The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports  
Indonesia 
Previous Page  Next Page 
d. Adult Literacy
The number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group in Indonesia, in 1990 and in 1998, were respectively 1,334,816 and 662,551 people, or equal to, respectively, 3.79% and 1.73% of the total number of population 1524 years age group. The IP has decreased by 50.36% or by 672,265 people during the last 8 years. The decreasing number of illiteracy is shown in Table 2.8.
Table 2.8
Decreasing Number of Illiterate Population (IP)
of 1524 years age group, Year 19901998
Decreasing Number of Illiterate Population of 1524 years age grop, year 19901998 

No 
Year 
Total Illiterate

Decreasing number of Illiterate Population percentage 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 
1,334,816 1,265,488 * 1,196,160 1,027,937 867,399 877,827 846,974 733,775 662,551 
69,328 69,328 * 168,223 160,538 +10,428 ** 30,853 113,199 71,224 
5,19 5,48 14,06 15,62 1,20** 3,51 13,37 9,71 
Note: * = number of estimation; ** = a rise in number of IP
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics
On the basis of gender illiterates of 1524 years age group, young female has a higher probability of being illiterate than young male. It can be seen from the data of 1990 that female illiteracy rate was 196.72% (or 884,954 people) of the number of male illiterates. Although female illiteracy rate in 1998 was still higher than male illiteracy rate, female illiteracy rate has decreased during the period of 19901998 (from 196.72% in 1990 to 135.58% in 1998).
On the basis of illiteracy rate by location (rural versus urban), there were a significant difference between rural and urban illiteracy rate. The data indicated that rural illiteracy rate in 1990 was 86.85% of the total number of IP or accounted to 1,159,264 people, and in 1998, 569,623 people or 85.97% of the total number of IP.
The decrease in the number of illiterate population during the period of 1990 to 1998 may be described in details as follows. In 1990 the number of illiterates may be described as follows. The number of male illiterates of 1524 years age group in urban area was 56,251 people and female illiterates was 119,310 or 67.96% of the total number of IP located in the urban area. The number of male illiterates was 393,611 and 765,653 female illiterates or 66.05% of the total number of IP located in the rural area.
In 1991, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 1,265,488 people or 3.7% of the total number of population aged 15 to 24. That number included 426,497 male illiterates and 838,991 female illiterates or 66.3% of the total number of IP of 1524 years age group. The most of IP was found in the rural area (87.50% or 373,168 people). The illiteracy rate during the period 19901991 indicated that illiteracy decreased 5.19% or 69,328, consisting of 23,365 male and 845,963 female illiterates.
In 1992, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 1,196,160 or 3.42% of the total number of population of 1524 years age group consisting 408,080 (34.12%) male illiterates and 788,080 (65.88%) female illiterates. The highest illiteracy rate was found in the rural area (i.e. 86.47%). Similar to the previous year, female illiteracy rate was still higher than male illiteracy, either located in the rural (65.23%) or in the urban (70.06%) areas. Compared to the 1991 data, there was a decrease of the number of IP in 1992 of 5.48% or 69,328, while the composition and their spreading were relatively the same as in the previous year.
In 1993, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 1,027,937 or 2.88% of the total number of population of 1524 years age group. That number included 361,280 male illiterates and 666,657 female illiterates or 64.85% of the total number of IP by 1524 years age group. The highest illiteracy rate was found in the rural area 885,348 people or 86.13%. Compared to the previous year (1992), the number of IP decreased in 1993 by 14.06% or 168,223, while the probability of their spreading was relatively the same as in the previous year.
In 1994, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years ages group 867,399 or 2.37% of the number of population of 1524 years age group. That number included 311.897 (35.95%) male illiterates and 555,502 (64.04%) female illiterates. Most of the IP was found in the rural area (85.61%). Similar to the previous years, number of female illiterates in 1994 was higher than male illiterates, either located in rural (63.65%) or in urban (66.37%) areas. The number of IP decreased by 15.62% (160,538) of its previous year, while their composition and spreading were relatively the same as that of the previous year.
In 1995, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 877,827 or 2.47% of the number of population of this group. That number included 342,323 male illiterates and 535,504 female illiterates or 61% of the total number of IP of this group. Most of them were located in the rural area, i.e. 742,548 or 84.59%. The number of IP in 1995 increased to 10,428 and it increased 1.20% compared to 1994. The increase was caused by coming of male illiterates, i.e. 30,426 or 9.76%, either located in urban (39.47%) or in rural (5.13%) areas. On the contrary, the number of female illiterates has decreased from 3.6% or 19,998 people, comprising 7.36% in urban and 2.94% in rural areas. The increase of the number of IP, probably, was caused by using a different system of data sampling from the previous one.
In 1996, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 846,974 or 2.31% of the total population of 1524 years age group comprising of 328,368 (38.77%) male illiterates and 518,606 (61.23%) female illiterates. Most of them were found in the rural area (85.3%). Compared to 1995, in 1996 there was a decrease in the number of IP, accounted for 30,853 or 3.51%. Similar to the previous years, the number of female illiterates was still higher than male illiterates, either located in rural (61.85%) or in urban (57.61%) areas.
In 1997, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 733,775 or 1.92% of the total number of population of 1524 years age group. That number consists of 283,397 male illiterates and 450,378 female illiterates or 61.38% of the total number of IP of this group. The highest illiteracy rate was found in the rural area, i.e. 57.61% or 631,934 people. Compared to 1996, in 1997 the number of IP decreased to 13.37% or 113,199. The possible spreading was the same as in the previous years.
In 1998, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 1524 years age group was 662,551 or 1.73% of the total number of population of the same age group. That number consisted of 281,240 (42.45%) male illiterates and 381,311 (57.55%) female illiterates. Most of them was found in the rural area (85.97%). Compared to 1997, there was a decrease of the number of IP in 1998 by 9,71% or accounted to 71.224. Similar to the previous years, female illiteracy rate was higher than male illiteracy rate, either located in rural (57.76%) or in urban (56.28%) areas. The number of IP decreased by 13.37% or 113,199 compared to the previous year. The decrease in male illiterates was 2,157 (7.61%) and in female illiterates was 69,067 (…%) has contributed to the decrease in the total number of IP.
2) Number of IP of 15 years old and over, Year 19901998
The number of IP of 15 years old and over in 1990 was 22,102,647 or 20.32% of the number of population by the same age group. That number consisted of 6,229,833 (28.19%) male illiterates and 15,872,814 (71.81%) female illiterates. In 1998, the number of IP 15 years old and over remained 16,641,760 (12.11%) of the total number of population of this group, comprising 5,022,614 (30.18%) male illiterates and 11,619,146 (69.82%) female illiterates.
The data showed that the number of IP decreased to 5,460,887 (24.71%) during the last eight (8) years. The decrease in the number of IP (except for the period of 1994 to 1995, there was an increase by 6.63%) is presented in Table 2.9.
On the basis of gender illiterates of 15 years old and over, female illiteracy rate tends to be higher than male illiteracy rate. It can be seen from 1990 data, the number of female illiterates was 15,872,814 or 254.79% of male illiterates. Also, in 1998, female illiteracy rate was still higher than male illiteracy rate, accounted for 11,619,146 or 231.34% of male illiterates.
On the basis of illiterate population by location (rural versus urban), it is found that rural illiteracy rate tends to be higher than urban illiteracy rate. Data of 1990 showed that rural illiteracy rate was 86.26% of the total number of IP (or 19,064,689 people) and in 1998, it decreased to 13,576,979 (81.58% of the total number of IP).
Table 2.9
Decreasing Number of Illiterate Population of 15 years old and over,
Year 1990–1998
Decreasing number of Iliterate Population of 15 years old and over year 1990  1998P 

No 
Year 
Total Illiterate 
Decreasing number 

of Illiterate population  percentage  
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 
22,102,647 22,071,298 * 20,039,949 20,214,421 18,529,280 19,844,743 19,075,696 16,443,550 16,641,760 
31.349 2,031,349 (+)174,472 685,141 (+)1,315,763 769,047 2,632,146 198,210 
**
** 
0.14 10.14 0.86 9.09 6.63 4.03 16.00 1.20 
Note: * = number of estimation; ** = a rise in number of IP
Source: Central Bureu of Statistics
The decrease in the number of IP of 15 years old and over, during the period of 1990 to 1998, is presented as follows:
In 1990, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over, in the urban area, was 804,312 (26.48%) male illiterates and 2,233,646 (73.52%) female illiterates. While in the rural area, it was found 5,425,521 male illiterates and 13,639,168 female illiterates or 71.54% of the total number of IP located in the rural area.
In 1991, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was 22,071,298 (19.33%) of the total number of population by the same age group. This number consisted of 6,219,692 male illiterates and 15,851,606 or 71.82% of the total number of IP by the same age group. Most of IP was found in the rural area, i.e. 19,033,882 (86.26%), comprising 5,417,352 male illiterates and 13,616,530 (71.54%) female illiterates. Compared to 1990, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1991 by 0.14% or 31,349 people, while there was no significant difference in the decrease of the number of IP between male and female illiterates.
In 1992, the number of IP of 15 years old and over was 22,039,949 or 18.55% of the total number of population by the same group. This number included 6,865,208 (31.15%) male illiterates and 15,174,741 (68.85%) female illiterates. Most of them was found in the rural area (82.96%). Similar to 1991, in 1992 the number of female illiterates was higher than male illiterates, either located in rural (67.7%) or in urban (74.47%) areas. Compared to 1991, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1992, accounted for 31,345 (0.14%). Their composition and spreading were the same as in the previous years.
In 1993, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was 20,214,421 or 16.67% of the total number of population by the same age group. This number consists of 6,282,265 male illiterates and 13,932,156 female illiterates or 68.92% of the total number of IP by the same age group. Most of IP was found in the rural area, accounted for 16,719,661 or 82.71%. Compared to 1992, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1993 by 8.28% or 1,825,528, while this number was relatively proportional among male and female illiterates.
In 1994, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was recorded as 18,529,280 or 14.84% of the total number of population by the same age group, while the number of male illiterates was 5,726,074 (30.90%) and the number of female illiterates was 12,803,206 (69.10%), The majority was found in the rural area (82.56%). Similar to the previous years, the number of female illiterates was always higher than male illiterates both located in rural (67.81%) and in urban (75.20%) areas. Compared to 1993, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1994, accounted for 1,685,141 or 8.34%, Their composition and spreading were relatively the same as in the previous years.
In 1995, the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was recorded as 19,844,743 or 15.99% of the total number of population by the same age group. This number included 6,106,584 male illiterates and 13,738,159 female illiterates or 69.23% of the number of IP by the same age group. The majority was found in the rural area, i,e, 16,104,964 or 81.15%. There was an increase in number of IP, accounted for 1,315,643, which differed from the previous years or an increase of 6.63% of the number of IP by the same age group in 1994. The increasing number of IP was contributed by an increase in the number of male and female illiterates, accounted for respectively to 380,510 (6.65%) and 934,953 (7.30%). The increasing number of IP was caused probably by using a different system of data sampling from the previous one.
In 1996, the number of illiterate population of 15 years old and over was 19,075,699 or 14.66% of the total number of population by the same age group. This number included 5,888,339 (30.84%) male illiterates and 13,193,360 female illiterates or 69.16%. The majority was found in the rural area (81.66%). Compared to 1995, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1996, accounted for 769,044 or 3.88%. Similar to the previous years, the number of female illiterates in 1996 was higher than male illiterates, either located in rural (67.87%) or in urban (74.91%) areas.
In 1997 the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was reported 16,943,550 or 12.59% of the total number of population by the same age group. This number consisted of 5,155,550 male illiterates and 11,779,000 female illiterates or 69.56% of the number of IP by the same age group. Most of them was found in the rural area, accounted for 13,681,329 or 80.79%. Compared to 1996, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1997 by 11.22% or 2,141,149 people. The probability of spreading was relatively the same as in the previous years.
In 1998 the number of illiterate population (IP) of 15 years old and over was counted as 16,641,760 or 12.11% of the total number of population by the same age group. This number consisted of 5,022,614 (30.18%) male illiterates and 11,619,146 (69.82%) female illiterates. The majority was found in rural area, i,e, 13,576,979 (81.58%). Compared to 1997, there was a decrease in the number of IP in 1998 by 292,790 (1.73%). Similar to the previous years, the number of female illiterates was higher than male illiterates, either located in rural (68.63%) or in urban (75.08%) areas.
3), Innovations Implemented
a) Combating Illiteracy
Successful campaign against illiteracy requires the involvement of all parties and support of various governmental agencies with similar program targets, Therefore, as of 1994/1995 implementation of the campaign against illiteracy was developed through the Aksara Manunggal Bhakti Operation or OBAMA, Campaign against illiteracy through OBAMA has the objective of augmenting coordination between the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Religious Affairs, the Ministry of Education and Culture and the ABRI (Armed Forces).
In OBAMA the role of ABRI is as the responsible agent operationally, and as a facilitating agent, The Ministries of Home Affairs and Religious Affairs play a role in optimizing the utilization of equipment and mobilization of teaching staff under the regional government, as well as the mobilization of prominent local community members. The party responsible for technical implementation of OBAMA is the Ministry of Education and Culture.
In order to motivate the implementers of the Illiteracy Campaign Program a literacy prize competition is organized annually from Kabupaten (district) up to national levels, Winners of the Literacy Prize Competition at national level were announced during the Celebration of the International Literacy Day.
The role of Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (NGO) and social organizations in empowering community members to continuously join the literacy learning groups is very important.
The results achieved during 4 years are as follows:
In fiscal year 1994/1995, through OBAMA project about one million participants participated in literacy classes. In 1995/1996 one million members finished the basic level while another million joined the literacy classes. During 1996/1997 one million joined literacy classes as beginners, two million finished the basic literacy level and one million were fully literate.
b) The Packet A Equivalent to Primary School (SD)
In 1994, the Packet A equivalent to SD was implemented within the framework of supporting the nineyear compulsory basic education program.
During 1997/1998 a National Final Phase Evaluation (PEHAPTANAS) was organized in cooperation with the Examination Center, MOEC. Out of 44,803 participants 40,164 (89,65%) passed the exam.
After having successfully passed the PEHAPTANAS, the participants were given the opportunity to continue studying at an advanced level through formal school or outofschool channel.
For the improvement and development of the tutors’ knowledge while assisting the learners a tutor association has been established.
c) The Packet B Equivalent to Lower Secondary School ( SLTP)
Under Packet B learning groups since 1998/1999, in addition to the main subjects, which are in the form of modules, specific skills in agriculture were also being developed. In order to find out the results of the learning process during 1997/1998 a PEHAPTANAS was organized in cooperation with the Examination Center, MOEC. Out of 94,345 participants there were 89.628% who successfully passed the exam,
Among participants who passed the PEHAPTANAS tests, some of them continued to study at a higher level (Upper Secondary School).
e. Training in Essential Skills (TES)
Training in Essential Skills (TES) program in Indonesia is implemented through both formal and nonformal education channels. At formal institutions the TES is carried out in the following formal Vocational Secondary Schools: SMEA, SMKK, SMKI, STM, SMTP and SMTL. In the nonformal education channel the training is implemented through Private Course Institutions, Vocational Skill Training and Apprenticeship. The following table described the institutions and target groups for training in TES.
Table 2.10
Target Group of Training in Essential Skills ( TES)
No, 
Programs 
Target Groups 
A. 
Formal SMK (SMEA. SMKK. STM. SMKL. STMP. SMTL)

Graduates from Secondary School or its equivalent 
B.

Nonformal 1. Private courses 2. Private Training 3. BLK 4. Apprenticeship 5. Specific Training 
1. Jobseekers 2. Graduates of SLTP. SLTA 3. Drop–outs of SLTP. SLTA 4. Adults 
Source: MOEC
Ministry of Manpower
a) SMK (Vocational School)
In vocational upper secondary school (SMK) up to 1997, there were 3,894 vocational upper secondary schools comprised of 717 Public SMK and 3,177 private SMK. The Table 2.11 below shows the number of schools, teachers, classrooms of private and public schools.
Table 2.11
SMK Condition by Types of School
Number of Schools, Teachers, and Classrooms
No. 
Kinds of School 
Condition 

N. of Schools 
N. of Teachers 
N. of Classrooms 

Public 
Private 
Public 
Private 
Public 
Private 

1.  SMEA 
339 
1739 
14934 
40254 
6425 
16438 
2.  SMKK 
93 
79 
4156 
1316 
1086 
485 
3.  SMKL 
64 
169 
2991 
3654 
824 
2083 
4.  STM 
154 
996 
14437 
30762 
4880 
15134 
5.  STMP 
47 
119 
2378 
1765 
675 
323 
6.  SMTL 
20 
75 
1314 
1853 
460 
741 
Total 
Source: MOEC
At the corresponding year SMK’s were found in all 27 provinces of Indonesia. The condition of SMK in each province is shown in Table 2.12 whereas the condition of SMK in 1996/1997 is clearly shown in Table 2.13.
The data also indicate the active role of the community to participate in SMK education with the fact that there are more private SMK’s and students than the public ones. The program is linking both schools and industries to proliferate learning process. Students in vocational schools are also trainees in industries to perform learning outcomes as requisites in the curriculum. The program also creates an intensive cooperation between schools and industries in teachinglearning activities, especially in planning. implementation and evaluation. The number of female students is less compared to male students who showed that more men are interested in vocational schools. To make the program more effective and linked to the world of work a number of SMK’s have implemented the dual system program (linkandmatch). The number SMK’s which are participating in the linkandmatch programs are 597 (15.33 %) for public and 939 for private (24.11%).
Description of the Condition of Vocational Upper Secondary School ( SMK)
By Province
No. 
Province 
SMEA 
SMKK 
SMKL 
STM 
SMTP 
SMTL 
Total 
1. 
DKI Jakarta 
318 
13 
28 
108 
0 
26 

2. 
West Java 
193 
18 
16 
149 
10 
12 
398 
3. 
Central Java 
261 
18 
22 
209 
24 
13 
547 
4. 
DI Yogyakarta 
52 
11 
12 
40 
8 
5 
128 
5. 
East Java 
365 
29 
34 
246 
13 
21 
708 
6. 
DI Aceh 
23 
5 
4 
12 
3 
1 
48 
7. 
North Sumatera 
305 
13 
13 
115 
28 
2 
476 
8. 
West Sumatera 
40 
2 
8 
34 
4 
3 
91 
9. 
Riau 
24 
2 
5 
11 
4 
2 
48 
10. 
Jambi 
19 
2 
5 
10 
3 
0 
39 
11. 
South Sumatera 
62 
5 
5 
33 
12 
2 
119 
12. 
Bengkulu 
15 
3 
2 
8 
5 
0 
33 
13. 
Lampung 
87 
2 
4 
36 
10 
0 
139 
14. 
West Kalimantan 
36 
3 
4 
7 
4 
1 
55 
15. 
Cent. Kalimantan 
15 
2 
3 
6 
4 
0 
30 
16. 
South Kalimantan 
16 
3 
2 
9 
3 
1 
34 
17. 
East Kalimantan 
37 
2 
4 
12 
1 
0 
56 
18. 
Sulawesi Utara 
27 
7 
4 
10 
2 
1 
51 
19. 
Central Sulawesi 
18 
2 
3 
8 
7 
1 
39 
20. 
South Sulawesi 
63 
7 
15 
39 
8 
2 
134 
21. 
Southeast Sulawesi 
9 
3 
2 
4 
2 
1 
21 
22. 
Maluku 
14 
4 
2 
5 
1 
0 
26 
23. 
Bali 
25 
5 
16 
14 
1 
0 
61 
24. 
NTB 
8 
3 
6 
7 
1 
0 
25 
25. 
NTT 
23 
3 
13 
11 
5 
0 
55 
26. 
Irian Jaya 
13 
3 
0 
5 
2 
1 
24 
27. 
Timor Timur 
10 
2 
1 
2 
1 
0 
16 
Total 
Source: Directorate of Vocational Secondary Schools
Previous Page  Next Page 