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Part I: Descriptive Section

EXECUTIVE REPORT EDUCATION FOR ALL IN INDONESIA

In preparing this report, the team has followed the guidelines provided by UNESCO. It is realized that completion of this report could not be done solely by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC). Therefore, attempts have been made to build a coordination scheme through organizing a team work that consists of representatives from a number of concerned Ministries, i.e. Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA), Ministry of Social Affairs (MSA), Ministry of Manpower (MOM), Office of the Minister of Population (MOP), MOEC, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), and other Agencies. The team has been working for six months or so and as a result we now bring with us a very first draft of the country report on EFA in Indonesia, to be presented, reviewed, and further revised.

The Indonesian Government has realized since the last chapter of the First Long-Term Development Period (1989-1993) that education is the most important component in boosting all areas of national development. Therefore, development in education has been put among the top priority areas throughout the national development programs since then. Awareness has grown to perceive that education is a form of investment in human capital in boosting national growth more productively than that of investment in physical capital. More importantly, early child development and primary education programs, in as well as out-of-school, are the most important components as bases for further quality improvement of human resources preparing them to be actors for national development in the era of globalization.

Undoubtedly, the Jomtien World Conference on Education for All (EFA-1990) has very much inspired Indonesia to make the educational sector a top priority among human resources development programs throughout the country. The EFA strategy in Indonesia basically consists of four major programs, i.e., early childhood development (ECD), primary education, literacy programs, and continuing education. Since 1990, the great amount of resources --from the Government, private sources as well as from international donors-- have been devoted to invest in the development of these four program areas through a coordinating scheme among the concerned agencies.

As far as the ECD is concerned, Indonesia has invested in programs related to community health services --such as Posyandu (Integrated Service Post), Bina Keluarga Balita or BKB (the Development of Families with Children Under Five), and Puskesmas (Community Health Center)-- spread throughout the country and increased even more since 1989/90. Posyandu is conducted by community for the community itself in implementing basic health programs through Family Planning, Health for Mothers and Children, Nutrition, Immunization, and to overcome diarrhea diseases of mother and children.

Beside health sector, ECD has also been invested through pre-primary education programs to help raise physical and mental development of children outside the family environment before they go to primary schools. This program is conducted either through formal as well as out-of-school education. The types of pre-primary schools are play group, kindergarten, school for the handicapped, and other places where mothers can send their children during their work schedule such as day care center (Penitipan Anak).

Primary education is the other form of EFA program implemented in both formal school system and non-formal education. The formal school system called basic education, consists of 6-year primary school (SD) and 3-year lower secondary school (SLTP), has been developed at both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and even more so since early 1990's in the context of universalization of 9 year basic education. Some of the 9-year formal basic education (about 16% of students of SD and SLTP) are also run by the Ministry of Religious Affairs through Madrasah School. In addition, the non-formal education programs, through Packet A and Packet B programs, are of primary importance as substitutes for students who due to some reasons cannot attend formal school system as to boost the completion of the compulsory 9-year basic education.

After the programs in the EFA scheme have been implemented since 1990, the progress to date may generally be described as follows.

Early Childhood Development; the impact of the programs on childhood growth is encouraging. Indonesia reached the highest point in infant mortality at 71 out of 1000 births in 1990 and has improved to 50 in 1998. Meanwhile, the life expectancy at birth increased from 59.8 in 1990 to 63.9 in 1996, and the under-five mortality rate has also decreased from 86 in 1990 to 73 per 1000 in 1996. Those early child growth indicators are expected to be improving toward the year 2000. These are the results of collaborative efforts among related Agencies and Ministries. Data show that those categorized as good nutritious infants in 1995 have reached 63.9%. The number of infants receiving insufficient nutrition that had decreased from 11.5% in 1990 to 9.8% in 1992, has increased again at 14.6% in 1996 and this is expected to increase further due to the economic crises experienced since mid-1997.

Universal Basic Education; in general, efficiency and equality of primary and lower secondary schools have been improving for the last eight years, though they are slightly worsening in the last two years. Opportunity of education in SD had expanded at 92% net enrolment ratio (NER) while in SLTP at 36% in 1990. These are the primary status when the Government prepared for the launching of the 9-year compulsory basic education which has further boosted equality of opportunity at both primary and lower secondary school levels more intensively. The NER of the 7-12 year-old children who attend SD has increased to 94.96%, while for the 13-15-year old children in SLTP is 55.92% in 1997. However, the economic crises in Indonesia have affected negatively, i.e lowering NER in 1998 down to 93.7% at SD and 55.05% at SLTP. The crises have also affected the increase of drop-outs and of repetition rates, and decrease of transition rate between the two levels.

The Equivalent Primary and Lower Secondary Schools; apart from the formal school system, basic education opportunity has also expanded through the non-formal education channel. Those who are not accessible by the SD and SLTP also have enjoyed learning in the Packet A and B programs that have invested more widely since the launch of 9-year compulsory basic education. The number of students participated in Packet A program has increased since 1990 and reached the number of 44,803 in 1997/98, and most of them (89.7%) have passed the SD equivalency examination and made them eligible to pursue study to SLTP. The same is true, those who have participated in Packet B have increased since 1994 up to 94,345 participants in 1997/98 and most of them (90%) have passed the SLTP equivalency exam. Compared with the great proportion of participants who passed the SD and SLTP examinations, the Packet A and B programs are expected to play a more important role in the future due to their higher efficiency rates.

Literacy Programs; literacy program is one of the most important continuing education implemented by the MOEC since early 1970's. Beside the 9-year basic education equivalency of Packet A and B programs, Indonesia continues to run literacy programs through Packet A, Functional Packet A, and OBAMA which have absorbed a great amount of public budget as investment in human resources. As a result, the number of illiterate population (IP) age 15-24 years has been continually decreasing by 50.36% within 8 years from 1.3 million people (3.79%) in 1990 to 662,551 people (1.73%) in 1998. On the basis of gender illiterates age 15-24, young female has a higher probability of being illiterate than its male counterpart. The female illiteracy rate at 196.7% (or 884,954 people) out of male illiterates in 1990 has decreased to 135.4% in 1998.

Training in Essential Skills; this is implemented by means of vocational secondary school, non-governmental skill courses, industrial occupational training, and apprenticeships. For the quality improvement of vocational school graduates, an industry cooperation has been applied in most of vocational schools. One of the successful programs for training in essential skills is the standardization of the nine programs, --i.e. Secretary, Hotel, Computer, Electronics, Mechanic Automotive, Accountancy, Food Preparation, Fashion Design, and Beautician-- for improving quality of programs especially in the areas of technical, social culture, and learning competencies.

It has been a fundamental policy of the government to provide education for all citizens. In terms of educational expansion, Indonesia keeps increasing participation rate of SD and SLTP started intensively from 1990 toward the coming millennium. In line with this policy and facing with the economic crises, since July 1997, the Government has tried hard to prevent students from dropping-out and encouraged the dropped-out children to attend the equivalent out-of-school education programs. This is done by providing scholarships and learning funds for children from poor families. However, it is recognized that an expansion policy which has successfully made almost all 7-15 years old children attend basic education program, does not automatically fulfill the demands of basic learning needs as mentioned in the World Declaration on Education for All (March, 1990). Future challenges will still be confronted in making compulsory basic education functioning effectively, such as to make students survive from the crises, develop their full capacities, live and work in dignity, make informed decisions, and continue learning.

For those very reasons, Indonesia tried to develop various programs to make Education for All more meaningful for the learners and society enhancing the development of their full capacity. The following programs are cases that Indonesia try to develop further.

First, to enhance school readiness of preschool children as a main factor for the quality of education from the side of the learners, Indonesia since 1998 started a pilot project on early childhood development. This is aimed at providing favorable environment for children from 0 to 6 years of age in health, nutrition and psycho-social development. This project, piloted in the three provinces of West Java, Bali, and South Sulawesi, is managed through inter-ministerial cooperation and financed by the World Bank loan of 21,5 millions US Dollar. In the coming post crises era, this is to be disseminated to include more provinces, and eventually will cover all the 27 provinces of Indonesia.

Second, many literate people became illiterate after attending the learning groups because learning materials and the needs of the learners for their survival and their needs to improve quality of life is hardly found relevant. To overcome this, since 1996 with the assistance of the World Bank and in cooperation with Asian/Pacific Cultural Center for UNESCO, Japan (ACCU), Indonesia has started upgrading local staffs to be able to work with learners in developing reading and learning materials more relevant to the learning needs and interests of the learners. Furthermore, it is expected that learners will find a true sense of becoming literate for the improvement of their quality of lives.

Third, education should be relevant to the societal needs, understood, and community-supported in order to become meaningful for the people in undertaking societal functions. Indonesia has developed an approach known as community-base education through developing a Community Learning Centers. The Centers, start at the 360 pilot sites, serve community members who are not attending schools to acquire functional and occupational skills. Such kind of continuing education programs also upgrade community members in rural and poor areas --who are generally lacking in knowledge and information, have limited competencies, lack of achievement motivation, and lack of capacity to change and make progress-- in fulfilling basic learning needs as primarily important and urgent needs to be provided. This program now is encouraged by the Government as a part of national program for the alleviation of poverty.

Fourth, to prevent school children from dropping-out due to the present crises, Indonesia launches a program known as Social Safety Net providing scholarships to basic, secondary and university students from poorest families. Block grants to support running schools in poor areas during these crises and the budget needed to support the implementation of the equivalent out-of-school education programs are provided, especially for the disadvantaged children who are not attending regular schools. Further, also to provide more scholarships for secondary school drop-outs to attend skill formation training courses.

Fifth, as parts of improving educational quality endeavor, Indonesia recognizes that unless the schools are being managed efficiently it is hard to expect that the program will achieve its goals and targets. For this, improving the quality of the school personnel enabling them to be capable of managing the school properly is of crucial importance. Considering the trend that decentralization of educational management up to the district level is very soon will become the actual policy, the capacity of local managers and implementers in managing school programs efficiently is to be improved urgently.

Sixth, the Community Skill Training Center has become one of the urgent needs in the Indonesian education system. This type of continuing education programs are initiated and managed by private organizations and business communities who are active in serving various skills for community members such as individuals, graduates of various levels and types of education, drop-outs, employees, and housewives. The programs offered include various types of specialization from sewing, hair-dressing, up to management and banking. These programs are flexible in nature in responding to the societal and occupational demands. The World Bank considers this as a very strategic educational effort that will satisfy the educational needs of the community in a fast changing time. The Ministry of Education and Culture in particular is making serious efforts in promoting this endeavor.

1. EFA Goals and Targets

  1. Expansion of Early Childhood Care and Development Activities

1) Main Objectives

To increase child survival and child development and to promote their knowledge, skill as well as to stimulate the parents’ recognition of the importance of child development from 0-6 years of age.

Specific Objectives are as follows:

2) Targets

Based on Central Bureau & Statistics (COSS) data, among the ASEAN countries, Indonesia reached the highest point in infant mortality, 71 out of 1000 childbirth in 1990 and 54 out of 1000 childbirth in 1996, while life expectancy at birth was 59.8 in 1990 and was 63.9 in 1996. The under-five mortality rate has decreased from 86 per 1000 in 1990 to 73 per 1000 in 1995. The decrease is due to collaborative efforts of various governmental institutions working in health services such as "Posyandu (Integrated Service Post), Bina Keluarga Balita or BKB (The Development of Families With Children Under-Fives), and Puskesmas (Community Health Center)".

The government has expanded the role of Posyandu in providing health services for mothers and children such as: family planning, nutrition and health, immunization, and diarrhea treatment. Since Posyandu has been very effective in providing health services, then during the year 1999-2000, the government will build 84 more Posyandu in addition to the reconstruction of 22 Posyandu. Beside that, education and health services through BKB are also considered very effective and so far has increased its services to families from 1,237,800 in 1993 to 3,929,669 in 1996. Through ECD project during 1999/2000, 391 BKB will be built in addition to 109 BKB to be reconstructed.

It is reported that child education and care is provided through Day Care centers, Play Groups. According to 1997 data, there were 202 Play Groups providing services to 6.185 children and 759 day care centers providing services to 17.048 children. While of Kindergartens are organized by the communities (93 %) and most of them are located in urban areas. The services were available to 6.990 children in 1993/1994 and increased to 7,073 in 1995/1996, but decreased after that to 6,984 children in 1996/1997. The ECD project under the World Bank started in 1998 covered 3 provinces: West Java, Bali, and South Kalimantan.

  1. Universal Access to Primary Education by the Year 2000

Basic education in Indonesia is carried out through two channels, i.e. in-school or formal education and out-of-school or non-formal education. The 9-year basic education consists of six years primary and three years lower secondary education. While out-of-school basic education is carried out through learning groups of Packet A program equivalent to primary education and Packet B program equivalent to lower secondary education. Aside from that, the communities supported by the government provided Islamic schools for the Moslems. The schools provided are also in support of the 9-year compulsory basic education.

  1. Objective
  2. The objective of primary education is to provide students with basic skills to develop themselves as individuals, members of society, citizens and members of mankind as well as to prepare them to pursue further study to join lower secondary education.

    The objective of lower secondary education is to provide students with basic skills to expand and increase their knowledge and skills achieved at the primary level which is useful to develop themselves as individuals, members of society and members of mankind according to their maturity, and to pursue further study to join upper secondary education. The basic education program is carried out through 9-year basic education to develop educated Indonesian society who master minimally essential basic skills and knowledge. Therefore, the organization of 9-year basic education is not only directed to provide equal access to basic education but also to improve quality basic education which is at present beyond the standard requirement. The plan to provide access to basic education for all in 2003/2004 is postponed to 2006/2007 due to the monetary crisis experienced by Indonesia.

  3. Target

To support the expansion and equal opportunity of basic education for all, the government has provided various activities such as: construction of buildings, expansion and rehabilitation of buildings, support for school in the poor and remote areas, increase access to literacy programs, providing non-conventional patterns of schooling, publication and guidance for 9-year basic education. The quality of basic education is carried out through the following: support for poor schools, training and upgrading of teachers and heads of schools, administrators, and supervisors and various activities designed to provide improvement of quality in education as mentioned in Part II b.

c. Improvement of Learning Achievement

  1. Objective

The objective of improving learning achievement is to monitor how much the educational facilities could be reflected in student learning achievement. Various approaches are carried out to measure the learning achievement and educational output and outcome. Some of the countries measure the learning achievement through test to see the mastery of curriculum. Other countries measure through essential learning competence or standard test for basic skills. Measuring Learning Achievement Program (MLAP) emphasizes the student learning achievement at the fourth grade or more since they are assumed to master some of the learning skills such as language and arithmetic. The MLAP is also used to measure the competence of children who are not at school. The competence tested covers 4 pillars of learning introduced by The International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century, chaired by Jacques Delors: learning to know, learning to do, learning to be and learning to live together, to live with others.

2) Target

The target groups are those who will join final examination, students at the fourth class, repeaters and drop-outs and those who are out-of-school. At present only some provinces use MLAP at primary education level which is prepared by the Center of Examination of Balitbang Dikbud. Therefore, the result of primary education examination could not be compared at the national level.

d. Reduction of Adult Illiteracy Rate

1) Objective

The objective of literacy program is to eradicate three kinds of inability such as: inability in reading Latin character and numeracy, inability in the Indonesian language, and inability in basic education.

In order to achieve its objective, literacy program is divided into three stages i.e., illiteracy stage, development stage and sustainable stage. The improvement of the literacy program is carried out through various activities such as research and study, monitoring and evaluation and through various innovative measures. Thus, in 1995/1996 functional literacy was developed in 9 provinces assisted by an expert assistance through World Bank Project. The pilot project, after some evaluation and improvement, will be expanded to 27 provinces. The functional literacy is very effective in eradicating illiteracy since it covers the need and interest of the learners so that it could raise their motivation and active participation.

2) Target

During 10 years the program will cover 10 million people aged 10-44 in all stages. Each year it will cover one million illiterates and 600 thousand semi-literate. During 10 years the illiteracy program will cover 16.5 million learners comprised of 5 million male and 11.6 million female.

e. Expansion of Basic Education and Training in Essential Skills

1) Objective

The objective of training in essential skills is to decrease unemployment, provision of skilled workers for entering job market at local, regional, and at the national level, improving the capability for those who work, improving market production and entrepreneurship for the entrepreneurs. And those who work at the formal and informal economic sectors as well as empowering various small and home industries.

2) Target

Target groups are young workforce who are unemployed or those who are at work but need additional skills, graduates of lower secondary school who do not continue their education, and those who need skills in entrepreneurship and students at vocational schools.

f. Education for Better Living

1) Objective

Education for better living aimed at improving quality of life by providing knowledge, skills, attitudes, and basic values to enable learners to promote their quality of lives through individual, family and community efforts. The promotion of quality of life through individual and family covers health, education, economy, cultural values, humanity and job opportunity. The promotion of quality of life for community members covers a better living environment, community development, social services (social safety net) and peace.

2) Target

The target groups are the poor community members who are now estimated to be 80 million. It is also directed to less educated people who are not healthy. The various groups covered by the program are: 12 million of 10 years old and above, 21 million who do not complete primary education, 27 million who do not complete lower secondary education, and 8 million who do not complete upper secondary school.

2. EFA Strategy and/or Plan of Action

At present Indonesia is facing monetary crisis which will affect the enrollment rate in 9-year basic education, transition rate from SD to SLTP, increased number of illiteracy and drop-outs and decrease motivation of community and family in the achievement of EFA. Therefore, the following strategy and plan of action taking care of basic learning needs are planned for the next 25 years by the technical working groups of EFA under the coordination of the Coordinating Minister for People’s Welfare, such as:

literates and graduates of primary, lower and upper secondary education.

During the International Literacy Day and May 2nd (The Indonesian Education Day), the President of the Republic of Indonesia makes a policy statement which is included in the 25-year development plan of education in Indonesia. The strategy and plan of action are formulated based on statements made by the President. The statements are reformulated during the Committee meetings coordinated by the Minister for People’s Welfare which consists of three sub committees, i.e. sub-committee on mobilization of human resources, sub-committee on educational services, and sub-committee on media and technology. The committee plans the meetings every 6 months to monitor and review the programs and plans. Each of the member Ministries revises the plans and strategies every five year and annually through the National Planning Board.

For information and campaign on EFA it is done during the ceremonies of International Literacy Day and Indonesian Education Day. Various activities such as seminars, literacy competition, and reading competition are being implemented to increase reading habits, and publications of pamphlets, posters and leaflets are issued during the celebration.

3. EFA Decision-making and Management

A National Working Group of APPEAL was set up based on the Minister of Education and Culture directive No. 0377/P/1988 dated 30 July 1989. Technical team members of the working group consist of various Ministries and NGOs. The Ministerial level is coordinated by the Minister for People’s Welfare, who is also the coordinating body of 9-Year Basic Education in Indonesia, while the technical working group is coordinated by the Director-General of Out-of-School Education, Youth and Sports, Ministry of Education and Culture. At the levels of province, district, and sub-district it is coordinated by the Team Coordinator of 9-Year Basic Education, that is the Director-General of Basic and Secondary Education, MOEC.

All the above-mentioned Ministries are responsible for the management of Education for All according to their fields of responsibilities and functions. The policies and plans for education are set by nation’s highest legislative body, the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) which are expressed in a five-yearly Basic Guidelines of State Policy (GBHN). MPR assigns responsibility for implementation of the guidelines and instructions provided by the GBHN to the President and his Cabinet, in this case the Ministry of Education and Culture. MPR also assigns the control and supervision of implementation to the National Parliament (The People’s Representative Council, DPR). In order to accommodate community opinions and suggestions in Education for All, the government has set up an Advisory Body on National Education (BPPN).

4. Cooperation in Education for All

Education in Indonesia is the responsibility of the family, the community and the government; all sectors contribute to the educational budget. The total public expenditure on education is the sum of the budget of local, regional, and central governments. Although regional government expenditure is financed mainly through the central government transfers, the sectoral allocation of these grants can only be identified from the regional budgets. In addition to the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministries of Home Affairs and Religious Affairs also play an important role in funding and administering education. Family contributions are channeled through two kinds of funds, i.e. one for "contribution to educational development" (SPP) and another a "fund for strengthening education" (DPP).

Community contribution is mainly provided by non-governmental organizations, religious institutions and private enterprises. NG0s are essential and significant partners of the Government in its efforts to achieve EFA, and to improve quality of education, equity in access, educational efficiency and relevance. This is based on a government regulation of 1992 (Government Act no 32/92) which directs community participation towards improved quality in education and encourages the community to provide ideas and suggestions as inputs for educational policy decision-making process and for the implementation of educational programs. Hundreds of NGOs are working with Government in eradicating illiteracy. In addition to this, 19,000 private courses institutions are also taking an active part.

Concerning cooperation with external agencies, APPEAL, the Asia-Pacific Programme on Education for All, has been a particularly important mechanism for regional coordination, especially in basic education. SEAMEO, the South-East Asian Ministers of Education Organization, is an important forum for policy coordination, especially training in INNOTECH which focuses on innovation in education. ASPBAE (Asia South-Pacific Bureau of Adult Education) is also promoting cooperation in education. The Indonesian Government is also working very closely with UN Agencies, such as UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, FAO, ILO to achieve Education for All. At program level UNESCO plays a major role in the Indonesian efforts to achieve Education for All. Besides, the World Bank and ADB provide financial resources in implementing pilot projects to achieve Education for All.

5. Investment on EFA

It is very difficult to find out an exact number of how much money have been used to finance EFA in Indonesia, because the biggest part of the money used for financing EFA came from at least two Directorate-Generals (DGs). Some of financial resources of DG of Basic and Secondary Education have been used to finance EFA activities, so does the financial resources of DG of Out-of-School Education, Youth and Sports. So, how much money have been spent by these two DGs (see the following table) for educational activities is used as a proxy for how much money had been invested for EFA activities.

Table 1

Educational Budget from FY 89/90--FY 96/97

DG-BSE and OSEYS

in million rupiahs

Institution

89/90

90/91

91/92

92/93

93/94

94/95

95/96

96/97

DG of BSE

713,045

1,076,344

1,347,645

1,615,119

1,913,804

2,437,370

2,954,839

3,297,257

DG of OSEYS

25,626

41,493

60,792

78,403

89,890

118,298

148,075

172,820

Total

738,671

1,117,837

1,408,437

1,693,522

2,003,694

2,555,668

3,102,914

3,470,077

GDP

*

*

*

*

1,744,000

1,737,000

1,975,000

2,297,000

Total/GDP        

1,148,907

1,471,311

1,571,096

1,510,700

                 

Note: * data not available

The table 1 shows that educational budget for EFA activities tended to increase from 89/90 to 96/97 for both always balanced with the increasing tendency of the gross domestic product (GDP) as the table also shows that the Total/GDP decreases from 1995/1996 to 1996/1997. This comparison is made by assuming that the value of rupiah to US dollar is held constant. It is not clear whether or not the decreasing tendency of total/GDP shows that the EFA activities have achieved its ultimate goals. To ensure the issue one more variable should be added, i.e the Indonesian population who still need the EFA activities. If this population decreases, one may expect the good news that the EFA activities have relatively reached the goals (at least from the perspective of equal opportunity of access to education), but if this population increases, this will be a sign that the EFA activities need more attention from all those who are concerned with. It is beyond the scope of today's discussion to speak from the perspective of the quality of education because it involves more variables.


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