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Table 2.4.

SLTP NEM Qualifications in Indonesia, 1997/1998

Average NEM at Schools in 1997/98

Province

A

B

C

D

E

Av.

Number of School

 

Remarks

*5

*4

*3

*2

*1

DKI Jakarta

0

35

205

628

193

2,077286

West Java

0

15

186

1610

638

1,827685

2449

6,5 < B <= 7,5
Central Java

0

89

1300

1123

1

2,587744

2513

5,5 <= C <= 6,5
DI Yogyakarta

9

80

212

156

0

2,873085

457

4,5 <= D <= 5,5
East Java

0

51

891

916

13

2,523784

1871

E <= 4,5
JAVA

9

270

2794

4433

845

2,301281

8351

DI Aceh

3

71

352

50

0

3,056723

476

North Sumatra

0

4

151

1029

54

2,084814

1238

West Sumatra

0

16

127

229

39

2,291971

411

Riau

1

8

76

301

61

2,076063

447

Jambi

0

1

61

146

89

1,912458

297

South Sumatra

0

0

62

498

291

1,730905

851

Bengkulu

0

0

4

71

115

1,415789

190

Lampung

0

8

104

655

108

2,013714

875

Bali

0

6

72

197

32

2,169381

307

NTB

0

1

46

162

31

2,070833

240

NTT

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

East Timor

0

0

0

41

72

1,362832

113

West Kalimantan

0

0

10

205

283

1,451807

498

Central Kalimantan

0

8

139

63

3

2,713615

213

South Kalimantan

0

0

36

164

28

2,035088

228

East Kalimantan

0

1

19

149

36

1,926829

205

North Sulawesi

1

48

292

433

58

2,40024

832

Central Sulawesi

0

3

53

222

12

2,162069

290

South Sulawesi

1

95

351

72

0

3,04817

519

Southeast Sulawesi

0

51

135

23

0

3,133971

209

Maluku

0

91

246

84

7

2,983645

428

Irian Jaya

0

5

74

150

68

2,053872

297

OUTSIDE JAVA

6

417

2410

4944

1387

2,204605

9164

INDONESIA

15

687

5204

9377

2232

2,250699

17515

* : data not available

d) The Development of SLTP NEM during the Last Five Years.

In general the trend towards increase of the average SLTP NEM was found from 1995/1996 to 1996/1997, but it had decreased during 1996/1997 to 1997/1998.

Table 2.5.

Development of SLTP NEM in Indonesia During the Last Five Years

 

Province

Average NEM at Schools in 1994/95

N. of Schools

 

Remarks

 

A

B

C

D

E

Av.

   
 

(5)

(4)

(3)

(2)

(1)

     

DKI Jakarta

1,61

2,48

2,08

54,05591

4

-16,2486

24

 
West Java

1,46

2,10

1,83

44,11442

9

-13,1358

19

 
Central Java

1,81

2,81

2,59

54,98314

2

-7,75173

15

 
DI Yogyakarta

2,6

2,83

2,87

9,017381

23

1,362995

8

 
East Java

2,04

2,91

2,52

42,7572

10

-13,3389

20

 
DI Aceh

2,31

2,97

3,06

28,67317

16

2,838577

6

 
North Sumatra

2,52

2,43

2,08

-3,37541

25

-14,3792

22

 
West Sumatra

1,71

2,35

2,29

37,32247

13

-2,39516

9

 
Riau

1,53

2,37

2,08

54,57806

3

-12,2189

18

 
Jambi

1,42

2,02

1,91

42,54492

11

-5,51741

13

 
South Sumatra

1,76

2,02

1,73

14,57

21

-14,16

21

 
Bengkulu

1,48

1,79

1,42

20,70664

18

-20,7488

26

 
Lampung

1,18

1,81

2,01

53,69484

5

11,03415

3

 
Bali

1,78

2,28

2,17

28,36012

17

-5,05202

12

 
NTB

1,62

2,29

2,07

41,42835

12

-9,61556

17

 
NTT

1,96

2,84

 

44,75068

7

     
East Timor

1,26

1,71

1,36

35,73654

15

-20,3153

25

 
West Kalimantan

1,39

1,89

1,45

36,09954

14

-23,2572

27

 
Central Kalimantan

2,18

2,61

2,71

19,52449

20

4,144144

4

 
South Kalimantan

1,5

2,16

2,04

44,21769

8

-5,92519

14

 
East Kalimantan

1,76

2,12

1,93

20,26515

19

-8,9687

16

 
North Sulawesi

2,75

2,33

2,40

-15,1664

22

2,885435

7

 
Central Sulawesi

1,51

2,24

2,16

48,28194

6

-3,43842

11

 
South Sulawesi

2,67

2,99

3,05

11,84949

26

2,069

5

 
Southeast Sulawesi

3,1

3,23

3,13

4,166667

24

-2,94799

10

 
Maluku

3,09

2,60

2,98

-15,8035

27

14,68185

2

 
Irian Jaya

1,51

2,43

2,05

61,10093

1

-15,5697

23

 

INDONESIA

1,91

2,46

2,25

28,75148

 

-8,37005

   

 Note: the development formula is the NEM Grade in year t minus the NEM Grade in year (t-1) multiplied by 100 and finally divided by the NEM Grade in year (t-1). As the 1997/1998 NEM data for NTT province were not available NTT is excluded from the analysis in this section

Viewed from the condition per province from 1994/1995 to 1996/1997 with some provinces experiencing an increase, others experienced a decrease, having the same experience from 1996/1997 to 1997/1998, with the result that four types of development are identified.

First, provinces experiencing an increase of NEM during the periods mentioned above were: DI Yogyakarta, DI Aceh, Lampung, Central Kalimantan and South Sulawesi. Second, provinces experiencing a decrease during the first period but an increase during the second period were North Sulawesi and Maluku. Third, provinces experiencing an increase of NEM during the first period but a decrease during the second period, there were 12 provinces in all, namely: DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Jawa, West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. Fourth, one province experiencing a decrease of NEM during the two above mentioned periods was North Sumatra.

If the condition of the four types of provinces mentioned above was related to the monetary crisis starting medio 1997, the conclusions that could be drawn are as follows. On the other hand, seven provinces ‘survived’ in the organization of SLTP (from the viewpoint of NEM) during the monetary crisis, two provinces, Sulawesi Utara and Maluku even were able to take advantage of the monetary crisis. On the other hand, 19 other provinces met with difficulties, which probably bore an impact on the organization of SLTP, which was primarily felt by SLTP students in North Sumatra. The finding is sufficiently relevant to the conclusion taken by a study concerning the impact of the monetary crisis, done by the Center of Informatics at the end of 1998, stating that the negative impact of the monetary crisis in education was severely felt at the level of basic education, particularly by SLTP students.

e) The Rate of Class Promotion, Repeaters, and Drop-outs at Fourth Form SD

Up to now, in Indonesia the competence for basic study developed for Basic Schools emphasizes the cognitive aspect, in particular: Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Social Science and Language while other aspects are not much touched. Meanwhile, available data is only for SD graduates (for form 4 only standardized tests are provided while the data are not yet available). Thus, indicator 15 of ‘Education for All’ concerning "the percentage of form 4 SD students (or higher) who have mastered the competence of basic study according to national definition’, cannot be fully met as yet. Nevertheless, the indicator for class promotion, the repeater rate and the drop-out rate in form four SD are hopefully could represent indicator 15 of the said EFA, at least from the cognitive aspect.

1) The Class Promotion Rate for Form 4

From Table 2.2., 2.3.and 2.7, the information is obtained that during the last 8 years the rate of Class Promotion Rate (CPR) tended to increase. From 1989/1990 to 1996/1997, at the national level nominal rate of the CPR constantly increased but decreased in 1997/1998, then it increased again in 1998/1999. The increase of the CPR was quite prominent during the monetary crisis (1997/1998). At provincial level, from 1989/1990 until 1999/2000 fluctuation occurred, CPR moving up and down from time to time and from province to province nevertheless, during the monetary crisis decrease of the CPR occurred in almost all provinces excluding Bengkulu. From Table 2.6 it may be detected that the development of form four SD students in Southeast Sulawesi was hit hardest by the negative impact of the monetary crisis, while on the other hand the development of form four SD students in Bengkulu (the sole province) were not hit by the monetary crisis.

2) Repeater Rates of Form Four

From 1989/1990 up till 1996/1997, at the national level the number of students repeating form four tends to consistently decrease, but starting school year 1997/1998 the number of repeater students tended to increase but exactly during the monetary crisis (1997/1998) the number of repeaters proved to decrease again although the year thereafter it increased again. At provincial level, between 1989/1990 and 1999/2000 fluctuation occurred of the CPR, varying from time to time and from province to province, nevertheless during the monetary crisis (1997/1998) in almost all provinces a decrease of repeaters of form four occurred, excluding the number of repeaters in East Timor (although the number of repeaters during the monetary crisis also decreased in this province). It is interesting to see that the number of repeaters decreased during the monetary crisis, where the most significant development occurred in DKI Jakarta, namely around 24%, while the development of repeater decrease in the majority of provinces about 6% (Table 2.6.).

f) The Drop-out Rate of Form Four

Different from the Form Promotion Rate (which tended to increase) and Repeater Rates (which tended to decrease), at the national level the School Drop-out Rate showed the tendency to fluctuate up and down from 1989/1990 till 1999/2000. This tendency for fluctuation of the School Drop-out Rate also occurred at provincial level, it even occurred in an extreme manner during a certain period in various provinces, such as: in West Java during the monetary crisis increasing 3.93 times and in Aceh between 1996/1997 and 1997/1998.

One of the developments of the drop-out rate of sufficient interest to observe is what happened in Bengkulu province during the last five years. From 1993/1994 to 1994/1995 the drop-out rate decreased from 1,347 drop-out students until about 10% or 135 students dropped out, then increased extremely (over 18 times) in subsequent year. From 1995/1996 to 1996/1997 the drop-out rate decreased again from 74% to 26% or 669 students dropping out, then increasing again almost 5 times into 2,637 students dropping out in subsequent year (see Table 2.7)


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