The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Homepage of the World Education Forum
   India
Contents of country report Homepage of country reports Country reports listed alphabetically Country reports by region



Next Page



Part I: Descriptive Section

 PREFACE 

The Framework for Action to Meet Basic Learning Needs was adopted by the World Conference on Education for All at Jomtien, Thailand, in March 1990. The meeting foresaw the need for an end- of-decade assessment of progress as a basis for a comprehensive review of policies concerning basic education.

The Education for All (EFA) 2000 Assessment is a major global endeavour that aims to enable the participating countries to (i) construct a comprehensive picture of their progress towards their own Education for All goals since the 1990 Jomtien Conference, ii) identify priorities and promising strategies for overcoming obstacles and accelerating progress, and (iii) revise national plans of action accordingly.

The International Consultative Forum on EFA, consisting of UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNESCO and the World Bank, is coordinating the EFA-2000 Assessment at the global level. The Forum will examine the findings reported by countries at its meeting at Dakar (Senegal) in April 2000. The Forum has prepared general guidelines to assist Member States in the assessment of EFA for the period 1990-2000.

According to these guidelines, progress made by different countries towards meeting the Jomtien goals is to be assessed on the basis of a set of 18 core EFA indicators which are grouped according to the following six 'target dimensions':

  1. Expansion of early childhood care and development;
  2. Universal access to and completion of primary education;
  3. Improvement in learning achievement;
  4. Reduction of adult illiteracy rate;
  5. Expansion of provision of basic education and training in essential skills required by youth and adults; and
  6. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values organized for better living.

For this purpose a National Assessment Group was constituted in the Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development consisting of senior officials of the Department concerned with EFA and representatives of specialized national institutions, like NCERT, NIEPA and NCTE. During its deliberations, the Group felt that the Indian exercise should be carried out in a larger perspective which takes into account the following important developments:

The EFA 2000 exercise is, therefore, seen not merely as a stock taking exercise but also as an effort to review and fine tune strategies and programmes of basic education.

It is with this dual perspective in view that it has been planned (1) to make the exercise quite comprehensive covering every dimension of basic education; (2) to get the various component areas reviewed by independent experts from across the country; and (3) to evolve a plan of action for the next phase, probably the final phase, of the national effort to reach the goal of EFA.

India's EFA Assessment 2000 Country Report draws upon the following three documents:

  1. Report of progress made with respect to the 18 EFA Indicators as identified in the General and Technical Guidelines given by the EFA Forum Secretariat;
  2. The State of the Art Review (Synthesis) on Learning Achievements; and
  3. The State of the Art Review on Learning Conditions.

These documents were presented at a National Workshop in New Delhi in May, 1999 which was attended by State Education Secretaries, educational experts and representatives of UN agencies, World Bank and external donors. These documents were also discussed in the Sub-Regional meetings of South Asian Countries in New Delhi immediately following the National Workshop. An initial draft of EFA 2000 Assessment Report was presented at the second Sub-Regional Workshop for South and West Asia in Kathmandu on 12-13 October, 1999. A revised draft prepared on the basis of feedback and comments received in Kathmandu Workshop were discussed in the National Assessment Group in November, 1999.

The inputs received from members of the Group have been taken into account in preparation of final draft by Dr. R. Govinda, National Technical Coordinator, EFA 2000 Assessment. This has been reviewed by Shri Abhimanyu Singh, National Coordinator of EFA 2000 Assessment. This report will be further discussed in the Asia Pacific Conference on EFA 2000 Assessment to be held in Bangkok from 17-20 January, 2000.

The Department of Education in the Ministry of Human Resource Development has taken the initiative to commission twenty-four sub-sectoral studies on various aspects of EFA in India which seek to capture the varied experiences that have emerged from the projects, programmes and schemes undertaken during the last decade. These studies have been prepared by educationists, experts and practitioners drawn from academia, national resource institutions and non-governmental agencies. The findings of these studies are proposed to be disseminated widely in India and abroad with a view to enrich the EFA 2000 Assessment exercise and provide useful inputs for policy makers, planners and administrators who are working towards achieving the goals of EFA.

Maharaj Krishen Kaw
EDUCATION SECRETARY
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

Acknowledgement

The EFA Assessment Report in its present form has been the result of contributions made by a number of persons during a long process. The 18 Core EFA Indicators, which constitute the main database used in preparing the Report, were generated according to the guidelines provided by UNESCO by Dr. R.S.Thakur of the MHRD and Dr.A.C.Mehta of NIEPA. The initial draft of the Report was prepared by Professor M.S.Yadav and Dr. Mona Sedwal Srivastava, which was then presented at the Sub-Regional Workshop held during October 1999 in Kathmandu, Nepal. The comments received from the participants of the Workshop were used to revise the Report. The members of the National Assessment Group also examined the Draft. I gratefully acknowledge the contribution made by all these persons in the preparation of the Report. I would also like to acknowledge the role played by NIEPA in coordinating the whole exercise of EFA 2000 Assessment of which preparation of this Report forms only one component. The support and cooperation given by UNESCO in the preparation of the Report is also acknowledged.

Abhimanyu Singh
Joint Secretary and Coordinator
National Assessment Group
Government of India

ABBREVIATIONS

CABE Central Advisory Board of Education

CEC Continuing Education Centre

CSS Centrally Sponsored Scheme

CSWB Central Social Welfare Board

DEEP District Elementary Education Programme

DISE District Information System of Education

DLCs District Literacy Committees

DLS District Literacy Societies

DPEP District Primary Education Programme

DRU District Resource Units

ECCE Early Childhood Care and Education

ECE Early Childhood Education

Ed. CIL Educational Consultants India Limited

EE Elementary Education

EFA Education for All

EGS Education Guarantee Scheme

G,.D.& Diu Goa, Daman and Diu

GDP Gross Domestic Product

GER Gross Enrolment Ratio

GIR Gross Intake Rate

GNP Gross National Product

GOI Government of India

ICDS Integrated Child Development Service

J&K Jammu and Kashmir

KSSP Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad

MHRD Ministry of Human Resource Development

MLL Minimum Levels of Learning

MS Mahila Samakhya

MVF Mamidipudi Venkatarangaiya Foundation

NAEP National Adult Education Programme

NCERT National Council of Educational Research and Training

NCTE National Council of Teacher Education

NDC National Development Council

NEEM National Elementary Education Mission

NER Net Enrolment Ratio

NFE Non-formal Education

NGO Non- Government Organization

NIEPA National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration

NIR Net Intake Rate

NLM National Literacy Mission

NLMA National Literacy Mission Authority

NPE National Policy on Education

NSS National Sample Survey

NSSO National Sample Survey Organization

OB Operation Blackboard

OBC Other Backward Classes

ODA Overseas Development Authority

OLS Open Learning System

PLC Post Literacy Campaigns

POA Programme of Action

PR Panchayati Raj

SC Scheduled Caste

SCERT State Council of Educational Research and Training

SIDA Swedish International Development Authority

SIEMAT State Institute of Management and Training

SKP Shiksha Karmi Project

SLM State Literacy Mission

SRC State Resource Centre

ST Scheduled Tribe

TLC Total Literacy Campaign

UEE Universalisation of Elementary Education

UN United Nations

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFP United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF United Nations Children Fund

Uts Union Territories

Vas Voluntary Agencies

VECVillage Education Committee

GLOSSARY

Angan Pathshalas Day School / Courtyard School

Anganwadi A village level centre under ICDS

Bal Kendra Learning resource centre for children

Balwadis ECCE centre for children of 3-5 years of age

Eklavya NGO concerned with developing, specific alternatives for EE Curriculum partly alternative material on science education

Jan Shikshan Nilayams Continuing Education Centre

Kala Jathas Cultural Troupes

Lok Jumbish The EFA Project in Rajasthan; literally translates as ‘People’s Movement’

Mahila Samakhya Literally ‘women speaking as equals’; a programme of women’s development and education being implemented in Gujarat, Karnataka and UP

Mahila Shikshan Kendras A residential centre for women’s education

Majras, Tolas and Phalias Common names used for tribal habitations in Madhya Pradesh

Panchayati Raj The local self- government consisting of village, block and district level elected bodies.

Prehar Pathshalas School of convenient timings

Sandhan NGO working in the area of education and development since 1983. The group has been closely linked to the shiksha karmi programme since 1987 and has been involved in the training of shiksha karmis and providing academic support to the programme

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Campaign for ‘Education for All’

Shiksha Karmi Teachers appointed under Shiksha Karmi Project; literally means ‘educational workers’

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Literacy Rate and Number of primary School (1951-1991)

Table 1.2: Structure of School Education in Different States

Table 1.3: Percentage of Expenditure on Primary Education and Elementary Education

Table 1.4: Budgeted Expenditure (Revenue Account) on Education1996-97

Table 2.1: Coverage under Various Childhood Education Schemes 1989-90

Table 2.2: Comparative picture of GER-ECCE for 1990 and 1997-98 29

Table 2.3 : Number of Primary /Upper Primary Schools (1990-1997) 32

Table 2.4: Growth in Primary School Enrollment (in millions)

Table 2.5: Gross Enrolment Ratio-National

Table 2.6: Statewise Gross Enrollment /Net Enrollment Ratio (1997-98) at Primary Level (6-11 years)

Table 2.7: Statewise Rates of Efficiency (1997-98)

Table 2.8: Additional enrollment for universal primary education

Table 2.9: NGOs/Volunteer Agencies participating in NFE

Table 2.10: Increase in Number of Teachers from 1990 to 1997

Table 2.11: State-wise Enrollment and Teachers in primary Schools (1997-98)

Table 2.12: Population and Number of Illiterates (in millions)

LIST OF CHARTS

Chart 1.1: Proportion of Expenditure on Different Sectors of Education (Centre+State)

Chart 1.2: Proportion of Expenditure on Different Sectors of Education(Centre)

Chart 1.3: Plan and Non-Plan Expenditure on Elementary Education (%)

Chart 2.1: Rural habitations/ population in India served by primary and upper primary school sections (1993)

Chart 2.2: Net Attendance Ratio (1996)

Chart 2.3: Drop-out Rates at Primary and Upper Primary Stages

Chart 2.4: Average Gradewise Repetition Rates-National

Chart 2.5: Transition Rates (1997-98) - National

Chart 2.6: Pupil-Teacher Ratio In Schools By Type

Chart 2.7: Growth in Literacy Rates

Chart 2.8: Rural-Urban Literacy Rates (%

Chart 2.9: Male and Female Literacy Rates (%)

Chart 2.10: Male-Female Difference in Literacy Rates

POLICY AND PLANNING FOR EFA IN INDIA

EDUCATION IN INDIA: A BACKDROP

India is a vast country extending over an area of 3,287,263 sq. km. from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to tropical rain forests of the south. India's population, as on March 1, 1991, was 846.30 million (439.23 million males and 407.07 millions females). Recent estimates indicate that the population of the country has crossed one billion. As the second largest populous country, India is the home for 16 per cent of world's population.

For the purpose of governance, India is divided into 32 States and Union Territories. States and the Centre function under a federal relationship. The Centre governs certain subjects such as defense, railways and finance while several other subjects are the responsibility of the States. Union Territories are administered under the direct control of the Centre. Education is on the concurrent list though major responsibility for school education lies with the State governments. Under this arrangement the Central Government and the State Governments are expected to have a meaningful partnership for educational development in the country. In some of the States, local self-government bodies, namely, panchayati raj institutions in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas have also been associated with school education in order to make the system of administration sensitive to local conditions and also to facilitate the community participation.

The Constitution of India makes an elaborate distribution of governmental powers - legislative, administrative and financial - between the Union (Centre) and the States. Adequate mechanisms exist for sharing of resources and responsibilities, between the Union and the states, for harmonious exercise of their powers in larger national interest. A major challenge in national planning is to reconcile the planning priorities of states with the national plan frame. The National Development Council (NDC) imparts a national character to the entire process of planning. In the education sector, the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) plays a lead role in the evolution and monitoring of policies and programmes.

Expanding System of Education

During the post-independence period, there has been considerable expansion in educational facilities and enrolment at the elementary stage as revealed by successive surveys of educational facilities. Consequently, literacy rate has improved in every decade. Table 1.1 depicts the rise in literacy rates and the expanding system of primary education. Recent estimates indicate a significant rise in the literacy level. According to the National Sample Survey estimates, the literacy rate has increased by about 12 percentage points in a period of six years from 52.21 in 1991 to 64.20 percent by 1997.

Table 1.1: Literacy Rate and Number of Primary School (1951 – 1991)

Year

Literacy Rate (%)

Number of Schools

Persons

Males

Females

Primary

Upper Primary

1951

18.33

27.16

8.86

215036

14576

1961

28.31

40.40

15.34

351530

55915

1971

34.45

45.95

21.97

417473

93665

1981

43.56

56.37

29.75

503763

122377

1991

52.21

64.13

39.29

566744

155926

Note: Literacy Rates of 1951, 1961 and 1971 relate to population aged five years and above. The rates for the years 1981 and 1991 relate to the population aged seven years and above.

Organization and Structure of School Education

There are broadly four stages of school education in India, namely, primary and upper primary, secondary and higher secondary. In pursuance of the National Policy on Education of 1968 and of 1986, there have been attempts to evolve a uniform pattern of school education with 12 years of schooling, commonly known as 10+2 pattern. The 'plus two' stage refers to classes XI and XII which constitute higher secondary stage in all 32 States/UTs. (In some states, higher secondary stage is part of collegiate education known as junior colleges.) However, for first ten years of schooling, the organizational patterns differ considerably among States/UTs. While in 19 States/UTs, secondary stage consists of classes IX and X, it consists of classes VIII, IX and X in thirteen States/UTs. The initial schooling stage upto Class VII or VIII (as is the case in many States/UTs) is generally called 'elementary stage'. The patterns of schooling in all States/UTs and the variations therein are shown in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2: Structure of School Education in Different States

States/UT

Age of Admission

to class 1

Structure of school education in India

I-V

I-IV VI-VIII VI-VII V-VII V-VIII IX-X VIII-X XI-XII
Andhra Pradesh

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Arunachal Pradesh

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Assam

6

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Bihar

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Goa

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Gujarat

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Haryana

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

-

b

b

Himachal Pradesh

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

J&K

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

--

b

Karnataka

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Kerala

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Madhya Pradesh

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Maharashtra

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Manipur

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Meghalaya

6

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Mizoram

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Nagaland

6

-

b

-

-

-

b

b

-

b

Orissa

5

b

-

-

b

-

-

-

b

b

Punjab

5

b

-

b

-

--

-

b

-

b

Rajasthan

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Sikkim

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Tamil Nadu

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Tripura

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Uttar Pradesh

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

West Bengal

5

-

b

-

-

-

b

b

-

b

A&N Islands

6

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Chandigarh

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

D&N Haveli

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Daman & Diu

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Delhi

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

Lakshadweep

5

-

b

-

-

b

-

-

b

b

Pondicherry

5

b

-

b

-

-

-

b

-

b

INDIA

6

19

13

18

1

11

2

19

13

32

 

Decisions regarding the organization and structure of education are largely the concern of the States/Union Territories. Within the overall policy of the national policy on education, each State/Union Territory has been independently determining the educational structure to be adopted. This is particularly true of the school stage. However, there is almost complete uniformity in the pattern of educational structure within a particular State or Union Territory and also a broad consensus has emerged for adoption by all States as indicated in the following diagram .

EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE IN INDIA

Source : Development of Education : 1986-1988, National Report of India , NIEPA ,1988

The 10+2+3 pattern of education introduced in the country envisages a broad based general education for all pupils during the first ten years of school education. The curriculum at this stage is, therefore, largely undifferentiated and little attempt is made to introduce diversified courses at this stage. The focus of the curriculum at the primary stage is on development of basic skills of literacy and numeracy, study of environment in terms of physical and social phenomena, participation in activities which would develop productive skills, creative expression and habits of healthy living. In the initial years, the content and methodology are directed to achievement of communication and computational skills with a view to developing the basic tools of learning.

The EFA Declaration

The World Conference on Education for All held in March 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand, adopted a Declaration calling upon all member states and international agencies to take effective steps for achieving EFA by the year 2000. The ultimate goal affirmed by the World Declaration on Education for All is to meet the basic learning needs of all children, youth and adults. These needs were further specified as consisting of: (a) Essential learning tools such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy and problem solving; and (b) The basic learning content such as knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. Towards fulfillment of these learning needs, the Declaration of EFA took a broadened vision of basic education as consisting of formal schooling, non-formal education programmes as well as open learning systems which together attempt to reach basic education to all children as well as adults. India was a signatory to the Jomtien Declaration and began working towards the EFA commitments forthwith. This section gives an overview of the approach and strategies adopted for meeting the goals of EFA in India.

EFA GOALS AND TARGETS

The World Declaration on Education For All and the 'Framework for Action to meet Basic Learning Needs' were considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) which is the highest education policy making body in the country, in 1991 and 1992. The CABE recognized that the World Declaration on EFA was, from the national point of view, a reaffirmation of the policy orientation given to elementary education in the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986. The CABE endorsed the Declaration and called for further strengthening of the processes initiated through the NPE -1986. The CABE highlighted the need for increased financial inputs to achieve the goals of EFA and formulated a broad operational framework for receiving financial assistance from international agencies for undertaking large-scale projects to achieve the goals of EFA. Further, the CABE emphasized that the additional resources generated through external assistance should be utilized for educational reconstruction, which should go beyond the conventional measures such as opening new schools, construction of school building and appointing teachers.

The goals, targets and strategies enunciated in the National Policy on Education and endorsed by the CABE have then been incorporated into successive Five Year Plan proposals. The goals were pursued during the Eighth Five Year Plan which also involved the launching of major projects supported by external funding and the literacy campaigns under the auspices of the National Literacy Mission. They are further being followed up during the current Ninth Five-Year Plan operating from 1997 to 2002. Thus, the goals of EFA have been incorporated into the national plan framework which in turn guides all developmental actions at the state level.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

Early childhood education (ECE) is considered a significant input to compensate for early environmental deprivations at home by providing a stimulating environment to the children. While on one hand, it is expected to provide the necessary maturational and experiential readiness to the child for meeting the demands of the primary curriculum, it also affects positively the enrolment and retention of girls in primary schools by providing substitute care facility for younger siblings. Envisaged as a holistic input fostering health, psychological and nutritional development, the policy emphasized the significance of making it play based while cautioning against the danger of reducing it to the teaching of three R's i.e., reading, writing and arithmetic. The holistic and integrated concept of ECCE clearly represents this spirit.

Though programmes of early childhood care have been under implementation on a large scale though the programme of Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), efforts to integrate early childhood education into activities of these centres and to extend institutionalised educational facilities for children in the pre-school age group have begun only during recent years. Pre-school education in urban areas which is fairly wide spread and is continuously expanding is largely in the hands of the private sector without much supervison or support from the government. Considering the magnitude of resources needed to reach out to all children in this age group, the target set for the sector has been modest. It is envisaged that the network of early childhood centres would expand to two million centres and cover about 70 per cent children in the pre-school age group by the year 2000.

Elementary Education

Universalisation of elementary education (UEE) has been accepted as a national goal since 1950. The Directive Principles of the Constitution of India envisage provision of free and compulsory elementary education to all children upto the age of 14 years. The overall goal in this regard is to provide free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality to all children. It is significant to note that the National Policy on Education defines universal elementary education in a broad framework. It made a significant in emphasis from enrollment to participation and retention. The goal of universal elementary education was enlarged to include provision of education of a satisfactory quality to all children.

Universal Access

Though considerable progress has been made towards achieving the target of EFA as indicated by the overall figures, more rigorous and sustained efforts are required to universalize elementary education. A major bottleneck in this direction has been the persistence of regional and sectional disparities. The policy goal, therefore, has been to intensify the efforts to reach primary education to such deprived sections of population. Specifically, the goals of EFA with respect to universal access focus on:

Universal Retention

As mentioned earlier, the country has made significant progress in terms of provision of access to basic education. Recent surveys show that more than 95 per cent population has access to primary education within a distance of one km. Overall enrollment figures have also shown a massive increase. However, the number of children who participate in schooling regularly and complete the first cycle of education still needs to be improved substantially. For a number of reasons, many children initially enrolled in the school do not complete their primary schooling. Here again, there are wide disparities among different states; for instance, while almost all children enrolled in the initial classes of the primary school complete at least 4-5 years of schooling in the states of Kerala, Goa and Mizoram, the figures of school dropout in certain other states continue to be very high. Thus, the policies have reiterated reduction in the number of dropouts as an important goal:

Improvement in Quality

As mentioned earlier, the National Policy on Education - 1986 emphasizes the importance of giving special attention to quality aspects of primary education. Several policy guidelines have been formulated for this purpose.

Improved quality of school provision

With the expansion of the school system, a systematic exercise has been carried out to determine basic norms for provision - physical, human as well as academic, in each school. It is envisaged that this should help improve the quality of provisions significantly. These norms act as the guiding principle for creating additional schooling facilities for primary education.

Focus on learning outcomes

Alongside provision of improved facilities in the school policy makers have also focussed their attention on the learning levels attained by children who attend schools. A National Committee of experts set up by the Government of India in early nineties evolved a framework of "Minimum Levels of Learning" to be attained by every student undergoing primary education. It is envisaged that this would act as a guide for the teachers in ensuring that the teaching-learning process is effective and that expected learning levels are attained by all children.

Teacher Capacity Building

Critical role of the teachers in ensuring quality education has also come into sharper focus. As in case of infrastructure, massive expansion of the system has also influenced the quality of teachers and the support system available for guiding them in their work. One of the major policy interventions in the last decade is to make institutional arrangements at district and sub-district levels for inservice education of primary teachers. The emphasis is on decentralizing the training arrangement and providing guidance and support to teachers on a continuous basis.

Adult Education and Literacy Programmes

Adult education and literacy programmes have been transformed under the auspices of the National Literacy Mission (NLM) into a mass campaign leading towards a people’s movement for total literacy and a new awakening for education. The goal of NLM is to attain full literacy (i.e., the sustainable threshold level of 75 per cent). NLM envisages that focussing on imparting of functional literacy to non-literates in the 15-35 age group would help achieve this goal. This age group has been selected because they are in the productive as well as the reproductive period of life. NLM seeks to bring non-literates to a level of self-reliance in the three R’s. It also provides them facilities for skill development to improve their economic status and well being. It enables them to imbibe values of national integration, conservation of the environment, women’s equality and observance of small family norms. And finally, it facilitates their participation in the development process. Functional literacy, encompassing all of the above, is the overall goal of NLM.

The success of the campaign mode in the Ernakulam district of Kerala laid the foundations of the campaign approach. While developing a national strategy for the country, the National Literacy Mission was fully aware of the need for diversity of approaches, given the inter-regional variations in the country. It was also aware that in many parts, participation of women and disadvantaged sections would require an intensive environment building process. In this context, efforts of NLM represent a major initiative for bringing together civil society to actively participate in a people’s movement for achieving literacy in time bound fashion.

Recognising the fragile nature of literacy levels achieved in a campaign mode and the need to create a learning society, the NLM provides for a Post Literacy Campaign where the gains of literacy are consolidated and an effort is made to link learning skills with life skills. Similarly, in order to sustain the learning process in the community, NLM supports the establishment of Continuing Education Centres that provide a package of life-linked services for neo-literates.


Contents Next Page