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PART II ANALYTIC SECTION
6. Progress toward goals and targets
1) General Overview
As the future generation, children are indeed very important human resources to guarantee the success of national development. In order to be good quality generation, those children must have guidance since their early childhood so that they can grow and develop following their age. The development of the early childhood will become very important because this age is the starting period to form basic good personality, characteristics and the physics of children. Therefore, guidance and health care as well as education must be prepared well.
In Indonesia, in 1996 the number of infants were around 11 percent of the total population. This number, however, did not include infant mortality. The Infant Mortality rate (IMR) tended to decrease from year to year. In the period of 1990-1998 IMR decreased around 29.58 percent, that was 71 per 1000 of live births in 1990 and had become 50 per 1000 of live births in 1998 (see Graphic 1).
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (1998)
On the contrary, the infant life expectancy rate has increased 8.01 percent during the last eight years, that was 59.8 years in 1990 became 64.59 years in 1998. Generally, infant life expectancy rate for male tended to be lower than female, and it was said around 62.9 years for male and 69 years for female.
The decrease of Infant Mortality rate (IMR) in Indonesia occurred in all provinces, although the tendencies of the decrease were different. Among the provinces in Indonesia West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) is one of the provinces which still showed the highest IMR. It was estimated that, in 1998 IMR in NTB were around 90 per 1000 of births. This number seems to be decreased compared to the previous years (see attachment in Table 1).
The decrease of IMR can be seen according to urban and rural areas. IMR in those areas are largely different where in 1998 there was a difference of 16 people. It could also be seen that female babies which were born had more chance to celebrate their birthdays until they were one year old. This chance seems different between male and female babies either at rural or urban areas (see Graphic. 2)
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (1998)
If we look at graphic 3, in 1971 the number of under-five mortality (UMR) also decreased sharply from 218 per 1000 of births and became 86 per 1000 of births in 1990, and five years later decreased to 73 per 1000 of life births. In other words, during 1971-1995 period, the a decrease of UMR reached around 66.5 percent and in 1996 there was a decrease again until 70 per 1000 of births.
Similar to IMR, the under-five mortality rate (UMR) had a tendency to decrease in every province. NTB was again one of the provinces which had the highest UMR although there was a sharp decrease every year. In 1990 there was 182 per 1000 of births and a decrease up to 146 in 1995 (see attachment. Table. 2).
2) The Development of ECD Program
The conditions of the Indonesian infants were much better because of several efforts that had been done by either government or community to enhance ECD through various kinds of programs and activities. The followings are the description of the development of the activities in the ECD through health and education programs.
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (1998)
The improvement of health aims at improving health services for children. Several activities in health sector that have been implemented are as follows:
a) The Development of Community Health
A program for the development of Community Health Care (PKM) is a program done to improve the level of peoples health especially in rural areas. One of the activities is a program which is closely related to health care of mothers and early age children and is called Posyandu (Pos Pelayanan Kesehatan Terpadu = a joint effort of the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN), the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Home Affairs). Posyandu is conducted by the community for the community itself, implementing basic health programs which consist of family planning, health of mothers and children, nutrition, immunization, and to overcome diarrhea diseases for mothers and their children. The main objective of this program is to reduce the number of infant mortality and to improve the health status and nutrition of the infants. The success of this program can be seen through the decrease of the number of infant mortality as said above.
The status of infant nutrition shows that more than half of infants in Indonesia are categorized as having good nutrition (63,86 percent) in 1995. Beside that, the data show that during 1989-1995 period, the number of infants who have good nutritional status increased. On the other hand, the number of infants who had bad or insufficient nutrition decreased from 11.5 percent in 1989 to 9.8 percent in 1992. In 1995/96, however, it increased again until 14.6 percent (graphic 4).
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (1998)
The nutrition situation of infants among provinces in 1996 improved. There has been more than 50 percent of infants in each province which have good nutrition status. The highest percentage of infants who have good nutrition is the Special Territory (DI) of Yogyakarta (78.1 percent) and the lowest one is West Kalimantan that is around 49.79 percent. (see attachment Table 3).
In order to overcome the cause of infant and children mortality and the death of children, a program of providing vitamin and immunization for children is also strengthened such as through an improvement of family nutrition (UPGK) and the National Immunization Program (PIN). Although this program budget-wise did not increase sharply, it could be seen that there was an increase of percentage of infants who have got complete immunization that was around 19.15 percent during the 1992-1995 period. Nationally, it could be expressed that in 1992 infants who have got immunization was 73.99 percent, while in 1996 there was 88.16 percent (see attachment Table 4).
In rural areas the percentage of infants who have got immunization tended to be smaller than that in urban areas either in 1992 or in 1996. In 1992 in rural areas the percentage of immunized infants was 69.64 percent while in urban areas was 84.21 percent. In 1996 this percentage became 86.29 in urban areas and 73 percent in rural areas (see Graphic 5).
The above situation might be affected by the lack of knowledge/awareness of the society in rural areas about the importance of immunization, while people in urban areas were more active to bring their children in order to get immunization.
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (1998)
The data in 1996/1997 showed that there were 244,107 posyandus, by which not all villages have established Posyandu. If we compare this situation with the situation two years ago, the number of Posyandu tended to decrease. In 1994/1995 the number of Posyandu was 250,025, then in 1995/1996 decreased to 244,470. One of factors that might cause this decrease in the number of Posyandu was the decrease in the number of infants and also the very time consuming of activities in Posyandu itself.
b) Education and Training Program of Family with Infant (BKB)
The BKB program educates and trains mothers in villages to improve their knowledge, attitudes and skills on how to raise their infants and older children. The program of mothers, infants and children is supported by the government and this has been spread throughout Indonesia. This program is mainly for families who attend a family planning program and have infants and small children. To support this program, BKB has already trained volunteers as cadres of BKB to help parents who are unable to educate and raise their children. At the end of the training, parents are expected to educate their infants and children and to supervise the development of children from the early age of infants until they are three years old.
The data collected from 1991 to 1997 showed that there was a continuous increase on the groups of BKB or BKB participants. The sharp increase could be seen in 1993, there was 7,431 groups with 119,800 participants in 1991 and this became 67,148 groups with 1,237,488 participants in 1993. In 1996 the number of participants increased to 3,929,669. This condition was one of the impacts of active family planning program at the time. Then, in 1997 however, there was a decrease of participants around 4 percent. This might be as an impact of economic crisis in Indonesia. In 1998 there was again an increase of around 15 percent towards BKB participants. This situation indicated that an effort to increase facilities of BKB and its participants were actively done (see Graphic 6). Data on the members of BKB in 1995 and 1996 are not available.
Source: national Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN)
Some issues and problems of BKB are as follows.
(1). Although the number of BKB has fulfilled the target, families who have participated in this program are not low income families but are those from middle and under middle income families that were established through family planning.
(2). Nearly all trainers of BKB are volunteers and their jobs can continually be renewed. They have also lack of experiences to support the cognitive development of children.
Beside health sector, ECD is also implemented through an educational program. Education in pre-primary school is a kind of education to help raise and develop children physical and mentally outside the family environment before they go to primary school. This program is conducted either through formal education or through out-of-school education. The types of pre-primary school are play group, kindergarten, and other places where mothers can send their children during work, called Day Care (Tempat Penitipan Anak-TPA).
a). Play Group and Day Care.
Play group (KB) is an institution of social welfare for children and it is one of the pre primary schools. The main aims of these institutions are to provide educational activities for children as activities for childrens mental and physical growth and development, creation development, creativity, and childrens intellect. A Day Care (TPA) is designed to take care and guide infants whose parents are working. In Indonesia, these two types of institutions are run by the related ministries, such as Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Education and Culture and private institutions and communities. Based on Governmental Regulation on education for pre-primary school, Play Group and Day Care may only be attended by children under three years old.
Although there has yet not been an accurate and complete periodic data gethered about these two institutions, it can be estimated that a number of KB and TPA in Indonesia are relatively small. The data in 1997 show that the number of KB may be found in the provinces and big cities. There are around 202 KB and TPA with 6185 infants and these are conducted by private institutions. TPA in offices, markets, gardens, were around 759 in 1997 with 17048 children.
Roughly, it can be said that the number of 3-5 year old children participated in ECD programs through KB or TPA conducted by the Ministry of Social Affairs, and the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) are relatively small. In 1997 this number has just reached around 0.14 percent for TPA, while for KB is only 0,005 percent (Graphic 7). Data on participation rate by gender is not available.
Based on data in 1997 and 1998, it seemed there was an increase in number of KB around 10.19 percent. According to the data, not all provinces have conducted KB yet. From 27 provinces, only 13 provinces that have KB (see attachment Table. 5)
Source: Ministry of Social Affairs
b). Kindergarten (TK)
Kindergarten as a type of pre-primary school conducted through school channel is implemented to help develop basic attitude, knowledge, skills, and creativity in children outside the family environment before entering primary education. Students in Kindergarten are 4 to 6 year old because at that age they are regarded able to receive and absorb educational programs offered in Kindergarten (TK).
In Indonesia, this type of education is not yet a main priority, so that although there is an increase in Gross Enrollment Rate ((GER), but it is not too sharp. In urban areas the GER of Kindergarten children is 36.65 percent in 1990 and increased to 43.46 percent in 1995. The decrease happened in 1996 to 41.96 percent and then increased and decreased slightly then until year 2000 the estimated GER will be 42.30 percent.
In rural areas the percentage of participation tended to be smaller than in urban areas. It is similar in cities, although it was small, an increase since 1990 until 1995 is from 8.94 percent to 11.23 percent. The increase in the number of male or female students in private Kindergarten is bigger than in public Kindergarten during the 10 years period (see Graphic 8).
In 1990 the number of students in private TK was 16.52 percent while students in public TK was only around 0.07 percent. The increase happened every year until 1995 and became 20.13 percent for the number of private TK students and 0.10 percent for public TK. In private schools the participation decreased in 1996 to become 18.86 percent and projected to increase to around 19.88 percent in the year 2000. While public schools increase continuously although it is not very sharp until the year 2000 and it is estimated to around 0.17 percent.
The number of male and female students seems in balance in public schools, but not in private schools. In 1990 the difference between male and female students is slightly big for male students (13.55 percent) and female students (19.57 percent). That number was nearly balanced in 1995 and it was estimated that the number of female students will be- come 20.46 percent and male students 19.31 percent in the year 2000 (see attachment Table 6).
This condition was caused by the fact that most of TK are run by private sectors rather than by the government, so that the effect of this program has not arrived at lower income society.
. Source: School Statistics, Centre for Informatics
The data about the percentage of first year primary school students who have the chance to attend ECD program was not provided yet. However, a view of the total number of first year students who had already attended pre-primary schools can be drawn roughly based on the development of first year primary school who had attended the prior type is kindergarten from 1993/1994 to 1996/1997. A percentage of primary school students who had attended pre-primary school was very small. In 1994/95 there was only around 26.6 percent. In 1995/96 there was an increase about 27.11 percent and became 27.45 percent in 1996/97, although in another time there was a decrease in 1997/1998 to around 23.26 percent (see Graphic 9).
Source: School Statistics Centre for Informatics
This showed that little children who have a chance to attend pre-primary school are less than 30 percent before entering Primary School (SD). While a research finding done by the Office of Educational and Cultural Research and Development (Balitbang Dikbud) in collaboration with other related institutions showed that there is a difference of ability between students who have ever attended TK and those who were never there, especially language ability and social skill.
c). Education for physical and mentally handicapped children
To accommodate children of pre-primary school age who are physically and mentally handicapped, pre-primary special school has been established. This school aims at helping students who are physically and mentally handicapped so that they will be able to develop their attitude, knowledge, and as individuals or as society members in interaction with their environment.
Special pre-primary school conducts education for 3 years. This school is mostly managed by the private sectors, so that the total number of students who study in private schools are bigger than those in public schools, that is around 93 percent or 6,549 out of 6,984 in 1996/1997. This situation gives a little chance for the handicapped children to go to special schools because special schools that are run by the government are still very limited in number.
Based on the development of participation of pre-primary school age students who attended special schools from 1993/1994 to 1996/1997 there was a slight increase of about 1.18 percent. From 6,990 students in 1993/1994 became 7,073 in 1995/1996, however, in 1996/1997 it decreased to around 1.25 percent (see Graphic 10).
Source: School Statistics Centre for Informatics.
1). Primary Education Program
The program of primary education is directed to have equality of educational opportunity and to improve its quality. Increase of equal access to basic education is aimed at providing children of 7-15 years of age to join nine-year basic education or its equivalent. While the increase of the quality of basic education aimed at increasing student achievement optimally according to the national curriculum standard. The graduates from basic education are expected to gain basic knowledge and essential skills needed for further education or to socialize themselves in their community.
Increase access to basic education is carried out through nine-year universal basic education through various conventional and unconventional patterns. For primary school (SD), the following patterns are used: Conventional Primary Education, Small School, PAMONG* ) School, Integrated Primary School, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (Islamic primary education), "Pondok Pesantren" (Islamic non-formal school), Primary school for the Disabled, and Packet A Learning Group. While for Lower Secondary School (SLTP) the following patterns are used: Conventional Lower Secondary School, Small SLTP, Open SLTP, MTS, Integrated SLTP, Madrasah Tsanawiyah (Islamic Lower Secondary), "Pondok Pesantren" (Islamic non-formal education), SLTP for the Disabled and Packet B Learning Group. The provision of various patterns is expected to provide choices for students to select schools suitable to their condition and situation. It is expected that all school-age population of 7-15 could be accomodated in nine-year basic education.
To support the expansion and equal access to basic education at primary level the following programs were carried out:
The improvement of the quality of primary education is pursued through the following programs.
b) Development of Lower Secondary School Program (SLTP)
The program for expansion and equal opportunity of Lower Secondary School (SLTP) is implemented as follows:
The improvement of the quality of Lower Secondary School (SLTP) is implemented through the following programs.
c) Problems Encountered in Primary Education
Since the introduction of universalization of primary education in 1984, followed by nine year basic education in 1994 and one decade afterwards, a number of problems in primary education emerged, caused by economic, socio-cultural and geographical factors, which have not been fully taken care of in the past. These problems could be grouped into five main categories as follows:
2) Achievement of Basic Education
Achievement of basic education is reflected by various indicators as follows: the number of students, net intake rate, enrollment rate, repetition rate, completion rate, retention rate, efficiency coefficient, teacher qualification, pupil-teacher ratio, financing of education, and student achievement through national evaluation test (Ebtanas). The last indicator will be discussed in Part II Section C of the report.
a) Number of Students
The number of students at basic education level from 1990 up to 1998 indicated a different pattern for SD and SLTP levels. In 1990, the number of students at SD level including students from Islamic school was 29.41 million. It increased up to 29.70 million in 1995, however, in 1998 this number decreased to 29.29 million. The number of SD plus MI (Islamic school) students will be further projected as constantly decreasing, and in the year 2000 it will decrease to 29.09 million. This trend during one decade is positively correlated with the decreased number of school-age children, 27.59 million in 1995 to 25.58 million in 1998. For SLTP level, the number of SLTP level students (excluded MTs students) was 5.69 million. It increased to 5.9 million in 1993, and to 8.02 million in 1998. Including MTs students, this number of SLTP students was 9.74 million.
The projected number of SLTP students for the year 2000 is 10 million. Thus, in one decade the number of SLTP students will increase up to 4 million. The number of students aged 13-15 during 1990-2000 indicates a rising number. In 1990 the number of SLTP school-age students was 12.31 million and in 1998 it increased up to 13.42 million. Therefore, the increasing trend of students entering school is correlated with the increasing number of SLTP school-age students. The graphic 11 below indicates the trend of the number of SD and SLTP students during 1990-2000.
Trend of Number of SD and SLTP Students
The implementation of nine year basic education during the first four years since its declaration in 1994, has indicated most satisfactory results. Cumulatively, the number of students in basic education in 1994 was 36.44 million, specified as follows (1) SD+MI students were 29.46 million, and (2) SLTP+MTs students were 6,98 million. In 1997, the number of basic education students increased up to 39.00 million according to the following specifications (1) SD+MI students were 29.27 million (a decrease of 190 thousand students), and (2) SLTP+MTs students were 9.73 million (an increase of 2.75 million). The economic crisis has had an impact on the number of basic education students. In 1998, the number of basic education students was 38.64 million with the following specifications (1) SD+MI students were 29.10 million and (2) SLTP+MTs students were 9.54 million.
The intake rate of primary education during 19901998 showed a continued increase. The increase is expected to continue up to the year 2000. The gross intake rate had increased to 7% during the past ten years. In 1990, the gross intake rate reached 93.83%. The number increased to 97.30% in 1994 and reached its peak of 101.21% in 1997. In 1998, the gross intake rate decreased to 99.34% and it is being projected to increase to 100.86% in the year 2000.
Seen from geographical aspect, the intake rate of primary education in the rural areas is relatively higher than that of urban areas. In 1990, the intake rate in primary education in urban areas was only 20.75% compared to that of the rural areas which was 73.08%. In 1995, the intake rate in urban areas increased to 21.13% and that of rural areas increased to 76.71%. At the first year of the monetary crisis, however, in 1997 the intake rate in urban areas is relatively constant, only 21.82% compared to rural areas which was 79.39%. It is projected that by the year 2000 gross intake rate in urban areas for primary school will reach 21.72% and in the rural areas it will reach 79.14%.
Gross Intake Rate of Primary School (SD)
Trend in net intake rate for primary education indicated a small increase. During 1990-1998, there was only an increase of up to 4%. In 1990, the net
intake rate of primary education reached 45.11%, however, in the following year it decreased to the lowest point of 41.02% in 1995. In the following year it increased and reached its peak of 49.13% in 1997. And it is projected to reach the same point in the year 2000.
Seen from the location, net intake rate of primary education in urban areas remains the same. In 1990, the net intake rate reached 9.23%, however, in the following year it reached 8.16%. The number kept increasing in 1998 to 9.76%. In the rural areas the increase of intake rate was relatively small. In 1990, the intake rate reached 35.88%, and decreased to 32.85% in 1995. In 1996, the intake rate increased to 38.99% and remain the same in 1998. It is projected that in the year 2000 the intake rate will be 93.99%.
Net Intake Rate of Primary Education (SD)
For SLTP level, the intake rate is measured through a transition rate, namely the number of SD graduates continuing to SLTP. This transition rate to SLTP in general has increased from 60.32% in 1990 to 71.29% in 1995; it decreased to 70.91% in 1998. This rate is projected to increase to 75.44% in 2000. Seen from the gender aspect, the transition rate for male students tends to increase yearly. In 1990, the transition rate for male students increased from 59.07% to 74.51% . This rate has decreased to 74.14% in 1998 because of the impact of the monetary and economic crises. For the year 2000, this rate is projected to increase to 94.45%. The transition rate for female students is relatively lower than that for male ones. In 1990, this rate for female students decreased to 57.69% and in 1992 it increased to 73.96%. In 1998, this rate decreased to 67.63% due to the monetary crisis. For year 2000 the female student transition rate is projected to decrease to 56.07%.
The ratio between transition rates of SD and SLTP students at the national level based on gender is shown in Grapic 14.
Transition Rates of SD and SLTP Students
Seen from geographical aspect the transition rate of SLTP students in urban areas is higher than that of rural areas. In 1990, the transition rate in urban areas was 38.57% and that of rural areas was 21.75%. The transition rate tends to increase in rural areas even in a small number. In urban areas the transition rate reached 46.05% in 1995 and 50.13% in 1997. But the number was decreased to 45.84% in 1998 due to monetary crisis mentioned which affect very much the students in the urban areas. It is projected to increase to 48.76% in the year 2000. In the rural areas, the transition rate increased to 25.24% in 1995 and it reached its peak in 1997 up to 27.42%. In the second year of the monetary crisis the transition rate in the rural areas decreased to 25.08% and it is projected that by the year 2000 it will increase up to 26.68%.
c) Enrollment Rate
Enrollment Rate (ER) is one of the indicators of achievement of 9 year compulsory basic education. The trend in student ER in the last 10 years shows a similar pattern with the trend on the number of students. However, the trend in Primary School was almost the same because it has reached the peak compared to SLTPs ER. The Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) of Primary School in 1990 reached 109.46%. The number kept increasing in stages until it reached 111.88% in 1995 and 113.74% in 1998. The number is projected to increase to 114.61%. Thus Primary School ER increased to 4% in the last 8 years. The biggest contribution of ER is from public school amounted to 91.59% in 1990, while the private primary education only contributed 17.87% in the same year. The proportion remained the same up to 1998 by which the contribution of public primary school was 93.38% and private primary school was 20.36% .
Seen from the location of the school, GER of primary school in the rural areas gave a bigger contribution compared to that in the urban areas. In 1990, the GER of primary school reached 81.02% while GER in urban areas reached only 28.44%. The growth of GER of primary school is very slow in both the rural and urban areas. In 1995, GER of primary school in urban areas increased to 29.05% while GER in urban areas reached 82.83%. In the second year of the monetary crisis GER in urban areas remained the same while GER in the rural areas increased up to 84.21%. It is projected that GER in urban and rural areas will increase to 29.85% and 84.76% respectively in the year 2000.
The trend in Net Enrollment Rate (NER) of primary education has shown a similar pattern with that of GER. The increase in NER for primary school level is only 2% since the NER for primary school is already high. In 1990, the NER of primary education reached 92.03% and increased up to 94.71% in 1994 and reached its peak in 1996 namely 94.98%. The NER of primary school decreased to 93.74% in 1998 and it is projected to increase to 94% in the year 2000.
Trend of GER of Primary Education
Seen from geographical aspect, NER of primary school in urban areas is relatively small compared to that of rural areas. There is no significant development of NER in the last ten years in both areas. In 1990, primary school NER in urban areas reached 23.90% and increased to 25.25% in 1994. Since 1995, NER of primary school decreased to 24.92 % in 1998. The projection in the year 2000 will decrease up to 24.86%. In the rural areas, in 1990, the NER of primary school reached 68.13% and increased up to 69.56% in 1995 and up to 69.78% in 1997. NER of primary school in the rural areas decreased 1% in 1998, namely 68.82% and it is projected to be 69% in the year 2000.
Trend of Net Enrollment Rate of Primary School
For the SLTP level, NER within one decade indicated a sufficiently sharp increase. In 1990, the SLTP NER was 52.85% and increased to 62.67% in 1995 and up to 72.71% in 1997. During the first year of the economic crisis the NER for SLTP decreased to 71.92% and is projected to increase to 72.22% in 1999 and up to 73% in year 2000.
The GER of SLTP for rural and urban areas indicates a classically slight different. However, the GER of SLTP in the rural areas increased substantially. In 1990 GER of SLTP in the rural areas reached 31.31% and increased up to 37.89% in 1995 and reached its peak in 1997, namely 49.12%. The number decreased in 1998 to 43.32% as the consequence of the monetary crisis and it is projected to increase up to 44.21% in the year 2000. While in urban areas GER of SLTP was 21.54% in 1990, which was 10% less than that of rural areas. The number increased up to 24.78% in 1995 and 28.47% in 1998. It is projected that GER of SLTP in urban areas will increase only to 29.14% in the year 2000.
Trend of Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) of SLTP
While the development of the SLTP NER shows a similar trend to that of the GER, in 1990, the SLTP NER reached 39.24%. This NER increased to 46.94% in 1995 and up to 56.03% in 1997. In 1998, the NER for SLTP decreased to 55.05% and is projected to increase again to 56.62% in the year 2000.
Trend of Net Enrollment Rate of SLTP
Seen from the local scale, the level of enrollment rate achieved in each of the provinces varied. In 1994, only two provinces achieved a GER of over 80%, namely DI Yogyakarta and DKI Jakarta. In 1997, there were five provinces which reached the minimum limit for totality, namely DI Yogyakarta (116.54%), DKI Jakarta (102.61%), Bali (89.52%), West Sumatra (83.99%), and North Sumatra (83.36%). Seen from another aspect, in the same year, there were 7 provinces with a GER for nine year compulsory basic education below 60%, namely: West Kalimantan (57.10%), Central Kalimantan (59.45%), Central Sulawesi (56.54%), NTB (West Nusatenggara) (58.65%), NTT (East Nusatenggara) (55.25%), Irian Jaya (52.34%) and East Timor (41.20%). In 1998, the position of achievement level in connection with nine year compulsory basic education was relatively the same. Nevertheless, almost all provinces decreased the GER (maximum 1.54%), except for 8 provinces which experienced increased of GER but at a bare minimum, namely in DI Yogyakarta, Jambi, Bengkulu, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, Bali, Irian Jaya and East Timor. Apart from the percentage rate of students entering schools, three provinces had the largest absolute number of children, aged 13-15 who are still excluded from the system of education, namely West Java (1 million), East Java (600.000) and Central Java (525.000).
d) Repetition Rate
Repetition rate indicates the level of internal efficiency of certain schools in providing educational services to students. The repetition rate of primary school for both public and private schools decreased in the last decade. In 1990, the primary school repetition rate reached 9.66% for all classes. The number decreased to 7.18% in 1995 and continued to decrease up to 6.69% in 1998. The repetition rate of public primary school is projected to decrease to 6.47% in the year 2000.
Similar trend occurs for private primary school students. In 1990, the repetition rate for private primary school students was 8.34% which was smaller compared to that of public primary school. The number decreased to 5.77% in 1995 and 5.64% in 1998. It is projected that in the year 2000, the repetition rate of students at the private primary school will be 6.21%.
For SLTP level, the repetition rate shows a decreasing trend yearly. In 1990, the SLTP repetition rate at the national level reached 0.98%. This decreased to 0.55% in 1995 and 0.44% in 1998. This repetition rate is projected as continuously decreasing to 0.43% and 0.42% respectively in 1999 and 2000.
From the gender point of view, the repetition rate of male and female students show a similar pattern. The repetition rate for male tends to be higher than that for female students. In 1990, the SLTP repetition rate for male students reached 1.17% and increased up to 1.25% in 1993. This number sharply decreased to 0.74% in 1995 and 0.60% in 1998. It is projected to decrease to 0.43% and 0.42% in 1999 and 2000 respectively.
Repetition Rate of Primary School Students
Repetition Rate of SLTP Students
The repetition rate for female SLTP students is relatively lower than that for male students. In 1990, the repetition rate for female students reached only 0.74% and sharply decreased to 0.34% in 1995 and to 0.27% in 1998. This number is estimated to remain stable during the two subsequent years at 0.26%. The following diagram indicates the development of repetition rate for SLTP students at the national level based on gender.
e) Survival Rate
Survival rate is an index to measure the number of students who could survive to fifth class of SD and second class of SLTP. For the primary school survival rate shows an increase in the first 1990s and it remained constant at the recent years. In 1990, the survival rate for primary school reached 84.1%, and increased up to 90.4% in 1994. The number indicated the same trend up to 1998 and it is projected to remain the same in the year 2000.
Seen from the school status, survival rate of primary school students increased to 6% during the last 10 years. In 1990, survival rate for SD reached 84.4% and increased to 91% in 1994.The number remained the same that is 90% up to 1998, and it is projected to increase to 91.2% in the year 2000. The trend of student survival rate has indicated a sharp fluctuation. In 1990, survival rate for private primary school students reached 84.5% and increased to 93.5% in 1991. The rate decreased in the following years to 83.7% and 85.4% in 1995 and 1998 respectively. It is projected that in the year 2000 it will remain the same.
Trend of Survival Rate of Primary Education ( SD)
For SLTP, survival rate during the first years showed a rising trend, but it decreased starting from 1998. In 1990, SLTP student survival rate reached 69%, sharply rose to 93.1% in 1995 and to 93.6% in 1997. The number then decreased to 88.7% in 1998. This number is projected to rise again in 1999 and 2000 to 92.7% and to 93.4% respectively.
Seen from the school status, survival rate for students at public and private schools show a relatively similar trend of development. Survival rate for public school students indicates a fluctuation and not too much increase. However, the private school survival rate shows a drastic increase. In 1990, survival rate for students at public schools appeared to be 81.2%, increased to 94.2% in 1995 and decreased to 91.6% in 1997. It decreased to 86.8% in 1998 due to monetary crisis mentioned above. For private SLTP, this survival rate has shown a sharp increase. In 1990, the student survival rate was 54.5%, which increased drastically in 1994 to 93.6% and reached its peak at 103.9% in 1996 and again it decreased to 92.4% in 1998. For 1999 and 2000 it is projected to increase up to 96.5% and 97.3% respectively. The following graphic indicates the degree of student survival rate at the national level for both public and private lower secondary school (SLTP).
Survival Rate of SLTP Students
f) The Efficiency Coefficient
The efficiency coefficient or internal efficiency indicates the percentage of students having completed SD and SLTP. For primary education the internal efficiency indicated is 11 %. In 1990 internal efficiency of SD indicated 74% at the national level which increased up to 84% in 1996. It is projected that in the year 2000 it will reach 85%.
Seen from the school status, the efficiency coefficient of both public and private primary schools has a similar pattern. In 1990 the efficiency coefficient of public primary school reached 74% and increased to 91% in 1994. The number continuously increased and in 1998 became 84% and it will remain the same in the year 2000. The efficiency coefficient of private primary schools reached only 75% in 1990 and increased up to 81% in 1994. The number decreased to 78% in the following year and it increased up to 82% in 1996 and remained the same in the following year. It is projected that it will increase to 83% in the year 2000.
Efficiency Coefficient of Primary School
Efficiency Coefficient of SLTP
f) Teacher Qualification
Basic education teachers are required to meet requirements for a minimum qualification for teaching at SD and SLTP. For SD level, a teacher should have an educational background equal to Diploma II (D2), and for SLTP teachers equal to Diploma III (D3).
The qualification degree of SD teachers in the recent 10 years has been very high. At the national level, in 1990 the number of SD teachers who graduated from SPG (Secondary Teacher Education) was 91.54%. This number increased to 92.89% in 1995 and 93.59% in 1998. It is projected that by the year 2000 the SD teachers who are qualified will be 94.49%. Seen from the school status the number of SD teachers who are qualified was 85.43% at the public school and 6.15% at the private school. This happened because the number of SD teachers at the public primary schools is 90% of all SD teachers. In 1995 the number increased to 86.71% at public school and 6.62% at private school. In the year 2000 the number of qualified SD teachers is projected to be 87.87% at public school and 6.62% at the private school.
Trend of Number of Qualified SD Teachers
The trend of the number of qualified SLTP teachers indicate a substantially relevant increase. In 1990, the number of qualified teachers reached 24.16%. This increased to 38.86% in 1995 and increased to 41.65% in 1998. For the year 2000 the number of qualified teachers is projected to reach minimally 46.37%.
Seen from the school status the number of qualified teachers at public and private schools indicates a similar trend. Nevertheless, the number of qualified public school teachers is relatively lower in comparison to that of private school teachers. In 1990, the number of qualified school teachers reached 19.26%, which increased to 34.23% in 1995, and to 40% in 1998. This percentage is estimated to continuously increase to 46.68% in year 2000. For private school teachers, the number of qualified teachers reached 29.41% in 1990. It increased to 45.67% in 1995 and to 44.20% in 1998. In the year 2000, the number of qualified teachers at private SLTP is projected to reach 46.37%. The following diagram reflects the number of teachers at public and private schools, fulfilling minimum qualification requirement.
Trend of Number of Qualified SLTP Teachers
h) Pupil-Teacher Ratio
The pupil-teacher ratio is used as a tool to measure the level of human resource input, i.e. teachers, in relation to the number of students population. In certain situations, the pupil-teacher ratio is also used to determine the level of teacher sufficiency at school, and as a tool to distribute the surplus of teachers at certain schools in need of teachers according to the subject matters taught.
For SD level, the trend of pupil-teacher ratio remains constant. In 1990 the pupil-teacher ratio was 23:1 which is ideal for class measurement at primary level. The ratio is the same at the following three years and decreased to 22:1 in 1993 but remained the same until 1998. It is projected that in 1990-2000 the pupil-teacher ratio will be 23:1. In 1990 and 1992 the pupil-teacher ratio of public primary school was 24:1. In 1993 it decreased to 23:1 and remained the same until 1997. In 1998 it decreased to 22:1 and for 1999-2000 it is projected to be 23:1. For the private primary school the pupil-teacher ratio indicated a similar trend.
At the SLTP level, the development of student-teacher ratio during the last decade has increased steadily. In 1990, the student-teacher ratio at SLTP was 14:1, and increased to 17:1 in 1995 and to 18:1 in 1998. For the year 2000, this is projected to decrease to 17:1.
The development of pupil-teacher ratio at public and private SLTP follows the same pattern. The pupil-teacher ratio for public SLTP is higher than that for private one. In 1990, the pupil-teacher ratio at public schools was 17:1. For the year 2000 this ratio will decrease by two points 19:1. For private SLTP, the pupil-teacher ratio in 1990 was 11:1. It increased to 14:1 in 1995 and to 15:1 in 1998. This ratio is projected to decrease to 14:1 in the year 2000.The trend of the SLTP pupil-teacher ratio during one decade is reflected in the following diagram.
Trend of Pupil-Teacher Ratio of SLTP
3) Out-of-School Basic Education
According to the Law on National Education System, the education system is organized in two different channels, in-school or formal education and out-of-of school or non-formal education. The out-of-school education is based on Government Regulation No 73/1991. The regulation stated that out-of-school education is aimed at (a) serving learners in order that they could develop themselves at their earliest age during their life to uplift their standard of living and their self-esteem, (b) developing learners in order that they acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to develop themselves, to work to get income and to continue education at the higher level, (c) meeting the educational needs of the community which could not be met by the school. The out-of-school basic education consists of Packet A equivalent to Primary Education and Packet B equivalent to Lower Secondary Education.
The objective of the programme is to support the Nine Year Compulsory Basic Education through the out-of-school education channel in order that all children age 13-15 attain education equal to lower secondary education level. In addition, it makes possible for learners to fullfil the requirements for further education at higher level. The learning activity is held three times a week depending on the consensus reached by the learners, tutor, manager, and organizer. Students study with the tutors but must also study autonomously or in small groups outside the class time. The learning content is divided according to lower secondary education curriculum, delivered in the form of modules. Students are evaluated by a multiple-choice test on each subject at the end of each semester to determine if they will move on to the next set of modules.
1) Packet A Program Equivalent to Primary Education
Packet A program is a non-formal equivalent to primary education program which would provide both general and vocational education to the drop-outs or to those who could not be accomodated in formal schools.
Packet A learning activity is implemented through learning groups and/or course. Each group consists of a maximum of 40 learners assisted by at least one tutor who have had educational training or who are teachers of primary school. Generally, three groups are assisted by an institution or organization and a program manager is appointed for those three learning groups. Tutor and manager are given a monthly financial incentive. The financial resource of the Packet A program may come from the state income and expenditure budget, the provincial income and expenditure budget, grant or loan from abroad, and community self-financing. In 1994, Packet A was implemented within the framework of supporting the Nine Year Basic Education program. During 1997/1998 a National Final Stage Evaluation (PEHAPTANAS) was organized in cooperation with the Examination Center. Out of the 44.803 participants 40.164 (89.65%) passed the exam. After having successfully passed the PEHAPTANAS, the graduates of Packet A were given the opportunity to continue studying at an advanced level through formal school or non-formal one.
2) Packet B Program Equivalent to Lower Secondary Education
The Packet B program is a non-formal equivalent to a lower secondary education program which would provide both general and vocational education to primary school graduates or its equivalency who could not continue education, and to lower secondary school drop-outs. The program is intended for 13-15 years population, however, older students are accepted as well. Packet B students are not expected to continue schooling after graduation, but if they want to do so they can sit in a state equivalency examination and obtain a regular lower secondary school certificate. Therefore, the vocational component of Packet B is regarded as an important part of the program, to ensure that after graduation the students already in possession of some skills for employment or self-employment. Further training may be needed, which will be provided by courses or by income-generating programs in continuing education.
Packet B learning activity is implemented through learning groups and/or course. Each group consists of a maximum of 40 learners assisted by at least 5 tutors who have had educational training or who are considered to be able to teach a subject matter or study field in Packet B program. Generally, three groups are assisted by an institution or organization and a program manager is appointed for those three learning groups. Tutor and manager are given a monthly financial incentive. The financial resource of the Packet B program may come from the state income and expenditure budget, the provincial income and expenditure
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