KS

62

39

37

37

37

 

7

7

7

7

 

32

30

30

30

Samegrelo & ZS

430

108

108

126

138

 

55

55

57

57

 

53

53

69

81

Samtskhe-Javakheti

118

51

64

59

49

 

31

32

31

30

 

20

32

28

19

Kvemo Kartli

219

110

113

103

105

 

66

67

61

61

 

44

46

42

44

Shida Kartli

132

87

90

94

96

 

32

32

34

35

 

55

58

60

61

 

Number of children enrolled

Georgia

199982

81938

83081

74990

74156

137039

60494

63107

55554

55272

62943

21444

19974

19436

18975

Tbilisi city

50591

23655

25217

20655

22798

 

23655

25217

20655

22798

 

0

0

0

0

Abkhazeti

16069

0

0

275

382

 

0

0

275

316

 

0

0

0

66

Adjara

10194

3812

3721

3575

3640

 

3597

3552

3515

3582

 

215

169

60

58

Guria

6036

2003

1529

1419

1227

 

884

859

684

647

 

1119

670

735

580

Imereti

30263

14621

15875

14176

11610

 

11391

12400

11116

8676

 

3230

3475

3060

2934

Khakheti

20300

10708

11299

11166

10587

 

3460

3731

3628

3542

 

7248

7568

7538

7045

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

3921

2220

1894

2078

2004

 

1314

1099

1064

963

 

906

795

1014

1041

Ratci-Lechumi &KS

2173

1227

1180

1230

1211

 

610

620

589

643

 

617

560

641

568

Samegrelo & ZS

22238

4504

4504

5440

5598

 

3238

3238

3781

3664

 

1266

1266

1659

1934

Samtskhe-Javakheti

7209

2090

2625

2303

1886

 

1505

1765

1598

1399

 

585

860

705

487

Kvemo Kartli

19811

9103

8956

8040

7523

 

6807

6561

5933

5397

 

2296

2395

2107

2126

Shida Kartli

11077

4129

4305

4457

4479

 

2245

2474

2540

2561

 

1884

1831

1917

1918

 

Vacancies at pre-school institution

Urban & Rural

Urban

Rural

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

1990

1995

1996

1997

1998

Georgia

202001

129853

126891

124385

124323

134372

94969

92550

90012

88713

67629

34884

34341

34373

35610

Tbilisi city

48318

35600

35742

34973

34093

 

35600

35742

34973

34093

         
Abkhazeti

15406

0

0

180

355

 

0

0

180

275

       

80

Adjara

10236

4965

4696

4749

4842

 

4660

4469

4669

4762

 

305

227

80

80

Guria

6841

3784

3484

3420

3335

 

1365

1667

1535

1595

 

2419

1817

1885

1740

Imereti

32868

23525

23408

22280

20953

 

17158

16392

16052

14806

 

6367

7016

6228

6147

Khakheti

19522

16221

17800

17958

18006

 

5748

5973

6073

6113

 

10473

11827

11885

11893

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

4725

3682

2521

3862

3813

 

1885

1160

1900

1800

 

1797

1361

1962

2013

Ratca-Lechumi &KS

2379

1857

1726

1785

1781

 

960

920

900

900

 

897

806

885

881

Samegrelo & ZS

22999

8474

8474

9672

10431

 

5825

5825

6173

6136

 

2649

2649

3499

4295

Samtskhe-Javakheti

6899

3797

4204

3991

3377

 

3056

3118

2986

2570

 

741

1086

1005

807

Kvemo Kartli

21092

13241

13412

12665

12819

 

10468

10581

9926

9954

 

2773

2831

2739

2865

Shida Kartli

11616

7788

8211

8570

8541

 

4110

4165

4365

4170

 

3678

4046

4205

4371

 

Group at pre-school institution

Georgia

4178

3839

3497

3415

3041

2850

2533

2484

1137

989

964

931

Tbilisi city

1279

1236

1014

1005

1279

1236

1014

1005

0

0

0

0

Abkhazeti

0

0

14

20

0

0

14

17

0

0

0

3

Adjara

175

167

155

154

163

159

152

151

12

8

3

3

Guria

99

77

67

60

40

42

32

31

59

35

35

29

Imereti

682

640

579

543

516

470

441

411

166

170

138

132

Khakheti

572

547

540

496

189

183

169

165

383

364

371

331

Mtskheta-Mtianeti

124

66

112

108

68

33

53

48

56

33

59

60

Ratca-Lechumi &KS

72

70

67

65

32

32

31

31

40

38

36

34

Samegrelo & ZS

214

214

243

250

154

154

166

161

60

60

77

89

Samtskhe-Javakheti

118

124

111

89

83

80

75

63

35

44

36

26

Kvemo Kartli

424

407

369

349

304

285

258

239

120

122

111

110

Shida Kartli

212

208

216

220

114

111

118

118

98

97

98

102

 

Figure 7. Gross enrolment at pre-school institutions

Decreasing of subsidies in some regions of the country, where the local authorities could not supply financing of kindergartens, has resulted in their liquidation or transition to self-financing.

The number of trade pre-school institutions was considerably reduced as well. Their number in 1990-1998 has decreased from 814 to 31 units. The cause of decreasing is liquidation of factories and large organisations and transition to self-financing. A part of the trade pre-school institutions was transferred to the state system of education.

One of the reasons of reduction of the number of institutions is the reduction of the number of attendants at pre-school institutions.

In comparison with 1990 the number of staff engaged in pre-school institutions has considerably decreased, in percentage from 41.1% (54,4% in urban areas and 28.7% in rural areas) to 29.3%, (see Table 4, Figure 7). The majority of children enrolled in pre-school institutions live in urban areas. In 1994-1996 the urban parameter has decreased from 54.4% to 19.4%. For a period of economic depression the parameter of employment in urban areas has decreased to 20% in 1994. The next years the number of attendants of pre-school institutions gradually grew and in 1998 the parameter has increased up to 29 % (Table 4)

In comparison with 1990 numbers of children visiting kindergartens has decreased on 125826 (62%). Large percent (74.4%) of reduction of the parameter of children attendance is related to urban kindergartens, for rural institutions this parameter has decreased on 25.5%. The fast rate of reduction of number of children in cities was noted in 1994. In this year the number of attendance reduced on 59.8% (119771), and hardly reached 20% for kindergartens.

Since 1994 the number of attendants gradually grew and in 1996 the parameter of children attendance in urban areas has increased up to 35.9 %, but in rural areas its decrease continued (Table 4).

The reduction of children's quota has changed the teaching load at pre-school institutions. If in 1990 the average number of children was 99 per a pre-school institution (for cities 102), in 1993 this parameter fell to 71. Since 1995 this number increased up to 85. Today it is 58 (62 for cities). In rural regions the average number of children per a pre-school institution fell to 52 in 1993-1994.

Decreasing of the number of attendants in Georgian kindergartens has the following reasons:

The state of material and technical base of pre-school institutions is unsatisfactory. Due to the lack of finances current and capital repair of buildings has not been carried out. Electric equipment, water-supplying and sewerage systems are out of order. In 1997 170 (13.9%) of pre-school institutions needed emergency repair, 834 (68.1%) of them required capital repair, 41.1% had not a water-supplying system, 52.9% had no isolation ward. Because of this infringement of sanitary and hygienic norms, the level of disease among children had increased.

Out of 124323 places designed for children in pre-school institutions, 107611 are in buildings constructed according to the typical projects. Average area per pupil was equal to 13 m2 in 1995. Out of 1241 pre-school institutions 289 have every facilities, 769 have water-supplying system, 183 have central heating, and 775 of them have sewerage system.

Extraordinary situation is now in some regions, especially at locations where military operations took place during the civil war. For example in Samegrelo-Svaneti highlands about 86% of kindergartens requires capital repair, 20% of buildings are in emergency state. In Guria the figure is about 95%, in Shida Kartli this number reaches 98%, etc. In emergency state are 19% of buildings in Shida Kartli, in Samtskhe-Javakheti this figure is equal to 18% and for Tbilisi it is 21% (Table 7, Figures 8).

One can easily see from Figure 11 that technical condition of buildings significantly deteriorated in 1995-1996.

For the last years number of buildings requiring the capital repair increased from 35% to 68 % and today the number of such institutions constitutes 75 %. Percentage for rural and urban areas is constant for years. Since 1990 the capital repair has not been conducted at pre-school institutions. Due to financial problems the number of emergency buildings in 1995 was equal to 8%. Since 1996 their number has increased to 15% (Table 7, Figure 8).

As a result of above mentioned processes a number of pre-school institutions were closed. The reason of closing of pre-school institutions today is also the lack of means. Dynamics of decreasing of the number of pre-school institutions is presented in Table 4.

The part of pre-school buildings was rented by different commercial structures, the most of them were occupied by displaced persons, and others are not functioning.

Nutrition supply of pre-school institutions has significantly worsened recently. As it was mentioned above, before 1990 parents paid partially for food. Supply of the institutions was centralised. Daily overall per a child is 1.08 Lari or 25.92 Lari monthly. Parents have to pay 0.45 Lari monthly to keep children at pre-school institution.

The amount of fee depends on pre-school institution, which set the amount taking into account particular conditions and financial state of child parents. Donated money is spent on nutrition and different household expenses.

 


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